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of NOF, the references to NOF's relationship to the Macedonian movement were so numerous and so uniform as to leave little doubt on this point in the minds of the Commission.

e) Furthermore it is quite clear that Bulgaria also supported the movement for the unification of the three parts of Macedonia as a republic within the Yugoslav federation. As late as November 16, 1946, an article in the official Communist paper Rabotnichesko Delo welcomed the creation of the Republic of Macedonia within the Yugoslav Federation, and asserted that "unification of other parts of the Macedonian nation can take place only on the basis of this republic. Such unification is in the interests of the future peaceful development of Bulgaria in close cooperation with Yugoslavia."

f) In explaining the attitude of his Government with regard to the Macedonian question the Yugoslav Liaison Representative stated that Yugoslavia could not be indifferent to the "terrible state" of the Slav minority in Macedonia. He stated that Yugoslavia's interest was in assisting this minority in its achievement of full political and cultural rights and that this was to be achieved within the framework of the Charter of the United Nations.

g) It was pointed out to the Commission, and not disputed, that after the Varkiza Agreement over 20,000 Greek citizens had fled into Yugoslavia, (either directly or through Albania or Bulgaria) and approximately 5,000 into Bulgaria, a substantial proportion in each case being of Slavo-Macedonian origin. Evidence was also presented in support of the charge that Greece has sanctioned persecution of its Slavo-Macedonian minorities. Furthermore, the Commission heard some testimony that the Slavic dialect spoken by the Slavo-Macedonians who comprise about 85,000 persons was not taught in schools, and that in certain areas the use of this dialect by Greek nationals had on occasions been prohibited.

h) The Commission is of the opinion that such treatment has resulted in unrest and discontent on the part of the Slavic minority in Greek Macedonia and has provided fertile breeding ground for separatist movements. This does not, of course, absolve the Northern neighbours from their responsibility for their support of the Macedonian movement.

i) Although it is undoubtedly true, as pointed out by the Yugoslav Liaison Representative that during the war the Axis occupying authorities had themselves supported a Macedonian autonomist movement in an effort to create controversy among the Balkan states, it seems equally clear that since the war the Yugoslav and Bulgarian governments, by speeches of responsible officials and articles in the press, have themselves revived and promoted a separatist movement. among the Slavo-Macedonians in Greece.

(b) Part IV: Proposals Made in Pursuance of the Final Paragraph of the Security Council's Resolution of 19 December 1946 1

Before coming to its actual proposals the Commission feel it would be useful to recapitulate in brief the situation along Greece's northern

1 UN Doc. S/360, May 27, 1947, Vol. I, Part IV, chap. 1, pp. 246–251.

border which these proposals are designed to alleviate and remedy. First there are the allegations by the Greek Government that its three northern neighbors are assisting the guerrilla warfare in Greece. Secondly, there is the present disturbed situation in Greece which is a heritage from the past and the causes of which are to be found in Greece's tragic experience during the war, in her occupation by the Italians, Germans and Bulgarians, in the guerrilla warfare waged during the occupation and the political bitterness and economic difficulties to which this war gave rise.

Next to be mentioned is the refusal of most of the countries concerned to accept as final their frontiers as at present defined. Some of these claims have been advanced in a perfectly legitimate manner before the forum of the United Nations or other competent international instances but their reiteration has undoubtedly exacerbated an already dangerous situation.

Furthermore in the case of the Macedonian question, claims have been ventilated not before the United Nations but in speeches by representatives of individual Governments or in government controlled organs of press. The exploitation of the Macedonian question in this manner is in the Commission's opinion a positive threat to the tranquillity of the Balkans and can only add to existing tension and suspicion and increase national passions which, far from being decreased as the result of the experience of the war, have been sharpened by their identification in many cases with political ideas.

Also to be mentioned is the presence in Greece on the one hand and Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and Albania on the other, of political refugees from each other's territory, many of whom have taken part in the political struggles which have raged in their own countries both during and since the war. Some of these refugees have been quartered near the frontier of the country from which they came. Some again have, during their exile, engaged in political and military activity, and all too many live in hope that there will be some violent turn of the tide which will enable them to return to their homes on the conditions they choose. Other of these refugees have been victims of panic, flight and would, if given a free choice, gladly return to their homes. The continued presence of all of them under the conditions in which they live at present is however all too clearly a serious contributory factor to the present situation.

Lastly the violence and scale of the propaganda used by some of the protagonists in their relations with each other could not escape the notice of the Commission during its stay in the four countries. Such propaganda always serves to inflame passions which are already too high.

In such a set of circumstances it would be idle to believe that the situation in northern Greece could be cured by a stroke of the pen but the proposals which now follow have been framed in the spirit of Chapter VI of the Charter of the United Nations with a view first to preventing any aggravation of the situation, and secondly to alleviating it and eventually restoring it to normal.

The Commission has not made any suggestions in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of the countries concerned as they would be contrary to the provisions of paragraph 7 of Article 2 of the Charter. However, in the event the Greek Government decides to grant a new amnesty for political prisoners and guer

rillas, the Commission suggests that the Security Council make known to the Greek Government its willingness, if that Government so requests, to lend its good offices in order to secure by all possible means the realisation of this measure.

The following are, the Commission's proposals:

A. The Commission proposes to the Security Council that it should recommend to the governments of Greece on the one hand and Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia on the other, to do their utmost to establish normal good neighbourly relations, to abstain from all action direct or indirect which is likely to increase or maintain the tension and unrest in the border areas, and rigorously to refrain from any support, overt or covert, of elements in neighbouring countries aiming at the overthrow of the lawful governments of those countries. Should subjects of complaint arise these should be made not the object of propaganda campaigns, but referred either through diplomatic channels to the Government concerned, or should this resource fail, to the appropriate organ of the United Nations. In the light of the situation investigated by it the Commission believes that, in the area of its investigation future cases of support of armed bands formed on the territory of one State and crossing into the territory of another State, or of refusal by a government in spite of the demands of the State concerned to take all possible measures on its own territory to deprive such bands of any aid or protection, should be considered by the Security Council as a threat to the peace within the meaning of the Charter of the United Nations.

B. With a view to providing effective machinery for the regulation and control of their common frontiers, the Commission proposes that the Security Council recommend to the governments concerned that they enter into new conventions along the lines the Greco-Bulgarian Convention of 1931, taking into account the needs of the present situation.

C. For the purpose of restoring normal conditions along the frontiers between Greece on the one hand and Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia on the other, and thereby assisting in the establishment of good neighbourly relations, the Commission recommends the establishment of a body with the following composition and functions: a) The body should be established by the Security Council in the form of either a small Commission or a single Commissioner. If the body is a small Commission it should be composed of representatives of Governments. If the body is to consist of a Commissioner he and his staff should be nationals of States who are neither permanent members of the Security Council nor have any direct connection or interest in the affairs of the four countries concerned.

b) The Commission or Commissioner should have the staff necessary to perform their functions including persons able to act as border observers and to report on the observance of the frontier conventions referred to in recommendation (B), the state of the frontier area, and cognate matters.

c) The Commission or Commissioner should have the right to perform their functions on both sides of the border and the Commission or Commissioner should have the right of direct access to the four Governments of Albania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Greece. The functions and duties of the Commission or the Commissioner should be:

(i) To investigate any frontier violations that occur;

(ii) To use its good offices for the settlement, by the means mentioned in Article 33 of the Charter, of:

a. Controversies arising from frontier violations;

b. Controversies directly connected with the application of the Frontier Conventions envisaged in (B);

c. Complaints regarding conditions on the border which may be brought by one Government against another.

(iii) To use its good offices to assist the Governments concerned in the negotiation and conclusion of the frontier conventions envisaged in recommendation (B).

(iv) To study and make recommendations to the governments concerned with respect to such additional bilateral agreements between them for the pacific settlement of disputes relating to frontier incidents or conditions on the frontier, as the Commission considers desirable.

(v) To assist in the implementation of Recommendation D below; to receive reports from the four governments with respect to persons who have fled from any one of such countries to any of the others; to maintain a register for their confidential use of all such persons and to assist in the repatriation of those who wish to return to their homes, and in connection with these functions to act in concert with the appropriate agency of the United Nations. (vi) To report to the Security Council every three months, or whenever they think fit.

It is recommended that this body should be established for a period of at least two years, before the expiry of which the necessity for its continued existence should be reviewed by the Security Council.

D. The Commission recognises that owing the deep-rooted causes of the present disturbances and to the nature of the frontiers it is physically impossible to control the passage of refugees across the border. As the presence of these refugees in any of the four countries is a disturbing factor each Government should assume the obligation to remove them as far from which they came as it is physically and practically possible.

These refugees should be placed in camps of otherwise segregated. The governments concerned should undertake to ensure that they should not be permitted to indulge in any political or military activity.

The Commission would also strongly recommend that if it is practicable the camps containing the refugees should be placed under the supervision of some international body authorised by the United Nations to undertake the task.

In order to ensure that only genuine refugees return, their return to their country of origin shall not take place except after (1) arrangement with the government of such country and (2) notification to the Commission or Commissioner or to the international United Nations body if such is established. The Commission would here point out the desirability of the governments concerned encouraging the return of refugees to their homes.

E. The commission proposes that the Security Council recommend to the governments concerned that they study the practicability of concluding agreements for the voluntary transfer of minorities. In the meantine minorities in any of the countries concerned desiring to

emigrate should be given all facilities to do so by the government of the State in which they at present reside. The arrangements of any such transfers could be supervised by the Commission or Commissioner who would act as a registration authority for any person desiring to emigrate.


The Security Council

HAVING primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security by virtue of Article 24 of the Charter and

HAVING Considered the report submitted by the Commission of Investigation established by the Council's resolution of 19 December 1946,

Finds that a dispute exists, the continuance of which is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security. The Security Council therefore, following the proposals made by the majority of the members of the Commission of Investigation, Resolves that:


1. The Security Council recommend to the Governments of Greece on the one hand, and Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia on the other, to establish as soon as possible normal good-neighborly relations to abstain from all action, direct or indirect, which may be likely to increase or to maintain the tension and the unrest in the border areas, and rigorously to refrain from any support of elements in neighboring countries aiming at the overthrow of the lawful Government of those countries.

2. Giving support to armed bands formed in any of the four States concerned and crossing into the territory of another State, or refusal by any one of the four Governments in spite of the demands of the States concerned to take the necessary measures on its own territory to deprive such bands of any aid or protection, shall be avoided by the Governments of Albania, Bulgaria, Greece and Yugoslavia as a threat to the peace within the meaning of the Charter of the United Nations.


The Security Council recommend that the Governments of Albania, Bulgaria, Greece and Yugoslavia establish, as soon as possible, normal diplomatic relations among themselves.


The Security Council recommend to the Governments concerned that they enter into frontier conventions providing for effective machinery for the regulation and control of their common frontiers, and for the pacific settlement of frontier incidents and disputes.

1 The United Nations and the United Nations: Report by the President to the Congress for the Year 1947, Department of State publication 3024, International Organization and Conference Series III, 1, pp. 236-241.

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