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III. EASTERN AND SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE-Continued

HUNGARY—Continued

Agreements

Violations

(3) General Sviridov precipitated a political crisis enabling the Communist minority to force the resignation of Prime Minister Nagy, May-June 1947.

(4) The Soviet Government refused repeated United States proposals that it join in tripartite examination of Hungary's economic situation with a view to assisting Hungary to solve its pressing economic problems, 1946.

(5) Discriminatory economic agreements were forced upon Hungary, including the establishment of joint Soviet-Hungarian companies, 1945-47.

(6) The Soviet ACC contended that only the occupational forces who control the airfields can permit the Hungarian Government to negotiate air agreements. Notwithstanding, the Soviets formed a Hungarian-Soviet civil air transport company. The Soviets also permitted the Hungarian Government to negotiate agreements with certain other countries but not with the United States or Britain.

3. Upon the cessation of hos- 3. Despite repeated requests, tilities, it was agreed at Potsdam the U. S. S. R. declined to discuss that the United States, United the revision of procedures for the Kingdom and Union of Soviet ACC's as agreed at Potsdam. Socialist Republics would consult Instead, the U. S. S. R. continued with a view to revising the pro- to act unilaterally in the name of cedures of the Allied Control the ACC's in matters of substance Commissions for Rumania, Bul- without consultation with, or nogaria, and Hungary to provide for tice to, the United States and effective participation by the Uni- United Kingdom members. For ted States and United Kingdom in examplethe work of those bodies (Potsdam protocol XI, August 1945).

(1) Instructions were issued by the Soviet High Command regarding the size of the Hungarian Army without consulting the British or United States representatives.

(2) The Soviet deputy chairman of the ACC ordered the Hungarian

III. EASTERN AND SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE-Continued

HUNGARY-Continued

Agreements

Violations

Government without the knowledge of the United States to disband certain Catholic youth organizations in June-July 1946. He also recommended dismissal of certain Government officials.

(3) In the fall of 1946 permission was given by the Soviet element of the Allied Control Commission, without consulting the Americans or British, for the formation of the Hungarian Freedom Party.

(4) Early in 1947 the Hungarian police were ordered by the Soviet chairman in the name of the Allied Control Commission to suppress the publication of Ciano's diary.

(5) In early 1947 the Soviet chairman stated he had personally given approval to the Hungarian Government to resume diplomatic relations with certain countries in the name of the Allied Control Commission and without prior discussion with the British or Americans.

(6) In May 1947 the ACC chairman refused the United States permission to visit Hungarian Army units.

(7) The Soviets refused to permit free movement of the American element of the Allied Control Commission.

(8) The Soviets refused to transmit to the American representative data on the arrest by the Soviet Army of Bela Kovacs.

BULGARIA

1. By the terms of the armistice 1. The Soviet chairman of the agreement an Allied Control Com- ACC repeatedly took unilateral mission under Soviet direction action in the name of the ACC during the period of hostilities but with the United States and United Kingdom participation was estab

and without consultation with his United States or United Kingdom colleagues, thus effectively negat

III. EASTERN AND SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE-Continued

BULGARIA—Continued

Agreements

Violations

lished (armistice agreement, Octo- ing the United States and United ber 1944, art. XVIII). Kingdom participation in that body.

2. Bulgaria was obligated to 2. The U.S. S. R. has aided and restore United Nations property, abetted the Bulgarian Governto make reparation for war damage ment in failing to fulfill these as later determined, to restore all provisions of the armistice to varyUnited Nations rights and inter- ing degrees. The Soviets have ests, and to make available to refused to consider with the United Greece and Yugoslavia immedi- States and United Kingdom Bulately on reparation account food- garia's obligation to restore and stuffs in quantities to be agreed restitute United Nations property by the United States, United and interests and, while delivKingdom, and Union of Socialist eries of foodstuffs were made to Soviet Republics (armistice agree- the Yugoslavs unilaterally, the ment, October 1944, arts. IX, X, XI, and par. 1 of protocol).

U. S. S. R. has blocked threepower consideration of amounts to be shipped to Greece. None has been shipped to that country.

3. The Soviet Government has consistently refused to

3. The three heads of the Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United policies with the United States States, and United Kingdom de- and United Kingdom to assist the clared their mutual agreement to people of Bulgaria to solve their concert during the temporary pe- political and economic problems riod of instability in liberated democratically. On the contrary Europe the policies of their three the Soviet Government, through Governments in assisting the peo- the local Communist Party, has ples liberated from the domination unilaterally subverted representaof Nazi Germany and the peoples tive democratic processes in Bulof the former Axis satellite states garia and assisted in denying the of Europe to solve by democratic Bulgarian people the exercise of means their pressing political and fundamental freedoms. For exameconomic problems.

ple, in 1945 the Soviets unilaterally interfered in the internal affairs of Bulgaria's largest political party by demanding and obtaining the replacement of Dr. G. M. Dimitrov as Secretary General of the Agarian Union.

4. The United Kingdom, United 4. The Soviet Chairman of the States, and Union of Soviet Social- ACC consistently thwarted Amerist Republics stated they had no ican press coverage of Bulgarian doubt that representatives of the developments by negative or exallied press would enjoy full-free- tremely dilatory action on United dom to report to the world upon States Government requests for developments in Bulgaria (Pots- entry permits for reputable Amerdam communique X, August ican correspondents. Conversely, representatives of the Daily

1945).

III. EASTERN AND SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE Continued

BULGARIA-Ccontinued

Agreements

Violations

Worker and other left-wing periodicals were permitted to enter Bulgaria without difficulties. 5. Upon the termination of 5. The Union of Soviet Socialist hostilities, agreement was reached Republics refused repeated United at Potsdam that consultations States and United Kingdom reshould be held with a view to quests to consult as agreed, and revising the procedures of the continued to operate the ACC's Allied Control Commissions for unilaterally without effective parRumania, Bulgaria, and Hungary ticipation of or even, on occasion, to provide for effective three- knowledge of the United States power participation in the Com- and United Kingdom members. missions (Potsdam protocol XI, August 1945).

6. The U. S. S. R. undertook to 6. The Soviet authorities, degive friendly advice to the Bul- spite the Moscow agreement, aided garian Government regarding the and abetted a minority Bulgarian desirability of the inclusion in the Communist regime in thwarting government of two representatives the implementation of that agreeof democratic groups, "who (a) ment and prevented the broadenare truly representative of the ing of the Bulgarian Government groups of the parties which are envisaged therein.

not participating in the Government, and (b) are really suitable and will work loyally with the Government" (Moscow Conference, December 1945).

RUMANIA

1. The three heads of the Gov- 1. Contrary to its agreement at ernments of the Union of Soviet Yalta, the U. S. S. R., acting Socialist Republics, the United through the Rumanian CommuStates, and United Kingdom de- nist Party and its own agencies clared their mutual agreement to and armed forces in Rumania, concert during the temporary systematically and unilaterally period of instability in liberated subverted the democratic will of Europe the policies of their three the Rumanian people to totaliGovernments in assisting the peo- tarianism in negation of their ples liberated from the domination fundamental freedoms. Major of Nazi Germany and the peoples examples of such U. S. S. R. of the former Axis satellite states actions may be cited as follows: of Europe to solve by democratic means their pressing political and economic problems (Yalta agreement on liberated Europe, February 1945).

(1) Unilateral intervention by Soviet occupation authorities and by Vishinsky (February-March 1945) in effecting the overthrow of Premier Radescu's interim representative government and the installation of a Communist-con

III. EASTERN AND SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE-Continued

Agreement

RUMANIA-Continued

2. Upon the cessation of hos

Violations

trolled regime. Refusal in this connection to concert either with the United States representatives in Rumania or on a governmental level.

(2) Unilateral support of Premier Groza's retention of office in defiance of the King's demand for his resignation and the United States request for tripartite consultation in response to the King's appeal (August 1945):

(3) Direct and indirect unilateral interference by the Soviet occupation authorities in the election campaign of 1946, extending to the use of Soviet troops to break up meetings of the opposition and the arbitrary exercise of censorship.

that

(4) Preclusive exploitation of the Rumanian economy, from 1944 onward, through (a) armistice extractions many times in excess of the requirements of the armistice agreement and in large measure unauthorized by agreement, (b) through the establishment of Soviet-controlled joint companies covering the principal economic activities of Rumania, and (c) through commercial agreements the knowledge of whose terms was repeatedly refused to the other two Yalta powers.

(5) Rejection of a proposal by the United States and United Kingdom in December 1946 for setting up a joint commission to study the economic situation in Rumania.

(6) Unilateral intervention, from March 1945 onward, in Rumanian commercial negotiations with countries outside the Soviet orbit.

2. Despite repeated requests, tilities, it was agreed at Potsdam the U. S. S. R. refused to consult that the Allied Control Commission with a view to accomplishing the procedure should be revised to procedural revision agreed to at

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