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of the colonics, and prayed relief for their brethren of Massachusetts; but declared their disapprobation of all their violent measures. They also claimed a restoration of all their former privileges; but discarded the idea of lessening the dignity of Parliament, &c. This exparte procedure of the assembly of New-York, was well calculated to flatter the belief in ministers, that the colonies might be divided, and that such a division would prove their ruin; but herein they were in an error; although the tories prevailed in the house of assembly, the whigs were in fact the most numerous, and powerful party among the people, as will appear from the following fact.

On the 5th of March, the whig citizens called a meeting in the city of New-York, to try the question of sending delegates to the General Congress, and the tories appeared in the meeting armed with clubs, &c. The assembly soon became tumultuous, with the cry of "Congress or no congress," and an affray ensued, in which arguments were exchanged for blows, and the tories were likely to prevail over the unarmed whigs, when the latter had recourse to clubs in their turn, and thus bore down all opposition, and carried the day.

On the 26th of February General Gage detached Col. Leslie, from the castle, with a body of troops, to seize, and bring away a depot of provincial stores and munitions of war, near Salem. Colonel Leslie embarked his 'detachment in transports, and proceeded to Salem, by the way of Marblehead; but the depot was removed, and the object of the expedition thus defeated. This expedition was or dered on the sabbath, that the people might be surprised when engaged in their religious devotions, and the stores removed without opposition: but a collision took place at the draw-bridge on the Danvers road, which had like to have proved serious, and opened the war in blood. The provincials raised the draw-bridge, and thus checked the

march of the enemy; Colonel Leslie ordered the bridge to be let down; the people refused; he then attempted to pass the river in boats, to seize the bridge. The boats were removed by the people, and scuttled, and sunk; and when the parties were about to proceed to violence, the Reverend Mr. Bernard, of Salem, with several other gentlemen, interposed; the bridge was replaced, and Col. Leslie proceeded to the place of destination; but the stores were removed, and he retired; reimbarked his troops, and returned to the castle, safe and sound. This was the first expedition undertaken by the British, without the limits of Boston.

The provincial congress of Massachusetts continued their sessions, and recommended the 16th of March to be kept, throughout the colony, as a day of humiliation, fasting and prayer, which was faithfully observed, both in town and country. At the same time every effort possible was made to collect from Boston, and elsewhere, such arms, and military stores as could be procured. In this way arms and ammunition to a very considerable amount were collected, for the use of the army, and deposited in the neighbouring towns, where they were secured by suitable guards.

On the 30th of March General Gage sent out a detach ment of about eleven hundred men, into the country, who wantonly gave great provocation to the people, by breaking down their walls, and fences; laying open their inclosures, and thus wasting, and destroying their property; but the people were prudent, restrained their resentments, and the detachment returned unmolested. At the critcal moment when this intelligence was communicated to the provincial congress, the whole black catalogue of parliamentary proceedings, as before noticed, arrived at Fal mouth, and was communicated to the congress before it reached General Gage. This intelligence soon spread

into Boston; and the people hurried away into the country, with such effects as they could conveniently remove, and thus escaped that alarming scene which was before them.

When the doings of Parliament reached Gen. Gage, he sent on to New-York and Philadelphia, to purchase in a private manner, all articles that could possibly be applied to the use and service of a camp. Sundry merchants of New-York made actual sales, to a large amount; but that Capt. Sears, who had headed the whigs on the day they triumphed over the tories, and procured a representation to Congress, raised a hue and cry upon the occasion, and prevented further sales; urging, that America might want those articles for her own service. The merchants of Philadelphia nobly withstood the temptation, and unanimously refused to sell. The general practised the same arts in several other large towns, and made some purchases. before his views were discovered.

Thus prepared and thus balanced, both parties calmly and anxiously awaited the issue, each alive to the contest; and thus the destinies of America were suspended upon a thread, which the meanest ruffian was liable every moment to break, and drench the land in blood.

In this state of anxious suspense, a communication was made to Mr. Samuel Adams, and Mr. Hancock at Lexington, that Gen. Gage would send out a detachment into the country in a few days. This intelligence was soon circulated amongst the sons of liberty in Boston; many took the alarm, and removed their families and effects into the country; the committee of safety secured the stores, and munitions of war, in places of safety; these were supposed to be the objects of the enterprise.

On the 18th of April, a number of provincial officers. dined together at Cambridge, as a station most favourable to watch the motions of the enemy, and give such an alarm as their movements might require. About midnight

the detachment, consisting of eight hundred grenadiers and infantry, (the flour of the British army,) under the command of Lt. Col. Smith and Maj. Pitcairn, embarked at the foot of the common, crossed over and landed at Phipps' farm, and took up their march for Concord, in quest of the American stores.

April 19. The movement of this detachment had reached Lexington, and caused an alarm in that town, and throughout the neighbouring country. The captain of the Lexington company of militia beat to arms, and assembled his men for duty, (to the number of 130,) upon the green, near the meeting-house, at 2 o'clock in the morning. No further intelligence of the enemy being received, the company was dismissed, after roll-call, to assemble upon pa rade at beat of drum. About four in the morning the approach of the enemy gave the alarm, the drums beat to arms, and those who were near, again assembled upon parade, (about 70,) amidst a concourse of spectators, who were drawn together by the alarm. When the militia were in the act of forming, Maj. Pitcairn rode up, at the head of his division, and with an imperious command exclaimed, "Disperse you rebels, throw down your arms and disperse." Struck with surprise at such a salutation, and not being disposed to obey such orders, and in a stile so novel to them, these sons of liberty continued to form, when Maj. Pitcairn advanced to the charge, fired his pistol, flourished his sword, and ordered his detachment to fire; the order was obeyed, accompanied with a shout of huzza, and the militia instantly dispersed; but when the fire was repeated, the militia returned a scattering fire as they fled, and took shelter under cover of the adjoining stone walls, from whence they continued their fire. The enemy killed three upon the green, at their first fire, and five others when under cover of the stone walls.

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The scene of horror, so long expected, and so long dreaded, was now opened, and the great, the magnanimous kingdom of Britain, had thus shed the blood of the sons of the pilgrims,, upon those very fields their illustrious sires had wrested from the savage of the wilds of New-England, one hundred fifty years before, to secure an asylum for themselves and their posterity, from the barbarous oppressions of the same tyrannical power of Britain. The detachment next marched for Concord, to seize the American stores, which had been the principal object of destination. The conflict at Lexington had given the alarm at Concord, and the militia assembled and stood in their defence; but upon the approach of so strong a regular force, they retired behind the river, and waited for aid from the neighbouring towns.

In the mean time, Colonel Smith with his whole force, advanced, and commenced the destruction of the military stores of Concord. Two 24 pounders were disabled, their 'carriages destroyed, besides the wheels of seven others, of a smaller size, 500 lb. of shot were thrown into the river, wells, &c. and about 60 barrels of flour broken in pieces, and half destroyed.

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At this time, the militia of Concord were reinforced from the adjacent towns, and advanced upon the enemy, under the command of Major Butteric; a conflict began at the bridge, the enemy fired, and killed Captain Davis, and one of his privates; the provincials returned the fire, and the enemy retreated, with the loss of several killed and wounded.* This detachment soon joined the main body, and Colonel Smith attempted to lead back his troops to Boston; but the whole adjacent country was in arms, and pressed upon his rear, whilst the provincial sharpshooters galled his flanks, from the adjacent stone walls,

* One of the wounded enemy was killed with a hatchet by a straggling pursuer, which gave rise to very extravagant reports from the British, who had never witnessed those scenes of Indian war, which these sons of liberty had been called to pass through, for the defence of their fires, and thier altars.

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