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this land unto them, in the people, the ministry, administration, order, government, etc. This way cannot deceive us; for neither can the simplest err therein, neither any polluted, how subtle and cunning soever, pass by it unespied, unreproved. For, as there is but one Truth, so whatever is divers more or less than that Truth—is faulty and to be repented."

Touching the doctrine, "that a Christian prince, which publisheth and maintaineth the gospel, doth forthwith make all that realm, which with open force resisteth not his proceedings, to be held a church, to whom a holy ministry and sacraments belong, without further and more particular and personal trial, examination, confession, etc."- Barrowe objected: "This doctrine we find, by the word of God, to be most false, corrupt, unclean, dangerous, and pernicious doctrine, contrary to the whole course, practice, and laws, both of the Old and New Testament; breaking at once all Christian order, corrupting and poisoning all Christian communion and fellowship, and sacrilegiously profaning the holy things of God.” *

He held most distinctly, that all church power was in the hands of the membership of the church, in distinction from the church officers, or church courts, as follows: "Now then, seeing every member hath interest in the public actions of the church, and together shall bear blame for the defaults of

* Hanbury, 1. 40.

the same; and seeing all our communion must be in the truth, and that we are not to be drawn, by any, into any willing or known transgressions of God's law who can deny but every particular member hath power, yea, and ought to examine the manner of administering the sacraments; as also the estate, disorder, or transgressions of the whole church; yea, and not to join in any known transgression with them; but rather to call them all to repentance; [and] if he find them obstinate, and hardened in their sin, rather to leave their fellowship than to partake with them in wicked


Respecting the officers of the church, he says: "The ministry appointed unto the government and service of the church of Christ, we find to be of two sorts; Elders and Deacons. The Elders, some of them, to give attendance unto the public ministry of the word and sacraments; as the Pastor and Teacher. The other Elders, together with them, to give attendance to the public order and government of the church. The Deacons to attend the gathering and distributing the goods of the church." †

The objections of the early Congregationalists to a prescribed and stinted form of worship, and to the undue exaltation of the Book of Common Prayer, are thus summarily and strongly expressed by Barrowe: "To let pass what, in times past,

* Hanbury, 1. 41.

↑ Zb. 42.

this Book hath been, how it hath been used, either by the pope or those bishops; we find it now to be the very groundwork of their faith, church, and ministry; in place, to them, of the word of God, as from whence they fetch all their directions for all things. Yea, herein above the word of God, in that, from hence they fetch not only their rules whereby to do things, but even the very things themselves that they do; as their liturgy, etc. So far is this book from being subject to the word of God, as it, in all things, overruleth the word of God, dismembereth, rendeth, corrupteth, perverteth, abuseth it to their stinted matins and evensong, to their idol days, fasts, feasts, etc.: yea, the word of God may not be taught but where this book hath first been read, and hath the preëminence."


After alluding to the assertion of churchmen, that "the heavenly order and ordinances which Christ hath appointed, in his Testament," for the government and discipline of his church," are but accidental," and that a church may take another order of government, and other ordinances, Barrowe indicates his strong dislike of Presbyterianism; which he calls "a new adulterate, forged government, in show, or rather in despite of Christ's government." He objects to "their pastoral suspension from their sacraments, their continued synods, their select classes of ministers, their settled

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supreme council," and that the "people of the churches be shut out, and neither be made acquainted with the matters debated there, neither have free voice in those synods and councils."

He then adds: "The ancient ways' of the Lord are the only true ways; whatsoever is second, or diverse, is new and false. This I say, because both of these factions, of our pontifical and reforming priests, have sought rather to the broken pits, and dry cisterns of men's inventions, for their direction and ground-work, than unto the pure fountain of God's word."

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The energy and activity of these brave, bold men are further illustrated by another of their publications, in 1591, with a dedication to Lord Burleigh, entitled: "A Plain Refutation of Mr. Giffard's Book, intitled, 'A short Treatise 'gainst the Donatists of England' ['whom we call Brownists']; wherein is discovered the Forgery of the whole Ministry; the Confusion, false Worship, and antichristian Disorder of these Parish Assemblies, called the Church of England.' Here also is prefixed, a sum of the causes of our Separation, and of our Purposes in Practice, 1591." This work was privately printed at Middleburg. While in the printers' hands, it was discovered by the Rev. Francis Johnson, "a preacher to the Company of English of the Staple" in that city. Johnson was a zealous opponent of the Separat

*Hanbury, 1. 45-47.

↑ Zb. 51.

ists, and was employed by the English ambassador to seize and destroy the work. To do this more effectually, he allowed the workmen to go on until they had finished the book, ready for delivery; when the whole impression was seized and committed to the flames, Johnson standing by to see the work thoroughly done. Out of curiosity, he saved two copies of the book, one for himself, and the other for a special friend. On going home, Johnson began to turn over the pages of the book cursorily, reading here and there a paragraph. At length his attention was arrested, and "something began to work upon his spirits," and induce him to read carefully the entire book. After he had done this, "once again, he was so taken, and his conscience was troubled so," that he could not rest until he had crossed the seas and visited the imprisoned authors of the book in London. This conference confirmed the impression which the book had made, and Mr. Johnson renounced his ministry at Middleburg, united himself with the Separatists in London, and became a great sufferer for the truth. He afterwards published an edition of this work at his own expense. This second edition appeared in 1605, accompanied by " An Advertisement," explaining the circumstances of its republication. To this was added some Observations on Giffard's last Reply, making a volume of two hundred and sixty-four quarto pages.†

* Bradford's Dialogue.

† Hanbury, 1. 51.

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