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IV. ON REASONING. Introduction. Difference between human beings and the lower animals. Principles of action. 1. What is understood by reasoning ? 2. Are there any truths which do not require proof? 3. What effect has this study on the mind ? 4. Show how this effect is communicated to others. 5. State some of the various ways in which correct

reasoning may be found useful. 6. Mention some of the forms of argument, and ex

plain them. 7. What should be the great object of the exercise of

our reasoning powers ? 8. Conclusion. How ought we to estimate this privi

lege—avoid its abuse ? &c.

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Introduction. The various intellectual faculties for what purpose given (enumerate and explain). 1. What is attention, and how is it employed ? 2. Indispensable to the acquisition of knowledge. 3. Show the necessary consequences of inattention. 4. Memory depends mainly on the exertion of atten

tion. 5. Attention a habit that must be acquired; other

wise ... 6. Easily practised upon common objects; daily ob

servation, &c. 7. All great men have had strong memories ; this

acquired by attention. 8. Conclusion. Take an interest in a pursuit, and

you will soon pay attention.



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Introduction. The various views which may be taken of a human being (enumerate). 1. One of these - a capacity of being pleasurably, or

otherwise, affected by external things. 2. This power— taste — is it inherent or acquired ? 3. Difference between a delicate and a correct taste. 4. Applied in all matters of art,-- poetry, music, paint

ing, composition. 5. Cultivation of taste modifies the matter-of-fact. 6. A great embellishment of life. Refers to beauty,

proportion, form, grace, colour, tone, &c. 7. Importance of cultivating taste in the young. 8. Conclusion General views on this subject.

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Introduction. The many forms and sources of knowledge. 1. In what does learning consist, and where are we

to look for it? 2. What is meant by the “classics ? 3. Show that there are modern as well as ancient

classics. 4. Why is this study so strongly recommended ? 5. Why should book-knowledge be superior to many

other forms? 6. Who are the most learned people in Europe ? and

for what are we indebted to them? 7. To what institutions of this country do we look for


8. Conclusion. Greek, Latin, mathematics, modern

languages, history, geography, &c.

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Introduction. To enjoy properly, we must have the power of discriminating and analysing. 1. Divisions of a subject to be criticised -- not judge

of the whole, but take the parts --separately. 2. Plot. Simple, well constructed-easily understood

- action must move on naturally. 3. Episodes. Not too many, or they disturb the

action : they must grow out of the subject. 4. Characters. Well drawn-consistent -- true to

nature - gradually developed, &c. 5. Language. Suited to the characters - generally

clear, concise, flowing. 6. Figures. Forcible — well applied - illustrative,

and uniform in expression. 7. Moral. A healthy tone - a good lesson - true

delineation, &c. 8. Conclusion. Critical examination points out de

fects, improves táste, and raises our appreciation of the true and beautiful.

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Introduction. Nature full of wonders; these gradually unfolded as they are discovered by philosophers. 1. Principles and laws of nature immutable and

universal. 2. All art is built upon these principles.

3. Difference between the abstract and practical

sciences. 4. Arithmetic, algebra, geometry, &c. (abstract); agri

culture, chemistry, surveying, &c. (practical). 5. The application of science to the wants of social life. 6. Various divisions of physical science natural

philosophy 7. The natural and proper effect of the study of sci

ence: “Look through Nature up to Nature's God.” 8. Conclusion. The study inexhaustible—the spirit

in which it should be followed.

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Introduction. Many sources of pleasure and pain. Reflections on past scenes,

&c. Ideas never come singly, but in a train. 1. The power of linking ideas together, so as to pro

duce a train of thought. 2. A great assistance to the memory : technical

memories formed upon this principle. 3. Many causes of association ; scenes, music, faces,

even tastes (explain). 4. Whether association causes more pleasure or pain. 5. Pleasures of memory--pleasures of hope. 6. How it happens that contrast is a frequent source

of association. 7. False associations — beware of forming them : be

cause two qualities may be found in the same person, this is no proof that they are always

found together, or that the one causes the other. 8. Conclusion. The general advantages of this



Introduction. A desire for knowledge is a strong principle in the human mind (explain). 1. The term “curiosity” used in two senses — a well

and an ill-directed curiosity. 2. The one is an abuse of the other (explain). 3. Some things not proper, other things not expedient,

for us to know. 4. State and contrast the effects of both these

feelings. 5. Science and literature both much indebted to this

desire. 6. In what cases is an idle curiosity shown ? 7. On what subjects should we encourage this

feeling? 8. Conclusion. Take care not to abuse the principle.

Let us wish to know what is worth knowing.

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Introduction. Some subjects much more extensive than others; this embraces everything - universal knowledge. 1. Philosophy-an inquiry into the nature of things. 2. Two divisions-physical and mental (explain). 3. Mention some branches of physical philosophy, and

explain them. 4. Metaphysics — an inquiry into the nature of the

mind and its faculties (explain). 5. Which of these two studies is the more difficult,

natural or metaphysical philosophy ? .

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