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State to which of these three forms the following propositions belong.

The boy is attentive The chair was broken — He writes The girl is clever — The affair was settled

This is an excellent work — I am much pleased The man refused to help us She is in a hurry Cæsar was an illustrious general — The woman deserves great praise - You have made a mistake

- The passage was made in ten days — The general marched against the enemy — She has great discretion The account was published - Leonidas

a hero — The child cries - This affair is of no importance - This writer achieved a vast reputation - Justice is the queen of virtues - Louis XII. was called the father of his people invited to subscribe - The best portion of this work is the introduction - The colouring is gaudy — His style is wonderfully concise - Patriotism is the source of his inspiration - This picture of emigrant life is graphic and impressive - The book is well executed, and to younger readers we can recommend it as a work which they will be glad to add to their libraries.


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Write eighteen propositions, consisting only of their three parts; viz., the subject, copula, and predicate :six of them to be enunciative, six active, and six passive, like the following examples :

Enunciative. The paintings are beautiful.

His mother will be angry. This garden is large.

My aunt was kind. The streets are wet.

The night is dark.

The women exclaimed.
The boys were talking.
I was reading
He wrote a letter.
The man shivered.
The master had explained.

The book was hidden.
The question will be discussed.
The bread is baked.
The snow was melted.
The houses were built.
They will be protected.

COMPOUND SUBJECTS. Subjects of propositions often consist of several words, as To rise early is conducive to health.” Here the subject is not “ to rise,” but to “rise early.”


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Use the following expressions as subjects of propositions.

To be just in all our dealings — To compose elegantly — The habit of writing — To combat his ar

- guments—Walking before breakfast—Sketching from Nature – To play without quarrelling - To write a foreign language accurately—A friend of mine-One of the noblest of Christian virtues-All the ship’s guns - The companions of our childhood - Some

of his adherents — This glorious news Very accurate experiments — King John of France — The habit of reading by candle-light - Collecting antiquities — These sensible remarks — Persons born deaf — Many well-known specimens of this sort of literature — The best way to succeed.


Predicates of propositions also are frequently not expressed by a single term, but consist of several words, as : “The affair is of importance."


Use the following expressions as predicates of propositions.

At home-Not far off — In the garden - A state of pilgrimage— Wrapped in his cloak — Quite aware of his purpose — Not much better — Plunged in a deep reverie — Far from being of the same opinion - Under the necessity of refusing - In good health - Wholly without assistance - in great fear of the consequences A man of reserved habits In doubt as to the result

In a terrible passion Unequal to the task

In great confusion In considerable danger.


All expressions which are added to a proposition are called its complements. The word “complement” means that which fills

up, or completes, the sense of a proposition.

In the proposition, “ The boy was reproved,” the sense is perfectly intelligible ; but when we say, “The idle boy was sternly reproved by his master,” we have much fuller information ; for the sort of boy, the manner of the reproof, and the person who reproved,

1 “Complement” is derived from the Latin verb complēre, “ to fill up or complete.”

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are all made known to us. It will then be understood that when we have discovered the subject, copula, and predicate, in sentences containing but one proposition, all the other words or expressions in that sentence are complements to that proposition.


Copy out the following sentences, and point out all their parts, thus

complement. subject. complement. (Last night), the old tree (at the bottom of our garden) cop. predicate.


was blown down (by the violence of the wind).

Music and song were early cultivated among the Hebrews. Fables are undoubtedly of great antiquity. During this age, poetry was feeble and mechanical. Cicero's moral character was never blemished by the stain of any habitual vice. As a step towards this end, Wallenstein now demanded the cession of Mecklenburgh. Both Badajoz and San Sebastian were set on fire by their French garrisons, as a means of defence. That work must have been very tedious for one man to execute. Their proficiency excited universal admiration. I have before referred to this custom. The same thing was enjoined by the council of Pavia. There is another point referred to in this extract. The custom of reading at meals was not exclusively monastic.

Classification of Complements. Complements may be classified as referring to

circumstance, time, place, manner, object, agent, person, qualification, intention, thus :

1. Of circumstance; as, " Though surrounded with difficulties, the king effected his escape.”

2. Of time; as, “ The Norman Conquest of England took place about the middle of the eleventh century."

3. Of place; as, “A revolution broke out in France.

4. Of manner; as, “ The governor read the proclamation with a calm and steady voice.

5. Of the object; as, “He determined to investigate this matter."

6. Of the agent; as, “ The book was brought home by the printer's boy."

7. Of the person ; as, “John gave his brother a penknife, as a New Year's gift." 8. Of qualification; as,

66 The contented man is happy.”

9. Of intention ; as, “I went out to purchase some books."

Explanation. In No. 1. of the above propositions, the expression though surrounded with difficulties” shows the circumstances in which the king was when he effected


his escape.

In No. 2. “ about the middle of the eleventh century” informs us of the time when the Conquest took place.

In No. 3. “in France ” expresses the place where the revolution in question broke out.

In No. 4. “with a calm and steady voice shows the manner in which the proclamation was read.

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