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(2) Each Government pledges itself to cooperate with the Governments signatory hereto and not to make a separate armistice or peace with the enemies.
The foregoing declaration may be adhered to by other nations which are, or which may be, rendering material assistance and contributions in the struggle for victory over Hitlerism.
Done at Washington
January First, 1942
[The signatories to the Declaration by United Nations are as listed above.
The adherents to the Declaration by United Nations, together with the date of communication of adherence, are as follows:
Preliminary Agreement Between the United States and the United Kingdom, February 23, 19421
Whereas the Governments of the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland declare that they are engaged in a cooperative undertaking, together with every other nation or people of like mind, to the end of laying the bases of a just and enduring world peace securing order under law to themselves and all nations;
And whereas the President of the United States of America has determined, pursuant to the Act of Congress of March 11, 1941, 2 that the defense of the United Kingdom against aggression is vital to the defense of the United States of America;
And whereas the United States of America has extended and is continuing to extend to the United Kingdom aid in resisting aggression; And whereas it is expedient that the final determination of the terms and conditions upon which the Government of the United Kingdom receives such aid and of the benefits to be received by the United States of America in return therefor should be deferred until the extent of the defense aid is known and until the progress of events makes clearer the final terms and conditions and benefits which will be in the mutual interests of the United States of America and the United Kingdom and will promote the establishment and maintenance of world peace; And whereas the Governments of the United States of America and the United Kingdom are mutually desirous of concluding now a pre
1 Department of State publication 1790, Executive Agreement Series 241. #55 Stat. 31.
liminary agreement in regard to the provision of defense aid and in regard to certain considerations which shall be taken into account in determining such terms and conditions and the making of such an agreement has been in all respects duly authorized, and all acts, conditions and formalities which it may have been necessary to perform, fulfil or execute prior to the making of such an agreement in conformity with the laws either of the United States of America or of the United Kingdom have been performed, fulfilled or executed as required;
The undersigned, being duly authorized by their respective Governments for that purpose, have agreed as follows:
The Government of the United States of America will continue to supply the Government of the United Kingdom with such defense articles, defense services, and defense information as the President shall authorize to be transferred or provided.
The Government of the United Kingdom will continue to contribute to the defense of the United States of America and the strengthening thereof and will provide such articles, services, facilities or information as it may be in a position to supply.
The Government of the United Kingdom will not without the consent of the President of the United States of America transfer title to, or possession of, any defense article or defense information transferred to it under the Act or permit the use thereof by anyone not an officer, employee, or agent of the Government of the United Kingdom.
If, as a result of the transfer to the Government of the United Kingdom of any defense article or defense information, it becomes necessary for that Government to take any action or make any payment in order fully to protect any of the rights of a citizen of the United States of America who has patent rights in and to any such defense article or information, the Government of the United Kingdom will take such action or make such payment when requested to do so by the President of the United States of America.
The Government of the United Kingdom will return to the United States of America at the end of the present emergency, as determined by the President, such defense articles transferred under this Agreement as shall not have been destroyed, lost or consumed and as shall be determined by the President to be useful in the defense of the United States of America or of the Western Hemisphere or to be otherwise of use to the United States of America.
In the final determination of the benefits to be provided to the United States of America by the Government of the United Kingdom full cognizance shall be taken of all property, services, information, facilities, or other benefits or considerations provided by the Government of the United Kingdom subsequent to March 11, 1941, and accepted or acknowledged by the President on behalf of the United States of America.
In the final determination of the benefits to be provided to the United States of America by the Government of the United Kingdom in return for aid furnished under the Act of Congress of March 11, 1941, the terms and conditions thereof shall be such as not to burden commerce between the two countries, but to promote mutually advantageous economic relations between them and the betterment of world-wide economic relations. To that end, they shall include provision for agreed action by the United States of America and the United Kingdom, open to participation by all other countries of like mind, directed to the expansion, by appropriate international and domestic measures, of production, employment, and the exchange and consumption of goods, which are the material foundations of the liberty and welfare of all peoples; to the elimination of all forms of discriminatory treatment in international commerce, and to the reduction of tariffs and other trade barriers; and, in general, to the attainment of all the economic objectives set forth in the Joint Declaration made on August 14, 1941, by the President of the United States of America and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
At an early convenient date, conversations shall be begun between the two Governments with a view to determining, in the light of governing economic conditions, the best means of attaining the abovestated objectives by their own agreed action and of seeking the agreed action of other like-minded Governments.
This Agreement shall take effect as from this day's date. It shall continue in force until a date to be agreed upon by the two Govern
Signed and sealed at Washington in duplicate this twenty-third day of February 1942.
For the Government of the United States of America:
[SEAL] SUMNER WELLES
Acting Secretary of State of the United States of
For the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland:
His Majesty's Ambassador Extraordinary and
5. THE CASABLANCA CONFERENCE, JANUARY 14-24, 1943
Communiqué, January 26, 1943 1
On January 26, 1943, at 10 p. m., EWT, the following communiqué, cabled from Casablanca, Morocco, was made public:
The President of the United States and the Prime Minister of Great Britain have been in conference near Casablanca since January 14.
They were accompanied by the combined Chiefs of Staff of the two countries; namely
For the United States:
Gen. George C. Marshall, Chief of Staff of the United States Army; Admiral Ernest J. King, Commander in Chief of the United States Navy; Lt. Gen. H. H. Arnold, commanding the United States Army Air Forces; and
For Great Britain:
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Dudley Pound, First Sea Lord; Gen. Sir Alan Brooke, Chief of the Imperial General Staff; and Air Chief Marshal Sir Charles Portal, Chief of the Air Staff.
These were assisted by:
Lt. Gen. B. B. Somervell, Commanding General of the Services of Supply, United States Army; Field Marshal Sir John Dill, head of the British Joint Staff Mission in Washington; Vice Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten, Chief of Combined Operations; Lt. Gen. Sir Hastings Ismay, Chief of Staff to the Office of the Minister of Defense, together with a number of staff officers of both countries.
They have received visits from Mr. Murphy (Robert Murphy, United States Minister to French North Africa) and Mr. MacMillan (Harold MacMillan, British Resident Minister for Allied Headquarters in North Africa); from Lt. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Commander in Chief of the Allied Expeditionary Force in North Africa; from Admiral of the Fleet Sir Andrew Cunningham, naval commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force in North Africa; from Maj. Gen. Carl Spaatz, air commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force in North Africa; from Lt. Gen. Mark W. Clark, United States Army (Commander of the United States Fifth Army in Tunisia), and, from Middle East Headquarters, from Gen. Sir Harold Alexander, Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Tedder and Lt. Gen. F. M. Andrews, United States Army.
The President was accompanied by Harry Hopkins (Chairman of the British-American Munitions Assignments Board) and was joined by W. Averell Harriman (United States Defense Expediter in England). With the Prime Minister was Lord Leathers, British Minister of War Transport.
For 10 days the combined staffs have been in constant session, meeting 2 or 3 times a day and recording progress at intervals to the President and the Prime Minister.
The entire field of the war was surveyed theater by theater throughout the world, and all resources were marshaled for a more intense prosecution of the war by sea, land, and air.
1 Department of State Bulletin, January 30, 1943, pp. 93-94.
Nothing like this prolonged discussion between two allies has ever taken place before. Complete agreement was reached between the leaders of the two countries and their respective staffs upon war plans and enterprises to be undertaken during the campaigns of 1943 against Germany, Italy, and Japan with a view to drawing the utmost advantage from the markedly favorable turn of events at the close of 1942.
Premier Stalin was cordially invited to meet the President and the Prime Minister, in which case the meeting would have been held very much farther to the east. He was unable to leave Russia at this time on account of the great offensive which he himself, as Commander in Chief, is directing.
The President and the Prime Minister realized up to the full the enormous weight of the war which Russia is successfully bearing along her whole land front, and their prime object has been to draw as much weight as possible off the Russian armies by engaging the enemy as heavily as possible at the best selected points.
Premier Stalin has been fully informed of the military proposals. The President and the Prime Minister have been in communication with Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. They have apprised him of the measures which they are undertaking to assist him in China's magnificent and unrelaxing struggle for the common cause.
The occasion of the meeting between the President and the Prime Minister made it opportune to invite General Giraud (General Henri Honoré Giraud, High Commissioner of French Africa) to confer with the Combined Chiefs of Staff and to arrange for a meeting between him and General de Gaulle (General Charles de Gaulle, Fighting French Commander). The two generals have been in close consultation.
The President and the Prime Minister and their combined staffs, having completed their plans for the offensive campaigns of 1943, have now separated in order to put them into active and concerted execution.
6. THE QUEBEC CONFERENCE, AUGUST 17-24, 1943 Joint Statement by Prime Minister Churchill and President Roosevelt, August 24, 1943 1
The Anglo-American war conference, which opened at Quebec on August 11, under the hospitable auspices of the Canadian Government, has now concluded its work.
The whole field of world operations has been surveyed in the light of the many gratifying events which have taken place since the meeting of the President and the Prime Minister in Washington at the end of May, and the necessary decisions have been taken to provide for the forward action of the fleets, armies, and air forces of the two nations.
Considering that these forces are intermingled in continuous action against the enemy in several quarters of the globe, it is indispensable that entire unity of aim and method should be maintained at the summit of the war direction.
1 Department of State Bulletin, August 28, 1943, p. 121.