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49 J. W. Draper, Jour. Frank. Inst., Sept., 1834; Scientific Memoirs, New York, 1878, 316.
10 Lippmann, Ann. Chim. Phys., V, v, 494, Aug., 1875.
** Pouillet, Ann. Chim. Phys., II. xx, 111. Becquerel, Ann. Chim. Phys. xxiv, 312. Matteucci, loc. cit., 30. Quincke, Pogg. Ann., cyii, 1, 1859; cx, 38, 1860.
13 Küss, loc. cit., 3.
*4 Beale, Protoplasm, or Life, Matter and Mind, London, 1870, 108. “This transparent material possesses a remarkable power of movement. It may thus transport itself long distances and extend itself so as to get through pores, holes, and canals too mi. pute to be seen even with the aid of very bigh powers. There are creatures of exqui. site tenuity which are capable of climbing through fluids and probably through the air itself-creatures which climb without muscles, nerves, or limbs - creatures with no mechanism, having no structure; capable when suspended in the medium in which they live, of extending any one part of the pulpy matter of which they consist beyond another part, and of causing the rest to follow.”
16 Beale, op. cit., 48.
76 Ranrier, C. R., lxxxix, 318. “Cellular elements possess all the essential vital properties of the complete organism. A primitive fasciculus of striated muscle, which is a cellule, possesses sensibility, motricity and contractility. A gland-cellule (and all cellules are more or less glandular), has the same. Lymphatic cellules digest starch, proteids, and fatty matters which have been absorbed, in consequence of their amæboid activity."
77 Allman, G. J., Pres. Linnean Society, Nature, xx, 384, 1879.
78 Beale, Op. cit., 33, 55. “Nothing that lives is alive in every part. ****In man and the higher animals the free portion of the nails and hair, the outer part of the cuticle and a portion of the dental tissues are evidently lifeless. ** Of the internal tissues a great part is also in a non-living condition.” “ This contractile tissue [of the muscle] is not, like the germinal matter which produced it, in a living state.” “The nerve fibre is composed of formed material.” “The non-living tissue which is thus spun of as they (these oval masses of germinal matter) become separated, is the nerve."
** Beale, Op. cit., 105.
$0 Alman, loc. cit., 392. “Irritability, the one great character of all living beings, is not more difficult to be conceived of as a property of matter than the physical phenom. ena of radiant energy.” “There is no greater difficulty in conceiving of contractility as a property of protoplasm, than there is of conceiving of attraction as a property of the magnet."
ei Schützenberger, J. Chem. Soc., xxxvi, 512. Foster, Op. cit., 726-748.
89 Acland, Medicine in Modern Times, 28. “There are virtually no limits to the substances which can be made" (by chemistry). Odling, Animal Chemistry, 1866, 58. "Already hundreds of organic principles have been built up from their constituent elements and there is now no reason to doubt our capability of producing all organic principles whatsoever in a similar manner.”
83 Thos. Graham, “On Liquid Diffusion applied to Analysis.” Phil. Trans. 1862. 84 Maudsley, Phys. and Path., 46; Body and Mind, 161. See also Nature, xxi, 586, 1879. 85 Graham, loc. cit.
$6 T. Sterry Ilunt, Am. J. Sci., II, v, 71, 1818; vii, 109, 1819. Chemical and Geological Essays, 179, 180. See also Dusart, C. R., May, 1861, 974. Schoonbroodt, Ib., May, 1800, 856. Fischer and Boedeker, Ann. Chem. Pharm., cxvii, 111. Wolcott Gibbs, Am. J. Sci., II, XXy, 31, 1818.
87 Allman, Address, Nature, xx, 387.
68 J. W. Draper, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., May, 1843; Scientific Memoirs, 410; Am. J. Sci., III, iv, 161, Dec., 1872; Nature, xxii, 29, 1880.
Es l'ines, Nature, xviii, 110. Doussingault, Ib., xviii, 672. Pringsheim, Ib., xxi, 85. Lankester, Nature, xxi, 557. Boehm, J. Chem. Soc., xxxiv, 81, 162. Macagno, Ib., xxxiv, 90, 162. Corenwinder, Ib., xxxiv, 595; C. R., 1xxxvi, 608.
* Bert, C. R., lxxxvii, C95; J. Chem. Soc., xxxvi, 336.
92 Allman, loc. cit., 390.
93 Thistleton Dyer, Sci. Conf., Biology, 102. Kraus, J. Chem. Soc., xxxviii, 57. Wiesner, Nature, xix, 161.
94 Geddes, C. R., lxxxvii, 1035, Dec., 1878; Proc. Roy. Soc., xxviii, 449.
0% Wurtz and Bouchut, C. R., lxxxix, 425. Wittmak, J. Chem. Soc., xxxvi, 1018. Peckolt, Ib., xxxviii, 128. Twenty-eight centigrams of this ferment, which Peckoldt calls papayotin, dissolved twenty centigrams of meat in ten minutes.
99 Bernhard, J. Chem. Soc., xxxiv, 82. Defresne, Ib., Xxxviii, 330. Baswitz, Ib., 132. Krauch, Ib., 175.
100 Boussingault, C. R., lxxxvii, 277; J. Chem. Soc., xxxv, 73. 101 Claude Bernard, Phenomènes de la vie commun aux Anim. et Veget., Paris, 1879. 102 Claude Bernard, op. cit. 193 Schützenberger, C. R., lxxxviii, 287, 383, 593. Jamieson, Nature, xviii, 539.
104 Kühne, Lehrbuch der Physiologischen Chemie, Leipzig, 1866, 274. Bleunard, C.R., xc, 612, 1080.
105 Vines, Proc. Roy. Soc. May 13, 1880; Nature, xxii, 91. Barbieri, J. prak. Ch., II, xviii, 102; J. Chem. Soc., xxxvi, 272; xxxviii, 312.
106 Weyl and Bischoff, Ber. Berl.. Chem. Ges., xii, 367.
107 Hammarsten, J. Chem. Soc., XXXV, 472; xxxviii, 172; Plüger's Archiv, xvii, 413; xviii, 38; xix, 563.
108 Hoppe. Seyler, Medicinisch-Chemische Untersuchungen, 1860, 162.
109 Gamgee, op. cit., 4, “ The proteids of the animal body are all derived directly or indirectly from vegetable organisms which possess the power of constructing them out of the comparatively simple chemical compounds which serve as their food. Such a synthesis never takes place in the animal body, though the latter possesses the power of converting any vegetable or animal proteid into the various proteids which are characteristic of its solids and liquids." Foster, op. cit., 474, " The whole secret of lise may almost be said to be wrapped up in the occult properties of certain nitrogen compounds." “ Plüger has drawn some very suggestive comparisons between the so-called chemical properties of the cyanogen compounds and the so-called vital properties of protoplasm."
110 Pasteur, C. R., May 3, 1880; Nature, xxii, 48, 1880.
111 Archibald, Nature, xix, 145. Jerons, Ib., 338. Chambers, Ib., xviii, 567, 619. Stewart, Ib., 616; Conservation of Energy, New York, 1874, 88.
112 Jerons, Nature, xix, 33, 97, 196, 588; xviii, 483.
113 W. K. Clifford, “Energy and Force,” Nature, xxii, 122, 1880. S. T. Preston, “ Physical Aspects of the Vortex Atom Theory," Nature, xxii, 56, 1880.
114 Clifford, Seeing and Thinking, 39. “The luminiferous ether is not a fluid like water, but it is a solid something like a piece of jelly." See also Hall and Harkness, Report on Encke's Comet, Washington, 1871.
115 Thomson, Sir Im., Phil. Mag., IV, ix, 30-10. Stewart and Tait, The Unseen Uni. verse, 101.
116 J. F. W. Herschel. “Familiar Lectures on Scientific Subjects,” London, 1867, 282.
117 Herschel, Op. cit., 282. Sir Im. Thomson, Phil. Mag., IV, ix, 36. “The mechani. cal value of a cubic mile of sunlight (at the earth's distance from the sun) is consequently 12050 foot-pounds, equivalent to the work of one horse power for a third of a minute.”
118 S. Tolver Preston, Phil. Mag., V, ix, 356, May, 1880.
REPORTS OF COMMITTEES.
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE UPON FORESTRY. Ar the meeting of this Association held at Saratoga, in August last, a esolution was introduced, and referred by the Standing Committee, to the Committee upon Forestry, in which, in view of the great importance of the matter of Forest-protection and Wood-culture, the desire was expressed, that some Report looking towards definite action be received from this Committee, at the next meeting of the Association.
Your published proceedings show, that two reports have already been made by the Committee upon Forestry ; but in order to present the subject in a connected form, we will here briefly review the action that has been taken in pursuance of the object mentioned.
At the session held at Portland, in 1873, it was
" Resolved, That a Committee be appointed by the Association, to memorialize Congress and the several State Legislatures upon the importance of promoting the cultivation of Timber, and the preservation of Forests, and to recommend proper legislation for securing these objects.”
It was understood at the time, that an amendment was adopted, directing this Committee to enter into correspondence with Forestry Associations of other countries, with the view of more effectually promoting the interests involved in this subject, but the proceedings as published do not show this fact.
A few days afterwards, a preliminary meeting was held at the house of Mr. George B. Emerson, in Boston, at which a majority of the Committee was present, and an interchange of views was had, as to the best means for carrying into effect the wishes of the Association, in the matter under their charge. As the interests involved concern no particular State, but pervade the whole country, it was thought proper to bring the subject first before Congress; and a sub-committee consisting of George B. Emerson and F. B. Hough was appointed to give personal attention to this duty.
A memorial was prepared and sent in printed form to each member of the Committee, and to other persons known to feel an interest in the subject, inviting their suggestions, and asking them to propose any modifications in the memorial that they might deem proper.
In January, 1874, this sub-committee repaired to Washington, and for preliminary consultation, a meeting was held at the Smithsonian Institution, at which several members of Congress and others attended.
As the result of this conference, it was thought best to ask for the appointment of a Commission, similar to that previously created in the interest of Fisheries, for the collection of facts, and the publication of information upon the subject.
This being cordially approved by the President, the memorial of the sub-committee was transmitted by him to both Houses of Congress, with the strong approval of the Commissioner of the General Land Office, and of the Secretary of the Interior.
This special message of the President was referred in each House to the Committee on the Public Lands, and an arrangement was made between the Chairmen of these Committees, to the effect that the Committee of the House should first examine the subject in detail, and that the Senate Committee should reserve its action until the former had reported.
At this stage of the proceedings, the senior member of the sub-committee was recalled by private affairs,— the other member remaining until near the close of the session.
After unforeseen delays, caused by other business having precedence in the Committee, an opportunity for a hearing was given, and the question was referred to a sub-committee, consisting of Messrs. Dunnell of Minnesota, Phillips of Kansas, and Ilerndon of Texas. These gentlemen, having faithfully examined the subject in detail, adopted a Report which, being presented to the general Committee and approved by them, was laid before the House with an accompanying Bill, on the 17th of March following 2
1 Senate Ex Doc., 23; 1st sess., 43rd Cong.
? Report No. 259, H. R.; 1st sess., 43rd Cong. An extra edition of 5,000 copies of this Report was ordered by Congress.
A hearing was afterwards given by the Senate Committee, but the subject did not reach them for their action, which would doubtless have been unanimously in its favor, -judging from the opinions expressed in conversation by each of the members.
In this Report of the House Committee, they say :-" That they have given their attention to the subject, and learn that the mea morial above referred to was prepared by a Committee of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, as the result of a discussion induced by a communication read before them at their annual session in Portland, Maine, on the 21st of August, 1873, on the Duty of Governments in the Preservation of Forests.'
“A subject endorsed by an Association, embracing within its membership the highest scientific talent of the country, must commend itself to our notice as worthy of attention. More especially is this notice due, when their action takes the form of a recommendation to Congress, upon a subject alleged to involve the duty of the Government, upon questions that vitally affect the interests of the whole country, and especially those of Agriculture, Manufactures and Commerce.
" When it is further affirmed, that without timely provision of law, these great agencies of civilization and elements of wealth, will, in the near future, be materially impaired, we cannot hesitate to give the recommendation a most careful examination, to the end that, if well founded, the measures best calculated for averting these injuries may be devised, and the remedies most effectually applied.
* After as full an investigation of the question as present opportunities allow, we are convinced that the statements the memorial are substantially true, and that it is the duty of the Government to take immediate measures for ascertaining the condition and prospects of our timber supply, to the end that the future wants of the country, with regard to these great interests, both in their scientific and practical relations, should be thoroughly investigated and made widely known.”
The Bill accompanying this Report provided for the appointment of a Commissioner of Forestry, and afforded facilities for his researches, but failed at that session to become a law. It was not opposed in any manner, but was simply laid aside by the pressure of other measures then before Congress.
A. A. 1 S., VOL. XXIX.