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so, much less to put them again right which Charles was received on his en. when they have gone wrong. The try into his metropolis, there were in constitutionalists, therefore, in the ap- the House of Commons many of vaproaching collision of parties, might rious factions, “ who did all promise be considered, in a great measure, as themselves some liberty and indulneutrals, whom each party endeavour- gence for their several parties." Nor ed to draw to their side, who were in was there wanting a discontented army, many cases suspended in opinion by which the king could not new model

, the contradictory arguments address- and dared hardly venture to disband. ed to them, and were, generally speak. And if, instead of that Lambert, to ing, decided by the prudential consi- whom most of them looked as their derations which render it more safe to natural head, Cromwell himself had adhere to the party which happens to been alive, and exercising the protecgain the superiority.

torate of the isle of Jersey, the follow. Such was the state of parties in ing passage in Clarendon would be an France, in which it was obvious they exact description of the state of the could not long continue, without some French army. But the coincidence, violent and probably fatal collision. as it exists, is sufficiently striking. Let not the reader suppose, with the “ But the delay in disbanding the natural feelings of English pride, that army, how unavoidable soever, did ex. versatility of disposition, ingratitude ceedingly afflict him, (the restored mofor the great blessing of Providence narch), and the more, because for ma. in the restoration of a lawful monarch, ny reasons he could not urge it nor commilitary insolence, and popular disaf- plain of it. He knew all the ill constitufection, are attributes peculiarly flow- tion of the army, the distemper and ing from the national character of the murmuring that was in it, and how maFrench. These are weeds which, in ny diseases and convulsions their infant every country and climate, rush up af- loyalty was subject to; that how uniter the cessation of such a tornado ted soever their inclinations and accla. as preceded the restoration of the mations seem to be at Blackheath, Bourbons, and the faithful page of their affections were not the same ; Clarendon exhibits them as rising in and the very countenance of many of their falal luxuriance after that officers as well as soldiers did sufficientCharles II. There is not a point of ly manifest that they were drawn thihis narrative which has not a corres ther to a service they were not delightponding feature with that of France ed in. The general (Monk) had disat this period. It describes the selfish missed many officers who hé thought and greedy egotism of those called the might be willing and able to cross his king's party, who, instead of waiting designs and purposes, when he should until the public disorders were ap- think fit to discover them, and conferpeased, and the peace of the kingdom red their charges and commands upon settled, embittered the first moment those who had been distavoured by of the king's return by pressing on him the late power; and after the parliatheir unreasonable, or unseasonable ment had declared for and proclaimed requests for offices and titles, until the king, he cashiered others and gave they compelled him to lament even their offices to some eminent comthe happy restoration that rendered manders who had served the king; him liable to such persecution. Again, and gave others of the loyal nobility the noble historian informs us, that, leave to list volunteers in companies notwithstanding the general joy with to appear with them at the reception

of the king, who had all met and join- notable service; and none had more ed with the army upon Blackheath, in esteem of themselves, and believed prethe head of their regiments and com ferment to be more due to them, than a panies. Yet, notwithstanding all this sort of men who had most loudly beprovidence, the old soldiers had little gan the king's health in taverns, csregard for their new officers, at least pecially if, for any disorders which had had no resignation for them, and it accompanied it, they had suffered imquickly appeared, by the select and prisonment, without any other preaffected mixtures of sullen and me. tence of merit or running any other lancholic parties of officers and sol- hazard." diers, that as ill-disposed men of other Neither had the revolutionary chanclasses were left as had been disband- ges of the civil war, and the interreg. ed, and that much the greater part so num which set all selfish passions afmuch abounded with ill humours, that float, and taught most men the same it was not safe to administer a general indifference for his neighbour's misery, purgation. How close soever Lam- with which a sailor regards his drownbert himself was secured from doing ing comrades during a shipwreck, failmischief, his faction was at liberty, ed to produce its fatal and inevitable and very numerous; his disbanded of effects in depraving the national chaficers and soldiers mingled and coni racter. The words of the noble hisversed with their old friends and com torian are so immediately applicable to panions, and found too many of them the state of France, that they may be possessed with the same spirit.” quoted at length, in order to complete

The disunion of those called the this remarkable parallel. king's friends, with the importunities “ In a word, the nation was corrupof the least deserving, and the neglect ted from that integrity, good nature, of those who had really sustained loss- and generosity that had been peculiar es, and merited favour, existed in to it, and for which it had been signal England among the Cavaliers of 1660, and celebrated throughout the world; as well as in France among the Royals in the room whereof the vilest craft ists of 1815.

and dissembling had succeeded. The “They,” says Clarendon, “who had tenderness of the bowels, which is the suffered much in their fortune, and by quintessence of justice and compassion, frequent imprisonments, and seques- the very mention of good nature was trations, and compositions, expected laughed at, and looked upon as the large recompences and reparations in mark and character of a tool; and a honours which they could not support, roughness of manner, or hard-heartedor offices which they could not dis ness and cruelty, was affected. charge, or lands and money which the “ In the place of generosity, a vile king had not to give. They who had and sordid love of mor.ey was entertainbeen without comparison the greatest ed as the truest wisdom, and any thing sufferers in their fortunes, and in all esteemed lawful that would contribute respects hadmerited most, never made towards being rich. There was a total any inconvenient suits to the king, but decay, or rather a final extinction of modestly left the memory and consi- all friendship, and to dissuade a man deration of all they had done, or under- from any thing he affected, or to regone, to his majesty's own gracious re- prove him for any thing he had done Hecțions. They were observed to be amiss, or to advise him to do any thing nost importunate who deserved least, he had no mind to do, was thought an and were least capable to perform any impertinence unworthy of a wise man,

and received with reproach and con- institutions, which served to balance tempt. These dilapidations and ruins the power of the crown, and to disof the ancient candour and discipline, tinguish between the government of were not taken enough at heart, and Louis XV. and an absolute despotism, repaired with that early care and se were irretrievabiy demolished. The verity that they might have been, for ephemeral institutions of the revoluthey were not incorrigible; but by tion were still farther from affording the remiseness of applying remedies a rallying point, and with the ruins to some, and the unwariness in giving of ten successive constitutions lying a kind of countenance to others, too around them, the political architects much of that poison insinuated itself could select little that might be uselül into minds not well fortified against as materials in a new structure. The such inflictions, so that much of the charter, therefore, laboured under all malignity was transplanted, instead of the disadvantages of an experimental being extinguished, to the corruption measure, the subject of criticism to all of many wholesome bodies, which cor- factions, and of reverence to none. ruption spread the disease more power The high pretensions to religion fully and more mischievously." among the English puritans, though

But although the state of England in many instances hypocritical, served so nearly resembled that of France, at to keep one part of the kingdom the same critical period of history, she strangers to gross and open profligacy, was more fortunate in several points, and if they did not restrain the ego which enabled her to resist the conta. tism, pride, deceit, and avarice of the gion, to which France so nearly fella fathers, at least insured to the children victim.

the benefits of a sober, severe, and reliThe death of Cromwell, and the ex• gious education, and prevented the istence of Bonaparte, we have already manners of the nation from becom. noticed as a marked point of distinc. ing utterly and openly depraved by tion.

license and sensuality. But above all

, The Cavaliers also, though ruined and Louis XVIII. wanted what he would impoverished, remained most of them have better known how to prize than in possession of their paternal estates, Charles-the services of such a minisand the natural influence was attached ter as the disinterested and the sagato them, which had been transferred cious Clarendon, wise to foresee, firm to from the French royalists, and was meet, and skilful to repress or elude vested in others, whom the very appre- the evils growing out of the orerhensjon of the claims of the einigrants strained expectations of some, the rendered hostile to the royal family. fears and jealousies of others, the dis

The English also might at the Re- content of a third class, and the genestoration of Charles rally around the ral deterioration of national character, ancient forms of their constitution, which he saw with the eye of an able which had been violated indeed, but statesman, and recorded with the pen not obliterated, and still commanded of a faithful historian. The want of ihe reverence due to the social system such a sage and disinterested minister of their fathers. But in France there was, in all human probability, the prinwas no such resource. Even the most cipal cause that the fortunes of France staunch royalist must have despaired to and of the House of Bourbon were a reinstate the ancient monarchy, since second time committed to the bloody the parliaments, the privileges of the arbitrement of the sword. clergy and nobles, and all other Gothic

9

CHAP. VII.

Report on the State of France. The Finance. The War Establishment. The

Navy-Moral State of the Country.Debate on the Liberty of the Press. Faure's Motion for a previous Censorship-Opposed by Marshal Macdonald. -Adopted in a Modified State.Reflections on these Restrictions.--Petition of Ferri, and other Booksellers, to the Chamber of Deputies.-Characters of some of the Censors. Conduct of Incendiary Authors and Publishers to evade the Law. Affairs of the Maire of Darnae, and the ancient Seigneur Marshal Macdonald's Plan for granting Indemnities to the Emigrants, and paying the Pensions of the veteran Soldiers. Though the political atmosphere of and children have been hurried off to France appeared to present symptoms die 400 leagues from their fathers. of future tempestuous change, the first No hope of return soothed this frightmonths of the restored monarch's ful separation; habit had caused it to reign were calm and undisturbed. be regarded as eternal; and the peaThere appeared even signs of reviving sants of Britany, after conducting their prosperity, which the royal ministers sons to the place of separation, have endeavoured to enhance by contrast. been seen to return to their churches ing them with the state of public af- to put up for them by anticipation the fairs at the restoration of Louis the prayers for the dead !" Desired.

The details corresponding to this A report on the state of the nation, fearful exordium, the multiplication of by the minister of the interior, painted levies, and the consumption of life in the strongest colours the miseries had been such, that, including the of Buonaparte's subjects, and may be levy en masse of 1814, to the number long consulted as an antidote to the of"143,000 men, which had not been

“ War," said the fully executed, the sum total of con. Abbé de Montesquieu," was doubtless scription amounted, in the course of

cause of the fils of France. about two years or little more, to no History presented not any example of less than one million three hundred a great nation incessantly' precipitated thousand souls. It is not too much, against it will into enterprises con- therefore, to suppose, that one milstantly increasing in bazard and dis- lion, the

Aower of the youth and mantress. The world saw with astonish- hood of France, perished by fatigue, ment, mingled with terror, a civilized disease, and the edge of the sword, people compelled to exchange its hap. within that brief space. plness and repose for the wandering Notwithstanding this drain of populife of barbarous hordes. The ties of lation, the state of agriculture, which families were broken; fathers have had received a strong impulse by the grown old far from their children; subdivision of great landed estates,

thirst of conquest. the principal

to

to

In 1813

continued to flourish. The mines all the resources which could be ex were prosperous, even manufactures torted from the other nations of Eu and commerce were beginning to re rope, bad, after the commencemen vive, although hampered by prohibit of his misfortunes, and while he wa ing laws concerning export and im- compelled to seek all the necessary port, and nearly ruined by what Buo. funds from the bosom of France her naparte called his continental system. self, been plunged into a complete

The various funds appropriated to chaos. The report states, “ On the the service of the ministry of the inte. Ist of May last, (1814), the land forces rior amounted,

of France amounted to more than five Ja 1811

143 millions, hundred and twenty thousand men, inIn 1812

150 millions. cluding gend-armerie, veterans, invato 140 millions.

lids, and cannoniers, guarding the But to this expenditure the public coasts. Besides this force, there are treasury only contributed about 60 122.597 military of all ranks enjoying millions yearly at the utmost ; the rest half-pay. One hundred and sixty thouwas made up by taxes of various kinds sand prisoners are returning to us from in the departments, and the funds so Prussia, Austria, England, and Russia. naised were often withdrawn from the The staff of the army, including engipurposes of the interior administra- neers, inspectors, commissaries, &c. tion, and applied to the more pressing amounts to 1874 individuals. demands of military operations. In

The

pay, &c. of men in active service for order to supply the deficiences thus

1814, amounts to

202,000,000 occasioned, many expenses which Half-pay, &c. to

$4,000,000 should have been borne by the general funds of the state, as salaries of

Total, 236,000,000 police administrators, expense of the The war of 1812 and 1813 destroy. barracks, &c. were thrown upon the ed, in artillery and ammunition, a carevenues of the communes, who, to pital of 250 millions; and the fortified defray these exorbitant charges, were places in the countries ceded by compelled to increase the poll-tax, France, had, since 1804, cost her 115 called communal octrois, until it was millions. The budget of the war mi. averaged at about seven livres (five nistry, properly so called, had been shillings and ten-pence) a-head upon fixed under all heads, for 1814, at 360 each inhabitant, and in some cities millions. But in consequence of a di. even amounted to seventeen livres, (or vision which had existed some years, fourteen shillings and two-peace), there was, besides the department of The state of the poor and of the hos the ministry at war, that of the war pitals, thus plundered of all the tangi- administration. The expences of this ble funds destined to support them, last were in 1812, 238,000,000 francs ; was represented as most deplorable; in 1813, 374,000,000; and in 1814 and the state of the roads and bridges, they will be 380,000,000; which last as neglected by the late government, sun will, for 1814, occasion a total und destroyed in the course of the inexpense, in these two branches, of vasion.

740 millions. The expenses of the war establish The arrear also of these two ment being the very root of the evil, branches is enormous: That of the complicated as they were during Buo- ministry at war amounts, according Laparte's prosperity, and while he had to present statements, to 104,000,000;

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