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for mutual congratulation; and for inviting you to join with me in profound gratitude to the Author of all good, for the numerous, and extraordinary blessings we enjoy."

Mr. Adet succeeded Mr. Fauchet in the summer, and in December he announced his diplomatic mission to the executive. On the first of January, 1796, he presented to the executive the colours of France, accompanied with a letter highly expressive of national fraternity, which was laid before Congress, and the colours, deposited in the hall of the House of Representatives, accompanied with an eloquent address to the Congress. I pass over those violent conflicts of party in the house, upon the resolutions to provide means for carrying the treaty into effect; the means were finally provided, the treaty was carried into effect, and the nation flourished under it, beyond all former example.

The president having thus surmounted all opposition, and laid the foundation of the American Republic, upon the broad basis of peace on earth, and good will to men, he next turned his attention to the benevolent act of negociating with the king of England, and the Emperor of Germany, for the liberation of his beloved friend, the Marquis La Fayette, from the prison of Olmutz.

The president having learnt that France meditated hostilities against the United States, by way of depredations upon her West-India commerce, recalled Mr. Monroe from the court of Versailles, and sent out Mr. Pinckney in his place. He next announced his resolution to retire to the walks of private life, at the close of this term, and published to the American people his valedictory address. I regret extremely that the limits of this work will not permit me to insert this address, not only on account of its own intrinsic worth; but for the extensive good it will do to every true American, who reads it with candid attention.


I shall pass over the gross intrigues that accompanied the election of a successor to President Washington, and say, that the electors gave a majority of suffrages for John Adams, as president, and Thomas Jefferson as vice-president; and President Washington retired to Mount-Vernon, under the benedictions of his country, there to enjoy, once more, the sweets of private, as well as domestic life.

Here President Washington, high raised on the summit of the temple of immortal fame, looked down with calmness, and composure, upon the strife of conflicting party, and like the guardian angel of America, offered to Heaven his fervent supplications for his distracted country.



MR. ADAMS' administration was met at the threshold, by the open indignity on the part of France, in her refusing to accept Mr. Pinckney, in exchange for Mr. Monroe. This refusal roused the sensibilities of Mr. Adams, and he immediately nominated two others, who were sent out to co-operate with Mr. Pinckney, if possible, to settle a treaty of accommodation with the Directory. This effort also failed, and Mr. Adams declared "that he would make no further overtures, until assured, that his envoys would be received in character suited to the dignity of a great, and independent nation."

This insult offered to the American government, was followed by outrage, and depredations upon her commerce, by the citizens of France; all which roused the indignation of the American people, and they expressed their feelings by this memorable sentiment-" Millions for defence; but not a cent for tribute."

Under the impression of this sentiment, the government proceeded to raise, and equip a regular provisional army of 12,000 men, and President Washington, agreeable to appointment, accepted the command-1798.

The American frigates were sent at the same time to make reprisals upon the commerce of France, which cruized with such success, that the French government expressed to the American government, through Mr. Vans Murray, minister at the Hague, that the differences between the two nations might be accommodated.

Mr. Adams met this overture promptly, and sent Mr. Davie,* and Mr. Ellsworth to join Mr. Murray at Paris, and negociate a treaty of peace. Their mission proved * Governor of Virginia. VOL. III.

+ Chief Justice of the United States.


successful, snd peace was again restored between the two nations-1799.

Although the conflicting interests and passions of party still continued to perplex the government, and distract the nation; yet the commerce, agriculture, and arts of America flourished beyond all former example, through the administration of Mr. Adams.


In March 1801, Mr. Jefferson, agreeable to the constitution, was regularly inducted into the office of president, and Mr. Burr was chosen vice-president.

Mr. Jefferson, at the commencement of his administration, took a bold stand, and commenced a system of operations hostile to the whole system of the administration of President Washington, and directly calculated to subvert it in all its fundamental principles. To effect this he made a general change of the officers of government, in the several departments;* commenced, and carried on a regular attack upon the army, the navy, the bank, the internal revenue, &c. and introduced a new order of things.

lu 1805, Mr. Jefferson was re elected president, and Mr. Clinton vice-president, and the same system of measures were continued.

During the first term of Mr. Jefferson's administration, the French consul was triumphing over all the powers in the south of Europe; and during the period of the second term, he continued his triumphs, as Emperor of France, and King of Italy, and threatened England with an alarming invasion.

The distressed, the wretched state of Europe, distracted the commerce of America, and involved the government in a labyrinth of difficulties; all which inflamed the

*See the table at the end of the volume.

feelings, and passions of party in America, which distracted the government, and the nation.

The French emperor issued his Berlin, Milan, and Bayonne decrees, and Great Britain issued her orders in council; all which struck at the fundamental principles and interest of neutral commerce, and opened in Congress. fresh, and terrible conflicts of wordy war, and arrayed the goose-quill of party in the desperate strife, throughout the nation.

To crown this mad career of politics, Col. Burr assembled a small force, on the waters of the Ohio, for the purpose of an expedition against New-Orleans, Mexico; or to form a settlement on his Washita lands, or the Lord knows what, (see Burr's Trial,) all which threw the nation into a high state of alarm, and brought Col. Burr before the circuit court at Richmond, where he was tried in due form, and acquitted-1807.

Although much breath was wantonly spent, and much ink shed, in the heat and strife of party, through this long administration, fortunately no blood was spilt, except in the death of Col. Hamilton, who was killed in a duel with Col. Burr, July 11th, 1804.

Mr. Jefferson declined a re-election, and Mr. Madison. was chosen president, and Mr. Clinton re-elected vicepresident March, 1809.

Mr. Madison commenced his administration at a most eventful era; when the French Empire had subverted almost every throue in Europe, and then shook to its centre the Republic of America.

The insults, and injuries, the American flag was then suffering, from the decrees of France, and orders in council of England, had kindled a spirit of indignation in Congress, that breathed a spirit of war, sometimes against one of those powers, and sometimes against the other, and often against both, which continued to distract the govern

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