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ed, it grew late, and they made them selves a barricade with loggs & bowes as well as they could in yo time, & set out their sentenill & betooke them to rest, and saw ye smoake of yo fire y savages made y' night. When morning was come they devided their company, some to coast alonge ye shore in yo boate, and the rest marched throw ye woods to see yo land, if any fit place might be for their dwelling. They came allso to ye place wher they saw the Indans ye night before, & found they had been cuting up a great fish like a grampus, being some 2. inches thike of fate like a hogg, some peeces wher of they had left by ye way; and ye shallop found 2. more of these fishes dead on ye sands, a thing usuall after storms in y' place, by reason of ye great flats of sand that lye of. So they ranged up and doune all y' day, but found no people, nor any place they liked. When ye sune grue low, they hasted out of ye woods to meete with their shallop, to whom they made signes to come to them into a creeke hardby, the which they did at highwater; of which they were very glad, for they had not seen each other all y' day, since yo morning. So they made them a barricado (as usually they did every night) with loggs, staks, & thike pine bowes, ye height of a man, leaving it open to leeward, partly to shelter them from y could & wind (making their fire in yo midle, & lying round aboute it), and partly to defend them from any sudden assaults of ye savags, if they should surround them. So So being very weary, they betooke them to rest. But aboute midnight, [51] they heard a hideous & great crie, and their sentinell caled, "Arme, arme"; so they bestired them & stood to their armes, & shote of a cupple of moskets, and then the noys seased. They concluded it was a companie of wolves, or such like wild beasts; for one of yo sea men tould them

ing to and from their boat," it brought to the most, if not all, coughs and colds, which afterwards turned to scurvy,

whereof many died." Mourt, in Young, p. 138. — ED.

*December 7th. - ED.

he had often heard shuch a noyse in New-found land. So they rested till about 5. of ye clock in the morning ;* for ye tide, & ther purposs to goe from thence, made them be stiring betimes. So after praier they prepared for breakfast, and it being day dawning, it was thought best to be carring things downe to ye boate. But some said it was not best to carrie y armes downe, others said they would be the readier, for they had laped them up in their coats from ye dew. But some 3. or 4. would not cary theirs till they wente them selves, yet as it fell out, ye water being not high enough, they layed them downe on ye banke side, & came up to breakfast. But presently, all on ye sudain, they heard a great & strange crie, which they knew to be the same voyces they heard in ye night, though they varied their notes, & one of their company being abroad came runing in, & cried, "Men, Indeans, Indeans"; and whall, their arowes came flying amongst them. Their men rane with all speed to recover their armes, as by ye good providence of God they did. In ye mean time, of those that were ther ready, tow muskets were discharged at them, & 2. more stood ready in ye enterance of ther randevoue, but were comanded not to shoote till they could take full aime at them; & ye other 2. charged againe with all speed, for ther were only 4. had armes ther, & defended y baricado which was first assalted. The crie of ye Indeans was dreadfull, espetially when they saw ther men rune out of y° randevoue towourds ye shallop, to recover their armes, the Indeans wheeling aboute upon them. But some runing out with coats of malle on, & cutlasses in their hands, they soone got their armes, & let flye amongs them, and quickly stopped their violence. Yet ther was a lustie man, and no less valiante, stood behind a tree within halfe a musket shot, and let his arrows flie at them. He was seen shoot 3. arrowes, which were all

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avoyded. He stood 3. shot of a musket, till one taking full aime at him, and made yo barke or splinters of ye tree fly about his ears, after which he gave an extraordinary shrike, and away they wente all of them. They left some to keep ye shalop, and followed them aboute a quarter of a mille, and shouted once or twise, and shot of 2. or 3. peces, & so returned. This they did, that they might conceive that they were not [52] affrade of them or any way discouraged. Thus it pleased God to vanquish their enimies, and give them deliverance; and by his spetiall providence so to dispose that not any one of them were either hurte, or hitt, though their arrows came close by them, & on every side them, and sundry of their coats, which hunge up in ye barricado, were shot throw & throw. Aterwards they gave God sollamne thanks & praise for their deliverance, & gathered up a bundle of their arrows, & sente them into England afterward by yo m'. of ye ship, and called that place ye first encounter. From hence they departed, & costed all along, but discerned no place likly for harbor; & therfore hasted to a place that their pillote, (one Mr. Coppin who had bine in y° cuntrie before) did assure them was a good harbor, which he had been in, and they might fetch it before night; of which they were glad, for it begane to be foule weather. After some houres sailing, it begane to snow & raine, & about ye midle of ye afternoone, ye wind increased, & ye sea became very rough, and they broake their rudder, & it was as much as 2. men could doe to steere her with a cupple of oares. But their pillott bad them be of good cheere, for he saw ye harbor; but ye storme increasing, & night drawing on, they bore what saile they could to gett in, while they could see. But herwith they broake their mast in 3. peeces, & their saill fell over bord, in a very grown sea, so as they had like to have been cast away; yet by Gods mercie they recovered them selves, & having ye floud with them, struck into ye harbore. But when it came too, y pillott was

deceived in yo place, and said, ye Lord be mercifull unto them, for his eys never saw y' place before; & he & the m'. mate would have rune her ashore, in a cove full of breakers, before ye winde. But a lusty seaman which steered, bad those which rowed, if they were men, about with her, or ells they were all cast away; the which they did with speed. So he bid them be of good cheere & row lustly, for ther was a faire sound before them, & he doubted not but they should find one place or other wher they might ride in saftie. And though it was very darke, and rained sore, yet in ye end they gott under y lee of a smalle iland, and remained ther all y' night in saftie. But they knew not this to be an iland till morning, but were devided in their minds; some would keepe y boate for fear they might be amongst ye Indians; others were so weake and could, they could not endure, but got a shore, & with much adoe got fire, (all things being so wett,) and yo rest were glad to come to them; for after midnight ye wind. shifted to the [53] north-west, & it frose hard. But though this had been a day & night of much trouble & danger unto them, yet God gave them a morning of comforte & refreshing (as usually he doth to his children), for ye next day was a faire sunshinig day, and they found them sellvs to be on an iland* secure from ye Indeans, wher they might drie their stufe, fixe their peeces, & rest them selves, and gave God thanks for his mercies, in their manifould deliverances. And this being the last day of y weeke,† they prepared ther to keepe ye Sabath. On Munday they sounded ye harbor, and founde it fitt for shipping; and marched into ye land,§ & found diverse cornfeilds, & litle runing

"This was afterwards called Clark's island, because Mr. Clark, the master's mate, first stepped on shore thereon." Morton's Memorial, p. 21. This island was sold by the town, in 1690, to Samuel Lucas, Elkanah Watson, and George Morton, and is now under good cultivation by Mr. Edward Watson.

For a history and description of the island, see Thacher's Plymouth, pp. 82, 153, 158, 330; Russell's Pilgrim Memorials, ed. 1855, pp. 87-90.- Ed. ED.

Saturday, December 9th.

Sunday, December 10th. - ED. December 11th, celebrated as the day of the landing of the Pilgrims at

brooks, a place (as they supposed) fitt for situation; at least it was ye best they could find, and yo season, & their presente necessitie, made them glad to accepte of it. So they returned to their shipp againe with this news to ye rest of their people, which did much comforte their harts.*

On y 15. of Desem': they wayed anchor to goe to ye place they had discovered, & came within 2. leagues of it, but were faine to bear up againe; but ye 16. day ye winde came faire, and they arrived safe in this harbor. And after wards tooke better view of ye place, and resolved wher to pitch their dwelling; and ye 25. day begane to erecte ye first house for comone use† to receive them and their goods.


Plymouth. It corresponds to December 21st, new style. By a singular error, the 22d was supposed to be the true Forefathers' Day," and for years has been duly observed as such. In a manuscript note of the late Judge Davis, written in his own copy of his edition of the Memorial, he says: "In 1620, December 11, O. S., corresponded to December 21, N. S. When the anniversary was instituted at Plymouth in 1769, eleven days were added for difference of style, instead of ten, the true difference. The difference between old and new style then existing was incorrectly assumed in determining the day of celebration."— ED.

* This exploring party of eighteen persons, six of whom were of the crew of the Mayflower, were absent from their companions about a week. They found, on their return, that on the day after their leaving the ship, December 7th, Dorothy, the wife of Bradford, who was with the absent party, fell overboard, and was drowned. See Mather's Magnalia, Book II. Chap. I.; Prince, I. 76. - ED.

The common house was about twenty feet square; tradition locates it on the south side of Leyden Street, near the declivity of the hill. See Mourt, in Young, p. 173; Thacher's Plymouth, pp. 27, 28.

From the minute journal of their daily proceedings, in Mourt's Relation, we learn that on the 28th of December, as many as could went to work on the hill (Burial Hill), where they proposed to build a platform for their ordnance; and on the same day they proceeded to measure out the grounds for their habitations, having first reduced all the inhabitants to nineteen families. On the 9th of January, they went to labor in the building of their town, in two rows of houses. The houses were built on each side of what is now Leyden Street. The first entry in the first book of the Plymouth Colony Records, is an incomplete list of the "Meersteads and Garden-Plotes of those which came first, layed out, 1620." See Mourt, in Young, pp. 169, 170, 173; Hazard's Historical Collections, I. 100.-ED.

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