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Take out the words in italics in the following sentences, and explain in what sense they are respectively used.

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He was moved to tears — The waters subsided - There is a rise in the price of bread — The patient was too ill to be moved The leaves were agitated by the wind - The mother kissed her child — “The wind did kiss the trees” - The master threatened to dismiss the apprentice The clouds threaten rain -The army advanced into the heart of the country, My uncle was agitated at this news-He was a steady boy - My cousin is quick at learning - This happened in the course of yesterday afternoon— He was eager in the pursuit of literature — The horse ran over the course. - My brother is much advanced in his studies - He was killed in the pursuit of the French from Waterloo.

Many words are used in two senses, both concrete ; the one, however, derived from the other : for example,

Primary. He had not the free use of his hand.

The boy hurt his foot.

Secondary The minute-hund of my watch is broken.

He sat at the foot of the tree.

In the first column, the words hand and foot are used in their primary sense; in the second, they are applied in a secondary, but yet a concrete, signification.

EXERCISE IV. Use each of the following words in two senses, in separate sentences, similar to the examples above given. roof heart mouth











Use the following words in two senses :- 1st, a concrete, and 2nd, an abstract sense: for example,

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It may be useful and interesting to inquire into the cause of this secondary meaning of words,-how it happened that they acquired a new meaning distinct from their original sense, and yet, in a certain way, derived from it. The phenomenon may be thus explained. It depends upon, and may be

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1 The word “ analogy” is derived from the Greek verb åvaléyw, “I gather up, or consider together.” Analogy is the power of collecting and comparing relations.

attributed to, a principle called analogy. This term refers to a certain power of the mind, by which we compare ideas resembling each other, not in all, but only in some respects, or in the relation they bear to other ideas. When we use the word “

move,” in its original meaning, it signifies to cause some body to change its position ; as when we say, “ the stone was moved.” But when we say that “such a one was moved to tears by this news,” the meaning of the word is secondary. The change implied in the first sense does not, in the second, refer to external matter, but to internal feeling. There is here an analogy or a comparison, as regards circumstances. The power applied in the first case holds the same relation to the stone that the news received, in the second, holds to the person affected by it.

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Explain in writing the analogies by which the words in the list under Exercise IV. came to be used in a secondary sense; somewhat in the following manner.

Example. The word “leg," in its original and literal sense, signifies the limb which assists in sustaining the weight of the body. But this term is also applied, in a secondary sense, to those parts of mechanical contrivances which perform a similar office. Thus, we speak of the “leg” of a chair, table, or stool ; and in all these cases, the leg stands in the same relation to the chair, table, &c., as the leg of an animal does to its body.



Words, taken singly, express ideas; but in order to think, we must put ideas together. A thing is derived from to think; it is, in fact, whatever makes us think; and it is pretty clear that, were there no things, we could not think.

Therefore, whenever we think, we must think about some thing or person.

This thing, or person, is called the subject of our thought.

Whatever we say (or write) about the subject is called the predicate (which means “what is declared or asserted ”).

But it is necessary to show that this predicate belongs to the subject; and for this purpose the copula is used.3

The word “copula,” means a link or chain. It is, really, always some part of the verb “to be," and it is employed to join the predicate to the subject.

These three parts, the subject, copula, and predicate, when put together, form a proposition “, a word which means “ an opinion laid down," for example :

1 66

Subject ” comes from the Latin subjacere, “ to cast, or put down.” The word here means whatever is “put down,” concerning which an assertion is to be made.

2 “ Predicate” is derived from prædicare, “ to speak out, or proclaim.”

3 Copula, the Latin for a tie or band; from copulare, “ to couple."

* The term “proposition” is from the Latin proponere; composed of pro, before, and ponere, to place. It is an affirmation “placed before” us, or laid down for our consideration.

66 is.

subj. cop. pred. 1. The Grass is green (a proposition).

subj. c. pred. 2. The dog barks (a proposition).

subj. cop. pred. 3. The pen was mended (a proposition). In the first of these propositions, the subject is

grass ;” the predicate green (what is declared of grass); and the copula, is, holds them together.

In the second, the dog is the subject; and barks is both the copula and the predicate ; for it not only asserts something of the dog, but also shows that he exists or

In the third, the pen is the subject; was the copula ; and mended the predicate.

Propositions are of three kinds: 1. Enunciative. 2. Active, and 3. Passive.

1. A proposition is enunciative when the predicate expresses the mere state or condition of the subject.

2. A proposition is active when the subject is represented as doing something.

3. A proposition is passive when the subject is represented as acted on, or having something done to it.

Of the above propositions, “grass is green is an enunciative form: it simply declares that the subject (grass) is in a certain condition expressed by the predicate (green); but it does not assert that the subject either acts or is acted on.

The second is an active form of proposition ; for it declares that the subject (the dog) does something (barks)

The third is a passive form : it shows that the subject (the pen) received an action, or had something done to it (mended).

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