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7. Is verse a natural or an artificial form of language? 8. Conclusion. What advantages has verse over
prose ? &c.
IX. ON FABLES.
Introduction. Many forms of teaching: by questions, by precept, by example, &c. 1. Many advantages in teaching by fables — a fable
what ? 2. Who was the most celebrated fabulist among the
ancients, and what imitators has he had in mo
dern times ? 3. A fable originally spoken: how was the lesson
imparted ? 4. Show how fables contain both example and
precept. 5. The difference between a fable and a parable. 6. The efficacy of fables as a means of moral instruc
tion. 7. Pleasing to every age. 8. Conclusion. Other forms of instruction are now adopted; but none to be despised. The impor
of this subject proved by the many great writers who have treated of it.
X. ON PRINTING.
Introduction. Various appearances of language : spoken, written, printed. 1. Printing, when invented ? — by whom? - and by
whom introduced into England ? 2. An immense improvement upon writing : show 3. What impulse did it give to the human intellect?
how long it preceded the Reformation. 4. How printing was connected with the revival of
learning in Europe. 5. Difficulties the early printers had to contend against. 6. How they were received in France by Louis XI. 7. The Aldi in Venice - Caxton in England, &c. 8. Conclusion. The great perfection to which the art
has now been raised — rapidity of execution stereotype, &c.
XI. ON NEWSPAPERS.
Introduction. The natural desire of mankind to perpetuate their deeds to posterity. 1. Various forms in which this desire has manifested
itself - ballads, epics, chronicles, histories, &c. 2. Newspapers among the latter a current record
of events. 3. At first, merely a statement of facts - afterwards,
remarks and comments on the conduct of public
men and their measures. 4. When newspapers were first established in England. 5. The influence of the press, public opinion, &c. 6. Redress of grievances, reform of abuses, &c. 7. Freedom of the press, what?-- and how limited ? 8. Conclusion. Reflections on this freedom-compari
son with continental nations in this respect, &c.
XII. ON THE REVIVAL OF LEARNING.
Introduction. The condition of Europe from the 5th to the 15th century. 1. Compare this period with that of the condition of
Europe from the 15th to the 19th century.
2. The taking of Constantinople by the Turks
when? - its consequences. 3. What Italian prince first encouraged learning ? 4. Mention the names of some of the scholars of the
15th and 16th centuries. 5. What effect had this encouragement on the litera
ture of Europe ? 6. Which was the first celebrated age of English
literature ? 7. Which country was now first celebrated for her
learning ? 8. Conclusion. Enthusiasm for learning - examples
- universities, colleges, academies, schools, &c.
I. ON MONEY.
Introduction. Ancient methods of carrying on trade - the great inconvenience of barter. 1. The word “ pecuniary,” whence derived – the ob
ject of the invention of money. 2. Early coins of the Greeks, Lydians, Persians, &c. 3. Why the precious metals were chosen for coined
money. 4. Bank Notes --Bills of Exchange-Exchequer Bills,
&c. 5. How do these forms of money facilitate business ? 6. What is meant by “investing " money ? 7. The proper uses and the abuses of money. 8. Conclusion. Reflections - an immoderate desire
for wealth — squandering of riches — a proper medium — good to be done with money, &c.
II. ON HAND WRITING.
Introduction. Many popular errors
one, that the character may be guessed at from the handwriting. 1. A good handwriting a desirable and useful accom
plishment. 2. What is the most essential quality of a good hand? 3. Formerly, the fashion was to write a bad hand;
now, fortunately, this fashion is exploded. 4. A great advantage to write legibly, and at the
same time quickly. 5. Ladies' handwriting, a commercial hand, a scholar's
hand, &c. 6. Handwriting may be remodelled at any time of
life. 7. Nationally, the English and Germans write clear
and bold hands ; the French and Italians cramped
and illegible. 8. Conclusion. Cases in which a good handwriting
is required — letters — copying — drawing up reports - authors' manuscripts, &c.
III. ON READING ALOUD.
Introduction. Many things of daily occurrence are really arts, though not generally considered such. 1. Wherever we can lay down principles, and carry
them into practice, there is an art. 2. Reading may be reduced to principles, and every
one may improve by careful practice. 3. Articulation. What, and whence derived ; a dis
tinct utterance of every syllable. 4. Pronunciation. The right accent and tone to every word (give examples of wrong pronun
ciation) 5. Inflection. The raising and falling of the voice
on certain words in a sentence (to prevent
monotony). 6. Pauses. Stopping in certain places to give effect
to the meaning. 7. Tone. The voice adapted to the sense of every
passage. 8. Pitch of the voice-depends on circumstances
high in a large room, lower in a smaller. 9. Anticipation. The power of reading before we
utter, to prevent wrong emphasis or inflection. 10. Conclusion. All these rules to be supported by
practice- a very rare, though very desirable, accomplishment-cases where reading is required.
IV. ON EXERCISE.
Introduction. Certain principles observable through the whole range of nature: these always worthy of imitation. 1. Exercise one of these principles ; applicable to
mind as well as to body, 2. Explain this analogy. 3. Excess, in either case, defeats the purpose, and
therefore injurious. 4. Things not used grow rusty, and out of good
condition. 5. In the physical world, nature always in exercise
- wind, water, &c. 6. All the faculties should be exercised