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7. Is verse a natural or an artificial form of language? 8. Conclusion. What advantages has verse over

prose ? &c.



Introduction. Many forms of teaching: by questions, by precept, by example, &c. 1. Many advantages in teaching by fables — a fable

what ? 2. Who was the most celebrated fabulist among the

ancients, and what imitators has he had in mo

dern times ? 3. A fable originally spoken: how was the lesson

imparted ? 4. Show how fables contain both example and

precept. 5. The difference between a fable and a parable. 6. The efficacy of fables as a means of moral instruc

tion. 7. Pleasing to every age. 8. Conclusion. Other forms of instruction are now adopted; but none to be despised. The impor


of this subject proved by the many great writers who have treated of it.


Introduction. Various appearances of language : spoken, written, printed. 1. Printing, when invented ? — by whom? - and by

whom introduced into England ? 2. An immense improvement upon writing : show 3. What impulse did it give to the human intellect?


how long it preceded the Reformation. 4. How printing was connected with the revival of

learning in Europe. 5. Difficulties the early printers had to contend against. 6. How they were received in France by Louis XI. 7. The Aldi in Venice - Caxton in England, &c. 8. Conclusion. The great perfection to which the art

has now been raised — rapidity of execution stereotype, &c.


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Introduction. The natural desire of mankind to perpetuate their deeds to posterity. 1. Various forms in which this desire has manifested

itself - ballads, epics, chronicles, histories, &c. 2. Newspapers among the latter a current record

of events. 3. At first, merely a statement of facts - afterwards,

remarks and comments on the conduct of public

men and their measures. 4. When newspapers were first established in England. 5. The influence of the press, public opinion, &c. 6. Redress of grievances, reform of abuses, &c. 7. Freedom of the press, what?-- and how limited ? 8. Conclusion. Reflections on this freedom-compari

son with continental nations in this respect, &c.


Introduction. The condition of Europe from the 5th to the 15th century. 1. Compare this period with that of the condition of

Europe from the 15th to the 19th century.

2. The taking of Constantinople by the Turks

when? - its consequences. 3. What Italian prince first encouraged learning ? 4. Mention the names of some of the scholars of the

15th and 16th centuries. 5. What effect had this encouragement on the litera

ture of Europe ? 6. Which was the first celebrated age of English

literature ? 7. Which country was now first celebrated for her

learning ? 8. Conclusion. Enthusiasm for learning - examples

- universities, colleges, academies, schools, &c.



Introduction. Ancient methods of carrying on trade - the great inconvenience of barter. 1. The word “ pecuniary,” whence derived – the ob

ject of the invention of money. 2. Early coins of the Greeks, Lydians, Persians, &c. 3. Why the precious metals were chosen for coined

money. 4. Bank Notes --Bills of Exchange-Exchequer Bills,

&c. 5. How do these forms of money facilitate business ? 6. What is meant by “investing " money ? 7. The proper uses and the abuses of money. 8. Conclusion. Reflections - an immoderate desire

for wealth — squandering of riches — a proper medium — good to be done with money, &c.

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Introduction. Many popular errors

one, that the character may be guessed at from the handwriting. 1. A good handwriting a desirable and useful accom

plishment. 2. What is the most essential quality of a good hand? 3. Formerly, the fashion was to write a bad hand;

now, fortunately, this fashion is exploded. 4. A great advantage to write legibly, and at the

same time quickly. 5. Ladies' handwriting, a commercial hand, a scholar's

hand, &c. 6. Handwriting may be remodelled at any time of

life. 7. Nationally, the English and Germans write clear

and bold hands ; the French and Italians cramped

and illegible. 8. Conclusion. Cases in which a good handwriting

is required — letters — copying — drawing up reports - authors' manuscripts, &c.



Introduction. Many things of daily occurrence are really arts, though not generally considered such. 1. Wherever we can lay down principles, and carry

them into practice, there is an art. 2. Reading may be reduced to principles, and every

one may improve by careful practice. 3. Articulation. What, and whence derived ; a dis

tinct utterance of every syllable. 4. Pronunciation. The right accent and tone to every word (give examples of wrong pronun

ciation) 5. Inflection. The raising and falling of the voice

on certain words in a sentence (to prevent

monotony). 6. Pauses. Stopping in certain places to give effect

to the meaning. 7. Tone. The voice adapted to the sense of every

passage. 8. Pitch of the voice-depends on circumstances

high in a large room, lower in a smaller. 9. Anticipation. The power of reading before we

utter, to prevent wrong emphasis or inflection. 10. Conclusion. All these rules to be supported by

practice- a very rare, though very desirable, accomplishment-cases where reading is required.


Introduction. Certain principles observable through the whole range of nature: these always worthy of imitation. 1. Exercise one of these principles ; applicable to

mind as well as to body, 2. Explain this analogy. 3. Excess, in either case, defeats the purpose, and

therefore injurious. 4. Things not used grow rusty, and out of good

condition. 5. In the physical world, nature always in exercise

- wind, water, &c. 6. All the faculties should be exercised



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