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march to Williamsburg, where he took a strong position, protected by his shipping, and received a reinforcement from Portsmouth. Col. Butler, with his light troops, harassed the rear of the British army with some severity, as they approached Williamsburg.

The British, in the course of these movements, destroyed more than 2000 hogsheads of tobacco, and a number of brass and iron ordnance; but they gained few recruits in Virginia.

The Marquis La Fayette watched the motions of his lordship, and checked his movements with such adroitness, as to force him to evacuate Williamsburg on the 4th of July, and retire to Portsmouth. Gen. Wayne, supposing that the main army of the British had crossed James River, moved forward with his whole force, consisting of about 800 Pennsylvania militia, and commenced a sudden attack upon what he supposed to be their rear guard; but to his surprise he discovered his lordship at the head of the main army, ready to receive him. Gen Wayne saw but one alternative, and this he adopted, and advanced to the charge at the head of his advance column, consisting of about 500 men, and the conflict became sharp for a short time; he then availed himself of this first impression, and hastily withdrew, leaving his lordship in as much surprise as he found him. No pursuit followed from a cautious fear, that this accident might be a stratagem of the marquis to draw him into an ambuscade.

His lordship crossed over in the night and effected his march to Portsmouth, and the marquis, with his little army of about 3900 regulars and militia, indulged themselves in a few days repose.



DURING the operations of the southern war, great and perplexing difficulties had nearly ruined the army under General Washington. The hard winter of 1779-80 set in early with all its severity; the North River, with all its streights, and channels, and even the harbour of New-York, were all frozen, so as to admit of an army with their heavy cannon to pass, and repass. and Sir Henry Clinton put the city of New-York in the best possible state of defence, for his own security; but General Washington was in no condition to avail himself of this unexpected event. The frequent changes in the army, owing to short enlistments, the want of discipline amongst the raw troops; the want of pay, clothing, provisions, &c. had repeatedly distressed the army, and were at last accompanied with the revolt. of the whole Pennsylvania line. In defiance to all the efforts of General Wayne, and all the other officers, they seized on six pieces of cannon, took up their march, and repaired to Princeton. Sir Henry Clinton, upon the first intelligence, made some important movements from StatenIsland, and sent spies, at the same time, to countenance and encourage the revolters, in his name, with very favourable proposals. This was not their object; they were patriotic; but determined to be heard.

A committee from Congress waited on the mutineers at Princeton, and by liberal assurances endeavoured to purchase their return to their duty; General Washington sent a strong detachment to enforce obedience, and they returned to their duty. A general arrangement was soon made to supply the armies, both with foreign and domestic, aid, and resources.

The arrival of the French fleet and armament at Newport, (Rhode Island,) has been noticed in its place; and about the middle of September, 1780, General Washington left head-quarters, with his suit, General Knox and the Marquis Lay Fayette, to meet Admiral Terney, and Count Rochambeau, at Hartford, (Connecticut,) agreeable to appointment, and on the 21st the parties met accordingly. The avowed object of this conference was, to concert measures for the reduction of New-York.

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In the midst of this conference an express arrived from the fortress at West-Point, on the Hudson, announcing the traitorous designs of General Arnold. The council was closed; the parties retired to their posts, and General Washington flew to the relief of West Point. On his arrival he found the cannon dismounted, the fortress dismantled, and that Arnold had fled and taken refuge on board of a British sloop of war, posted for the occasion.

Whilst his excellency was employed in repairing the fortress, a prisoner was announced, who proved to be the unfortunate Major Andre, who had volunteered his services to Sir Henry Clinton, to negociate this treacherous operation with General Arnold. His character was that of a spy, his fate was death! Let us pass over this distressing scene; the righteous sacrifice greatly interested the feelings, and touched the sympathy of every American breast.*

The feelings of General Washington, upon this eventful occasion, may be seen in the following extract from his private correspondence, of October 13th.

*The whole transaction between Arnold and Andre, was found in Major Andre's boot, in the hand writing of General Arnold. This contained a plan of the works at West-Point, as well as of the operations at the time of the contemplated delivery. Major Andre, gave up his name and con fessed the whole. He was executed on the 2d of October, 1780. This interesting and important transaction may be found in all the writers on the American Revolution.

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"In no instance, since the commencement, of the war has the interposition of Divine Providence appeared more remarkably conspicuous, than in the rescue of the fort and garrison at West-Point. Andre has met his fate, and with that fortitude which was to have been expected from an accomplished man and a gallant officer; but I am mistaken if Arnold is not undergoing at this time, the torments of a mental hell."

Had this plan succeeded, it would most probably have ruined the American cause; but with all the efforts of Arnold, its effects were not felt in so much as the desertion of a single soldier.

On the 3d of November, Congress, highly impressed with a sense of the merits of the three distinguished patriots who arrested Major Andre, on his return to New-York, and delivered him a captive at West-Point, passed the following resolve.

"Resolved, That Congress have a high sense of the virtuous and patriotic conduct of John Paulding, David Williams, and Isaac Van Vest; in testimony whereof, ordered, that each of them receive, annually, two hundred dollars in specie, or an equivalent in the current money of these states, during life; and that the board of war be directed to procure for each of them a silver medal, on one side of which shall be a shield with this inscription, Fidelity, and on the other the following motto-Vincit amor Patriæ, and forward them to the commander in chief, who is requested to present the same, with a copy of this resolution, and the thanks of Congress for their fidelity and the eminent service they have rendered their country."

On the 18th of December following, died at Newport, (Rhode-Island,) his Excellency Charles Louis de Ternay, VOL. III.


knight of St. John of Jerusalem, late governor of the Isles of France and Bourbon, and chief commander of the French squadron in the American seas.

He was interred in Trinity church-yard, the next day, with military honors.

All further military operations were suspended for this season, and the war raged in the West-Indies between the British and the combined fleets of France and Spain; but the limits of this work will not permit me to enter into the details of foreign war; I shall therefore wave these naval operations and pursue such only as relate more immediately to the United States.

About the 1st of May, 1781, Mr. Rivington published an intercepted correspondence between Gen. Washingington, and Gov. Hancock, in which the general represents the unparalleled sufferings, and distresses of the American army, and its dependencies, and thus concludes. "Distressed beyond expression at the present situation, and future prospects of the army, with regard to provisions, &c. from the posts of Saratoga, to that of Dobbs' Ferry inclusive, I believe there is not, (by the reports, and returns I have received,) at this moment on hand, one day's supply of meat for the army."

On the 14th of May, Gen. Washington received the painful tidings that Col. Greene, with his whole detachment had been surprised, and cut off, near Croton River, by a party of Delancey's corps, consisting of about 300 infantry and dragoons. Col. Greene was wounded, and taken prisoner, and afterwards murdered in cold blood. Maj. Flagg was killed in his quarters.

On the 6th of May, Monsieur de Barras arrived at Boston, in the Concord frigate, to succeed the Chevalier de Ternay in the command of the French squadron at Newport.

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