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with certain persons only, or classes of persons-of all monopolies created for individuals—of all taxes imposed for any purpose except to meet the necessities of the state.
He had already, with others, encountered an oligarchy which monopolized political power. He was the principal opponent of an ecclesiastical oligarchy that insisted on being established as the sole guardians of the religious life of the nation. The result of the conflict in both cases was that power remains vested in the hands of the people, and that every church is equally protected by the state, and none have special privileges. If trade monopolies are of a different character they are not the less dangerous, and no one appreciated that danger more thoroughly. In neither speeches nor writings was an uncertain sound ever given on this subject, so important to a nation's welfare.
In the month of May, 1875, the Hon. John Crawford, LieutenantGovernor of Ontario, died. Mr. Brown was known to entertain very strong views of the course pursued by the conservative government in appointing Mr. Crawford after they ceased to command the confidence of parliament and they had, in fact, resigned office, and of Mr. Crawford's course in accepting that office under the circumstances. He was invited to the inaugural ceremonies at Government House, but declined to accept the invitation for the reasons given in the following letter:
TORONTO, 11th Nov., 1873.
MY DEAR MR. CRAWFORD,-A note has been sent me requesting my attendance at Government House to-morrow on the occasion of your being sworn in as Lieutenant-Governor.
It would have afforded me great pleasure to be present on the occasion, could I have done so consistently with my views of the manner of your appointment. I hold that the Lieutenant-Governor should be regarded by all parties from a non-political stand-point, without reference to the side of the political arena on which he was ranged before his appointment; and there is no member of the conservative party whose appointment by his own political friends to the office would have been more agreeable to me than your own. But the circumstances attending your appointment appear to me so unconstitutional, so much to be deprecated, that it would be worse than inconsistent were I to attend the ceremony to-morrow.
While I feel thus in regard to the official ceremony of your inauguration, I trust you will believe that no change has occurred in our personal relations, and that when you are duly installed in your high office, no political feeling will stand in the way of those marks of respect and consideration to which you will be entitled socially and in public.
I am, my Dear Sir, yours faithfully,
JOHN CRAWFORD, ESQ., Toronto.
The position was at once offered to Mr. Brown, and he was urged by many friends to accept it. While the offer of the chief office under the Crown in his own province was peculiarly gratifying to him, he declined the honour after one day's consideration, but without assigning any reason for his determination. There is, however, no reason
to doubt that he felt he could not, with his strict notions of propriety, be the principal proprietor, and, nominally at least, editor-in-chief of the leading political journal, and at the same time LieutenantGovernor of the province. It was, however, as gratifying to his friends everywhere as it could be to himself, that his political friends at Ottawa had given him the offer of the highest place in the province for which he had done so much. Chiefly to his long labours was it due that it was possible to have such a position to place at his disposal, and there can be no doubt that had he accepted it the appointment would have been acceptable to all classes of the population. With this offer he had either received, or might have received, all the honours his fellow-countrymen could bestow. He had been many years in parliament as one of Ontario's representatives; he was Prime Minister of old Canada, and a senator of the Dominion; the Queen had already honoured him by appointing him a joint plenipotentiary at Washington; and a year afterwards he might have been elevated to the rank of knighthood as a K. C. M. G., had he consented to accept that honour.
There was no more attached adherent of the British monarchyno more devoted admirer of Her Majesty as Queen of Britain-than Mr. Brown, and he was not disposed to regard with indifference the honours dispensed by the Crown, however much he might blame ministers for their distribution. Under appropriate circumstances he might, and no doubt would, have accepted a title of honour. In 1879 he was again proffered a title as K. C. M. G. For some reason it was then fully expected that he would accept it, and his name was actually gazetted on that assumption. His Excellency the Governor-General was commissioned by Her Majesty to confer the title, and he appointed a meeting at Montreal for the purpose of formally investing Mr. Brown and some others with the insignia of the order. He went to Montreal to meet His Excellency, but only to thank him in person for the offer and to give a formal declinature in writing. It was known that Mr. Brown was strongly urged by many liberals of the most pronounced character, such as the late Mr. Holton, to accept this second offer, but these influences failed to convince him that the circumstances would justify him in accepting the title which some men are so anxious to obtain and honour so little.
MR. BROWN'S ASSASSINATION.-UNIVERSAL SYMPATHY AND SORROW.THE FUNERAL OBSEQUIES.
On the 25th of March, 1880, George Bennett, an employé in the Globe office, who had just been discharged by the foreman for habitual tippling and gross neglect of his duties, went to Mr. Brown's office to demand a certificate of character.
When Bennett was invited by Mr. Brown to come in he did so, and proceeded to shut the door behind him. Mr. Brown thinking his movements singular, stopped him and asked what he wanted. The man seemed to hesitate, but at last presented a paper and asked Mr. Brown to sign it, remarking that it was a statement that he had been employed in the Globe office for five years. Mr. Brown said he should apply to the head of his department for the certificate, as he (Mr. Brown) was not aware of the length of his services. Bennett replied that the head of the department would not give it to him. Mr. Brown then told him to apply to Mr. Henning, the treasurer of the company, who had the books, and could tell how long he had been employed. Bennett made no reply, but insisted upon Mr. Brown signing his paper with much vehemence.
On Mr. Brown continuing to refuse, Bennett began fumbling apparently at his pistol pocket, whereupon it passed through Mr. Brown's mind, as he himself said, "that the little wretch might be meaning "to shoot me." He got his pistol out, however, and then Mr. Brown seized him by the wrist and turned his hand downward. He had got the weapon cocked befored his hand was seized, and at once pulled the trigger, the muzzle being pointed downwards. The ball struck Mr. Brown on the outer side of the left thigh, taking a slanting direction, and passing through four inches below and towards the back of the leg. Mr. Brown, to prevent more firing, closed with his assailant, and in the struggle they got outside the door of the office on the stair landing. Mr. Brown got Bennett firmly pressed against the partition wall of the waiting room and called for assistance. By this time the alarm was given in the office, and a number of employés rushed to Mr. Brown's aid and seized the assassin. It would appear that Mr. Brown himself took the pistol from him, while Mr. A. Thompson and Mr. Ewan held him fast. Mr. Brown walked back into the office, carrying the weapon, apparently not seriously hurt. There is little
doubt that Mr. Brown's struggle with the wretch alone prevented him finishing his work, as he tried repeatedly to fire off his pistol after Mr. Brown seized him.
The shock to the system from the shot, and the intense nervous excitement consequent on the struggle with the armed assassin, had a very injurious effect, and materially retarded his hoped-for recovery. Mr. Brown was removed at once to his private residence, and medical aid summoned. A fatal result was not anticipated by any one. Mr. Brown himself made light of the wound, and firmly believed that a few days' rest and care would set him all right again. His restless energy was probably quickened afresh by the nervous excitement, which never left him, as shown by his determination to transact business in his room. There was indeed no reason for apprehensions of evil, though the possibilty of a serious turn was clear to every one; he was still in the fulness of his strength, and his cheerful, hopeful, sanguine nature must have been a favourable element looking to recovery.
The excitement through the country was very great as soon as the murderous assault was made known. This was particularly the case at Ottawa, where so many of his old political friends were gathered together for their parliamentary duties. When it was ascertained that, though the wound was serious, there was no likelihood of the danger proving very great, a great sense of relief was felt by every one on both sides of the House. When two weeks passed with no improvement, an uneasy feeling again became predominant; and one ev evening, when evil tidings respecting the patient's condition reached the House, there was no disposition among his friends to pursue their ordinary legislative duties.
The next morning telegrams were received which stated that the former report was not warranted, and that his early recovery was confidently anticipated. The writer well remembers the feeling of unalloyed pleasure which was expressed on all faces by the reassuring messages. The hope and pleasure so inspired were soon to be dashed to the earth, not suddenly, but slowly, steadily and gradually. Bright intervals occurred, and seeming progress made now and then, only to be succeeded with deeper gloom. Like the descending of the sun in a cloudy evening, while passing behind a cloud, the earth is enveloped in gloom; presently an opening appears in the cloudy pall, and the light streams out lighting up glen and mountain. Nearing the horizon, the greater compactness of the vapoury shade makes the glimpses of sunshine more and more brief, while the waning daylight shows the inevitable and near approach of night. So with the invalid: day after day developed some new sign of possible progress; physician and friend thought, as some fresh display of reserved physical strength
and mental power was made, that there might be--there would be--a slow restoration. But soon the symptoms of increasing exhaustion would reappear, and close observers saw with sorrow that each day on the whole left him weaker than he was on the preceding one; and unless this continuous uniform loss of strength could be arrested, it was apparent to all that there could be but one result, though his own sanguine temperament and the illusive hopes of near friends buoyed the spirits of all inquirers to a belief that the probabilities were in favour of his recovery.
Hopes were entertained by the attendant physicians of his ultimate recovery up to within a few days of his death. His natural energy asserted itself in his illness, overcoming in the desperate struggle for life the nervous exhaustion and the waste of the system caused by the wound. The members of his family, who were in constant attendance upon him, were less sanguine as to the final result for the greater part of the time of his illness. Except for the first eight or ten days, he was afflicted by delirium and such clouding of his mental powers as made it unadvisable to add to his weakness by interviews with any but his medical attendants and members of the family. Throughout he hoped he would recover, but at the same time he felt that the chances were even, if not against him. Often in the stillness of his bedchamber he was heard, when he thought that none but God was near, praying earnestly for recovery in order to finish'his work, but always expressing his resignation to God's will if it should be otherwise ordered. About two weeks before his death, at a time when his family and medical attendants entertained the most serious apprehensions, he had a long conversation with Dr. Greig, his old pastor, and members of his family, all of whom he had gathered round his bed. In that conversation he spoke freely to them of his faith and hope, and, we are told, poured out his soul in a full and fervent prayer. He then asked them to sing some psalms or hymns, and in particular the well-known one, "Rock of Ages," in the singing of which he warmly joined. It was evident that his mind dwelt much on the future, and that while he desired that his life might be spared for his family, the hopes of the Christian burnt brightly within, and enabled him to look forward without fear to a possible unsuccessful issue of his illness. For about a week previous to his death it could scarcely be said that any one expected his recovery, though some of his physicians still thought it possible. The intervals of consciousness were gradually becoming less frequent and also more brief, but during their continuance they were characterized by inexpressible tenderness and love to the members of his family, all of whom he recognized almost to the last, even when, through growing weakness, the tongue refused its office of communicating to them his thoughts, hopes and desires. No