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Between nine and ten of the clock, A. M., on the 19th of November, 1586, being the Lord's day, Henry Barrowe, in company with a Mr. Hull, went to the Clink prison, to visit Mr. Greenwood and other brethren there confined. They had not been together "the space of one quarter of an hour," when the keeper, Mr. Shepherd, came in, rebuked Mr. Greenwood for holding the interview, and arrested Mr. Barrowe; and though without warrant, locked him up; saying, "he had commandment from his Lord's Grace so to do;" and that if Barrowe was wronged, he might bring an action.

The archbishop was immediately informed of the arrest; and, Sunday though it was, about one o'clock dispatched two pursuivants with a letter de catchet, with the keeper of the prison, to bring the hated leader of the Separatists to Lambeth. Barrowe refused to recognize, or even to read the archbishop's letter; saying, he was already under the arrest of the keeper of the Clink. Arrived at the palace, after one of the pursuivants had communicated with "his Lord's Grace," the pris

much we can affirm, from those that knew him, that he was very comfortable to the poor and those in distress, and in their sufferings, and when he saw he must die, he gave a stock for the rehief of the poor of the church, which was a good help to them in their banished condition afterwards, yea, and that which some will hardly believe, he did much persuade them to peace, and composed many difficulties that were grown up amongst them whilst he lived, and would have, it is like, prevented more that after fell out, if he had continued." - Bradford in Young. 434.

oner was brought into the august presence; and the archbishop began upon him, by asking if his name was Barrowe; and why he refused to receive and obey his letter, sent by one of his pursuivants? Barrowe replied: "Because I was under arrest, and imprisoned without warrant; and therefore it was too late to bring the letter." He was then asked if he would swear. Barrowe replied: "I hold it lawful to swear, so it be done with due order and circumstances." A Bible was then brought, and he was told to lay his hand on it. But he refused, saying he swore by no books. After a long discussion on this point, the archbishop asked if he would swear without the book. Barrowe replied: "I will know what I swear to before I swear." Finding he could make nothing in this direction, the archbishop waived the point, and proceeded to examine his prisoner without swearing him.

"Archbishop. It was reported that you come not to church, are disobedient to her majesty, and say that there is not a true church in England.

Barrowe. These are reports: when you produce your testimony I will answer.

Arch. But I will better believe you upon your oath, than them. Will you swear?

Bar. I will first know and consider of the matter before I take an oath.

Arch. Well, when were you at church?

Bar. That is nothing to you.

Arch. You are a schismatic, a recussant, a sedi

tious person. I will not only meddle with you, but arraign you as a heretic before me.

Bar. You shall do no more than God will. Err I may; but heretic will I never be.

Arch. Will you come to church hereafter?

Bar. Future things are in the Lord's hands: if I do not, you have a law."

After some further conversation on this point, and a repetition of the charge of heresy, sedition, and schism, the archbishop proceeded to question him as to his occupation, residence, birthplace, mode of living, family, etc.; all which elicited but short and unsatisfactory replies for His Grace Barrowe was then asked, if he would give bonds to frequent the churches hereafter; and to appear in the archbishop's court when called for. Barrowe refused to do this; but offered to put in a bond for his bail in prison, and for his true imprisonment. This the archbishop would not accept; and made out a warrant for the prisoner's recommittal. And thus ended Mr. Barrowe's first examination.*

To this account of his examination, written by himself soon after it occurred, as near as his memory served him, Barrowe adds: "So the archbishop delivered me to the pursuivant, to carry me to the Gatehouse, where I as yet remain, neither knowing the cause of my imprisonment, neither have I as yet heard from him." +

*Harleian Misc. 11. 12-16.

† 16. 11. 16.

On the 27th of November, eight days after his committal to the Gatehouse, Mr. Barrowe was brought, a second time, to Lambeth, before the high commissioners. Here, he says: "I found a very great train without; but within, a goodly synod of bishops, deans, civilians, etc., besides such an appearance of well-fed, silken priests as I suppose might well have beseemed the Vatican; where, after, to my no small grief, I had heard a schoolmaster deny his Master, Christ. I was called. Canterbury, with a grim and angry countenance beholding me, made discourse how I refused to swear on a book, etc., as fell out on our first meeting and demanded whether I were now better advised, and would swear. I answered, that I would not refuse to swear upon due occasion and circumstances." Then ensued the following interlocution:

"Canterbury. Will you then now swear? Barrowe. I must first know to what.

Cant. So you shall afterward.

Bar. I will not swear unless I know before. Cant. Well, I will thus far satisfy your humor. London [the bishop of London] began to interrupt; but Canterbury cut him off, and produced a paper against me, which he delivered to one Beadle to read. It contained much matter, and many sug gestions against me, disorderly framed, according to the malicious humor of mine accuser, as: 'That I denied God to have a true church in England;' and to prove this, the four principal causes framed

in way of argument, as-The worship of God with us is idolatry; ergo, no true church: They have an antichristian and idolatrous ministry; ergo, no true church; further he saith, that the Reverend Father in God, my Lord Grace of Canterbury, and all the bishops, are antichristian. Further he saith, that all the ministers of the land are thieves and murderers, and secret hypocrites; and that all the preachers of the land are hirelings: that Mr. Wigginton and Cartwright strain at a gnat and swallow a camel. Further, he condemneth all writers, as Calvin, Beza, etc., and saith, that all catechisms are idolatrous and not to be used.' The reasons to these were untruly and disorderly set down accordingly in the bill, which I cannot rehearse."

This paper having been read, the talking was resumed:

"London. How say you Mr. Dean of Paul's; here is for you. You have written a catechism.

Cant. This fellow deals indifferently and he makes us all alike. Thus far I have satisfied you. Now you know what you shall swear unto. How say you will you swear now?

Lon. My Lord's Grace doth show this favor to many.

Cant. Fetch a book.

Bar. It is needless.

Cant. Why, will you not swear now?

Bar. An oath is a matter of great importance, and it requireth great consideration. But I will

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