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Ripley, universally lamented. General Drummond raised the siege, and retired to Chippewa.

Pending these operations, General Izard arrived with a reinforcement from Plattsburg, of 400 men, to support the garrison of Erie; but finding the garrison relieved by the retreat of the enemy, he ordered the fort to be demolished, and retired into winter quarters at Buffaloe;" which closed the operations of 1814.

Pending these operations in the north, a British squadron under Admiral Cockburn entered the Chesapeak, and proceeded up the Potowmac; landed a body of troops, which marched to Washington; took the city; burnt the capitol, president's house, &c. and retired, and plundered Alexandria; from thence they proceeded to Baltimore, and after an unsuccessful attack, were compelled to retire with loss.

On the 11th of September, the town of Plattsburg (state of New York) was assaulted by a land force under the command of Gen. Prevost, and a naval force under the command of Commodore Downie. The town was defended by Gen. Mc Comb, in the absence of Gen. Izard, and the harbour by a squadron under the command of Commodore Macdonough. The merits of this action, so glorious to the American navy, may be seen by the following official report from Commodore Macdonough.

United States' ship Saratoga,

off Plattsburg, Sept. 11th, 1814.)

"SIR-The Almighty has been pleased to grant us a signal victory on Lake Champlain, in the capture of one frigate, one brig, and two sloops of war.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully,


Sir, your most obedient servant.

Secretary of the Navy.


This signal victory obliged Gen. Prevost to retire with a rapid movement; the American troops pursued, and he returned into Canada.

The operations on the lines continued with various success; but nothing decisive.

On the 15th of the the same month, a small British squadron appeared before Fort Bowyer, at Mobile-Point, to co-operate with a land force of 100 marines and 400 Indians, in reducing that fortress; but such was the firmness and spirit of Capt. Lawrence, that with a garrison of 120 men he resisted the repeated attacks of the enemy, and obliged him to retire with loss, and abandon the enterprize.

Gen. Jackson at this time marched to Pensacola, (November 5th.) with a force of about 3000 men, to chastise the English, and Spaniards, who had kindled, and kept alive the war with the Indians. After destroying their forts, and dispersing the British, he returned with his force to Mobile.

The marauders of the Chesapeak retired to Bermuda, where they prepared a formidable armament, and sailed for New-Orleans, with a fleet of sixty sail, besides transports and barges. Gen. Jackson upon the first notice, marched with his brave companions in arms to the defence of the key of the western country. On the 2d of December, he reached New-Orleans, and hastened his preparations to receive the enemy. The citizens, as well as the slaves, united with the troops in the arduous duties of constructing works of defence, and the general participated in all their labours.

On the 12th of December, the fleet of the enemy appearel in the Bay of St. Louis, and the American flotilla retired up the river to a more favourable position. On the 14th, the enemy commenced an attack upon the American gun-boats, and captured the whole.

Gen. Jackson next ordered martial law to be proclaimed, and the whole militia to appear on duty.

The legislature made the necessary appropriations, and laid an embargo on all vessels then in port. On the 21st, Gen. Carrol arrived and joined Gen. Jackson with 4000 brave Tennesseeans, (yet very partially armed,) and the Barratarians arrived at this time to join the general defence. Gen. Jackson next ordered all the canals, leading to the lake, to be closed; this precaution notwithstanding, the enemy, 4000 strong, reached the high banks of the Mississippi, December 28th, where they halted to take refreshment before they entered the city, then full in their view. Gen. Jackson assembled his whole force, and marched down to meet the enemy; but did not reach them before dark after reconnoitering their position he commenced an attack, which surprised the British and threw them into disorder; but they soon rallied to the combat, and a sharp rencounter ensued. A thick fog arose which rendered it necessary to withdraw the troops, and the general retired about two miles up the river, and took his stand at his fortified position, and waited the approach of the enemy, supported by the armed schooner Caroline, then lying


in the river.

At the dawn of day the whole British army was in motion, and advanced in columns to the combat: General Jackson reserved his fire, with universal silence throughout his lines, until the enemy approached within the reach of his grape, when he opened a destructive fire from his artillery, which mowed down their ranks; these were successively closed, and the enemy continued to advance, until they came within musket shot, when the whole lines vomited forth one incessant sheet of flame from the deadly rifle, which strewed the plain with indiscriminate slaughter, and threatened the whole columns with universal ruin. The enemy broke, and fled in confusion, except a smal!

detachment who bravely advanced to the lines; but they all fell to a man. Stung with indignation, the British officers rallied their troops, and advanced again to the charge ; again they were overwhelmed with the fire of the deadly rifle, and fled for succour, and for safety, leaving the field strewed with the carnage of more than two thousand wounded, dead, and dying. Amongst this number were the general in chief, together with several other generals, and an unusual proportion of officers. The loss of the Americans in this action did not exceed 20 killed and wounded.

The British who survived, retired on board their fleet; descended the river, and proceeded to attack Fort Bowyer, which they carried, after a brave resistance; but the re-turn of peace soon restored it again to the Americans, February 18th, 1815. Thus ended this mighty war with Britain, and America bore away the palm.

On the 2d of March, 1815, war was declared by the American government against Algiers, and a squadron of eleven frigates, and armed vessels were dispatched to the Mediterranean in two divisions, under Commodores Bainbridge, and Decatur, to humble that nest of pirates; and in four months all the Barbary powers were united in treaties of peace with the United States; our own captives, and those of several European states, released; and expressions of submission from several of those powers obtained, not hitherto contemplated, and such as had never been extorted by any other nation-a just tribute to the American flag.

The nation settled down and became tranquil under the peace, and thing of importance occurred during the remainder of Mr. Madison's administration. In 1816, he declined another election, and Mr. Monroe was chosen, and entered upon the duties of his office, March 4th, 1817.

Mr. Tompkins was again chosen vice-president. Under the first term of Mr. Monroe's administration, the asperity of party greatly softened down, and the nation became more united. The chastisement of the Seminole Indians by Gen. Jackson, opened the way for the conquest of Flor ida, which also opened the way for the cession of the Floridas to the United States by Spain, in February, 1821. Florida at the same time was erected into a territorial government, and General Jackson appointed governor.

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