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spirit of patrotism which glowed in the breasts of the multitude, caught fire at the deed, and rent the air with the repeated cheers of "huzza, liberty, and property forever, but no stamp act." From this the populace conducted Mr. Ingersoll to Hartford, where the same scene was again renewed, and the populace: quietly withdrew, and left Mr. Ingersoll to enjoy his own repose.

The same spirit took fire in New-York; but before any particular warmth of feeling was expressed, by the populace, the stamps arrived. The stamp-master, Mr. Evers, resigned, and Lieutenant-Governor Colden received the stamps, and secured them, with himself, in Fort George, November 1st. Enraged at this proceeding, the mob assembled in the evening, and proceeded to the walls of the fort, and demanded the stamps, which being refused, they broke open the governor's stables, took out his coach, and paraded the streets, bearing his effigy; they next marched in procession to the common, and suspended the effigy of the governor upon a gallows, bearing in one hand a stamped bill of lading, and the devil in the other. When this exhibition was closed, they took the gallows with the effigy as it was, and proceeded through the streets, with the coach in front, until they reached the fort, and then upon bowling green, under the muzzles of the guns, they committed the coach and effigy, gallows and all, to the flames, in presence of the governor, where the whole were consumed, amidst the plaudits, and acclamations of the people. The populace then withdrew to Vauxhall gardens, all which, with the genteel mansion, furniture &c. fell a prey to the fury of the mob; and one general bonfire, which consumed the furniture, books, papers, curiosities, &c. closed the scene, and the mob dispersed.

The next morning, a Captain Isaac Sears, who had commanded a privateer, beat up for volunteers, and assembled a mob, to go and recover the stamps. Captain Sears put

himself at their head, flourished his hat, and exclaimed, 'huzza my lads, we will have the stamps within twentyfour hours." Which threat so intimidated the governor, that he delivered up the stamp papers to the corporation, who deposited them in the city hall, to the satisfaction of the people; but the next arrival they committed to the flames.

On the 6th of November, the citizens met in the fields, to organize the mob for the general safety, by appointing a head, when the famous Captain Sears was appointed, and accepted the command, with four assistants. These leaders, thus appointed, resolved themselves into a corresponding committee, which extended in a similar form throughout the colonies.

When the ships bearing the stamps arrived at Philadelphia, all vessels in that port hoisted their colours half mast high; the bells were muffled, and tolled through the day, and the feelings, as well as the countenances of the citizens, were in solemn mourning. The populace assembled, and demanded of Hughes, the stamp-master, that he should resign, with which he finally complied, without violence.

The same spirit extended into Maryland, and Mr. Hood the stamp-master, fled for safety, and took refuge in the fort at New-York. Virginia caught the fire, burnt the stamp-master in effigy, and compelled him to resign. Thus the fire raged, and Boston fanned the flame, by instituting a public paper, under the title of the "Constitutional Courant, containing matters interesting to liberty, and no ways repugnant to royalty. Printed by Andrew Marvil, at the sign of the bribe refused, on ConstitutionHill, North America." The device which characterised this paper, was a snake cut into eight pieces. The head part was marked N. E.-for New-England, and the others 'containing the initials of N. Y.-N. J.-P.-M.—V.—

N. C.-S. C. with an accompanying label, Join or die. The stamps also were received in Boston with the solemnity of tolling the bells. The old Elm, now stiled liberty tree, was again graced with two effigies which hung to the amusement, and gratification of the people, until three o'clock, when they were cut down, amidst the acclamations of the assembled multitude, and borne through the streets of the town; thence to the gallows on the neck, where they were again hung, and again cut down, and torn in pieces by the mob.

This whole procedure, was accompanied with the following public threat, exhibited in the most public places, throughout the town.


The first man that either distributes, or makes use of stamped paper, let him take care of his house, person, and effects.

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In this state of things, the courts were generally closed throughout the colonies, and the judiciary department failed, until the people began to feel the pressure, and demanded a regular administration of justice. This was met by the judiciary, with great caution at first; but finally the voice of the people prevailed, and the courts became regular, and conducted their proceedings, as usual, without the stamped paper.

In September, 1765, the house of assembly, of Pennsyl vania passed the following resolutions, which they ordered to be recorded, "to shew the ardent zeal of that house, to preserve their inestimable rights, which as Englishmen they possessed ever since the province was settled, and to transmit them to the latest posterity."

Resolved, That the only legal representatives of the inhabitants of this province, are the persons whom they annually elect, to serve as members of assembly.

.. "Resolved therefore, That the taxation of the people of this province, by any other persons whatsoever, than such, their representatives in assembly, is unconstitutional, and subversive of their most valuable rights.

Resolved, That the laying of taxes upon the inhabitants of this province, in any other manner, being subversive of public liberty, must of necessary consequence, be de structive to public happiness."

The same spirit was expressed by the resolves of the assemblies of Connecticut, and Maryland, in the month of September, 1765.

Thus we have seen how the spirit of opposition had become general, well organized, and permanent.

At Portsmouth, in New-Hampshire, a grand funeral solemnity was appointed for the occasion, on that ever memorable first of November, when the stamp duties were to have commenced by law. The morning of this solemn day was ushered in, by the tolling of the bells; the funer al procession were assembled at the appointed hour, and proceeded in solemn silence, to attend the remains of liberty (supposed to be enclosed in a neat, and handsome coffin, inscribed with her name) to the tomb, accompanied with the solemn, and impressive discharge, of minute guns. At the place of interment, a solemn oration was pronounced, by way of eulogy, upon the remains of the deceased, and the body was interred, amidst the solemnity of the gloom. Of a sudden, it was discovered, that some symptoms of the vital spark remained, the coffin was raised, and inscribed with liberty revived. The solemnity of the scene was changed into an occasion of joy, the bells, by their lively peals, proclaimed the change, and the remainVOL. III.

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der of the day was spent in a rational rejoicing, to the great satisfaction of the people..

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The following instructions of the town of Plymouth, to their representative to that general court of Massachusetts, (whose memorable firmnes, has been noticed in her resolves,) may be worthy of record, to shew at one view the spirit, as well as the principles of the day.

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"You, Sir, represent a people, who are not only descended from the first settlers of this country, but inhabit the very spot they first possessed. Here was laid the first foundation of the British empire in this part of America, which, from a very small beginning, has increased and spread, in a manner very surprising, and almost incredible; especially when we reflect that all this has been effected without the aid or assistance of any power on earth; that we have protected, defended, and secured ourselves against the invasions and cruelties of savages, and the subtlety and inhumanity of our inveterate and natural enemies, the French; and all this without the appropriation of any tax, by stamps or stamp acts, laid upon our fellow subjects, in any part of the king's dominions, for defraying the expense thereof. This place, Sir, was at the first, the asylum of liberty, and we hope will ever be preserved sacred to it, though it was then no more than a barren wilderness, inhabited only by savage men and savage beasts. To this place our fathers, (revered be their memories,) possessed of the principles of liberty, in their purity, disdained slavery, fled to those privileges which they had an undoubted right to, but were deprived of, by the hands of violence and oppression in their native country. We, Sir, their posterity, the freeholders, and other inhabitants of this town, legally assembled for that purpose, possessed of the same sentiments, and retaining the same ardour for liberty, think it our indispensable duty on this occasion, to express to you these our sentiments of the stamp act, and its fatal

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