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5. All democratic political par5. Soviet authorities have reties to be allowed and encouraged stricted the freedom of action of throughout Germany (Potsdam non-Communist parties by deprivprotocol, II, A, 9).
ing them of equal facilities with the SED, interfering in their internal affairs, coercing their leaders dictating party actions, and in general denying them the autonomy essential to democratic political organizations. They have denied the Social Democratic Party the right to operate in the Soviet zone as an independent organiza
6. Control Council agreed to 6. Soviet authorities have perprevent German political leaders mitted and encouraged scurrilous or press from making statements propagandistic campaign by the criticizing allied decisions or aimed Soviet zone press and political at disrupting allied unity or creat- leaders directed against the westing hostile German attitude to- ern powers, and particularly the ward any of occupying powers United States. (Control Council Directive No.
7. Soviet authorities have re
7. The Allied Control Authority has authorized the free exchange peatedly barred such materials of printed matter and films in the originating in other zones from different zones and Berlin (Control the Soviet zone or Soviet sector of Council Directive No. 55). Berlin.
8. Freedom of speech and press are guaranteed (Potsdam protocol, II, A, 10). Germany is to be prepared for eventual reconstruction of political life on democratic basis (Potsdam protocol, II, A, 3).
8. Soviet authorities have instituted a system of suppression, intimidation and terrorism through military, police, and party authorities that nullifies any genuine freedom of speech and press. A totalitarian system of police control is being built up which suppresses basic human rights and legal processes and indulges in arbitrary seizures of property, arrests, deportation, forced labor and other practices which are incompatible with democratic principles.
9. German external assets in 9. U. S. S. R. has directly apFinland, eastern Austria, Hun- propriated German external asgary, Bulgaria, and Rumania, to sets in these countries without unbe vested in the German External vesting and assignment by the Property Commission (Control German External Property ComCouncil Law No. 5).
mission as required by Control Council Law No. 5.
10. Quadripartite legislation has 10. Soviet authorities have perbeen enacted to provide for tax mitted the land governments of uniformity and stabilization of Brandenburg and Saxony-Anhalt wages in all zones (Control Coun- to grant partial tax exemptions to cil Laws Nos. 12 and 61; Control large groups of wage and salary Council Directive No. 14).
earners in violation of this legislation. This move is intended to stop the exodus of skilled workers to the western zones, encourage qualified workers to take jobs in Soviet-owned factories, and make propaganda for the improving living standards of Soviet-zone workers.
1. The Allied Council would 1. Soviet-instituted system of insure the removal of all restric- licensing specified categories of tions on movement within Austria goods for shipment from eastern of persons, goods, or other traffic; to other zones (December 1947) economic unity to be promoted impedes free movement of goods (new control agreement of June and traffic throughout Austria as 28, 1946, art. 4, a). a whole.
2. Obligation to open the way 2. Properties seized by Soviets for the Austrian people to find as oil in 1945, land in February economic security (Moscow decla- 1946, industrial plants in April ration). Obligation of Allied 1946, and later exceed what might Council (i. e. occupying powers) reasonably be construed as legitito assist Austrian Government to mate German assets under the recreate a sound national life Potsdam protocol. Removals of based on stable economic and equipment and materials under financial conditions (new control guise of "German assets" and agreement, art. 3, c). "war booty."
3. Obligation to assist Austrian Government to recreate a sound national life based on stable economic and financial conditions; to assist Austrian Government to assume full control of affairs of state in Austria; to facilitate full exercise of Austrian Government's authority equally in all zones; to promote the economic unity of Austria (new control agreement, arts. 3, c; 3, d; and 4, a).
3. Withholding of certain food and industrial production from Austrian economy and from application of Austrian law.
4. Obligations with respect to 4. Soviets designate certain railstable economic and financial con- road cars as "war booty," prohibit ditions, free movement within their movement from Soviet to Austria as a whole, and economic other zones, and propose Austrians unity (new control agreement, "repurchase" these cars (April arts. 3, c; 4, a).
5. Obligation to assist Austrian Government to recreate a sound and democratic national life based on respect for law and order (new control agreement, art. 3, c).
5. Soviet interference with Austrian efforts to maintain law and order through arbitrary arrest or abduction of Austrians (i. e., abduction of transport official from a train in December 1947).
6. Obligations with respect to 6. Confiscation in eastern zone law and order, assumption by and Soviet sector of Vienna of cerAustrian Government of full con- tain issues of the United Statestrol of affairs of state, full exercise sponsored Wiener Kurier and of Austrian Government's author- other publications; threats to disity equally in all zones (new con- tributors of such publications. trol agreement, arts. 3, c; 3, d; and 4, a).
7. Obligation with respect to 7. Local Soviet military authorfull exercise of Austrian Govern- ities insist that 17 nonelected ment's authority equally in all Communist mayors remain in zones (new control agreement, office in Soviet zone against auart. 4, a). thority of provincial and national governments.
III. EASTERN AND SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE
"This Polish Provisional Gov- On several occasions prior to the ernment of National Unity shall elections and following persistent be pledged to the holding of free reports of reprehensible methods and unfettered elections as soon as employed by the Government possible on the basis of universal suffrage and secret ballot. In these elections all democratic and antiNazi parties shall have the right to take part and to put forward candidates" (Crimean Conference, February 12, 1945).
against the democratic opposition, this Government reminded the Polish Provisional Government of its obligations under the Yalta and Potsdam agreements and was joined on these occasions by the British Government. On Janu"The three powers note that the ary 5, 1947, the British and Soviet Polish Provisional Government in Governments were asked to assoaccordance with the decisions of ciate themselves with this Govthe Crimea Conference has agreed ernment in approaching the Poles to the holding of free and unfet- on this subject, and the British tered elections as soon as possible Government made similar repreon the basis of universal suffrage sentations to the Soviet Governand secret ballot in which all demcratic and anti-Nazi parties shall have the right to take part and to put forward candidates (Potsdam agreement, August 2, 1945).
ment reiterating the request that the Soviet Government support the British and American Governments in calling for a strict fulfillment of Poland's obligations. The Soviet Government refused to participate in the proposed approach to the Polish Government. The
British and American representations were summarily rejected by the Polish Government as "undue interference" in the internal affairs of Poland.
Of the 444 deputies elected to the parliament in the elections of January 19, 1947, the Polish Peasant Party (reliably reported to represent a large majority of the population) obtained only 28 places, thus demonstrating the efficiency with which the govern
1. Under the armistice agree- 1. The U. S. S. R. representament an Allied Control Commis- tive on the ACC for Hungary sion was established under the consistently acted unilaterally in chairmanship of the U. S. S. R. the name of the ACC without and with participation of the consultation with or notice to his United States and United Kingdom (armistice agreement, January 1945, art. 18 and annex F).
United States and United Kingdom colleagues, thus denying them any semblance of effective participation in the work of the ACC.
2. The three heads of the Gov- 2. Contrary to the Yalta agreeernments of the Union of Soviet ment, the U. S. S. R., acting Socialist Republics, the United through the Hungarian CommuStates, and United Kingdom de- nist Party and its own agencies and clared their mutual agreement to armed forces in Hungary, far concert during the temporary pe- from concerting its policy toward riod of instability in liberated assisting the Hungarian people to Europe the policies of their three solve their problems by democratic Governments in assisting the means, unilaterally subverted the peoples liberated from the dom- will of the Hungarian people to ination of Nazi Germany and the totalitarianism in negation of peoples of the former Axis satellite fundamental freedoms. For exstates of Europe to solve by ample-democratic means their pressing political and economic problems (Yalta agreement, February 1945).
(1) General Sviridov, Deputy Soviet Chairman of the ACC, without consulting the United States and United Kingdom ACC representatives, dissolved Catholic youth organizations, June 1946.
(2) Soviet armed forces arrested Bela Kovacs, member of Parliament and former secretary general of Smallholders Party, February