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CHAP. X.

The Cities and Provinces of France declare for Buonaparte. Failure of the

Duke of Bourbon's Enterprize in La Vendee.-Duchess of Angouleme driven from Bourdeaux.-Duke of Angouleme compelled to surrender in the South. -Buonaparte proposes Peace to the Allies. - Declaration of the Congress at Vienna.-Treaty of Alliance between Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain.--Message of the Prince Regent to the House of Commons, and Debate which followed thereupon.-Motion respecting Buonaparte's Escape from Elba— And Debate which ensued.-Mr Whitbread's Motion against War with France, and the Debate.-Debate on the Treaty of Alliance. Mr Whitbread's Amendment.

The occupation of Paris has, during army in that faithful province. But all revolutionary changes, decided the owing, as has been asserted, to the fate of France. No country so little previous measures of Marechal Soult, possesses the wish or the power of while minister at war and governor of holding different opinions from those this department, La Vendee was filled which emanate from the capital. At with soldiers attached to Buonaparte, the instigation of treacherous magi. so judiciously posted as effectually to strates, or under fear of their garri- prevent any immediate rising of the sons, or by the acclamation of the inhabitants, and the Duke of Bourbon mub, the principal cities of France saw himself under the necessity of declared successively their adhesion abandoning his enterprise. to Buonaparte. In some cities, and He sailed from Nantes, ac

March 26. particularly in Orleans, where Gene- companied by about forty ral Gouvion de St Cyr acted for the officers, and the town was king, and General Pajol for Buona- instantly afterwards occupied by Gen. parte, the two parties alternately ob- Morand, an aid-de-camp of Buonatained the superiority, and the walls parte, who published a most violent were covered at the same time with proclamation against the Bourbons royal and imperial proclamations; but and their adherents. the Buonapartists evinced most en In the south, the cause of the Bourergy, and possessed most military bons seemed to have been best supstrength; and therefore, in this and all ported, and the conduct of the Duchess other instances, finally triumphed. of Angouleme, in particular, was wor

The Duke of Bourbon had gone to thy the descendant of a long line of La Vendee, in hopes to levy a royalist monarchs. This princess, with her

mass.

husband, was on a progress through given by an eye-witness.* the south of France, when they were three or four carriages along surprised by the intelligence of Buo. her, filled with her attendants, naparte's disembarkation. The Duke was escorted by a party of the of Angouleme hastened to avail him. tional guards. Their entry into Po self of the zeal wiich the inhabitants lac formed very mournful proce of Provence, and particularly of Mar. sion; she herself looked deadly pa seilles, testified for the royal cause; although seemingly calm and ca while the duchess remained to en lected. We saw many of the office courage the inhabitants of Bourdeaux, of the national guard crowding rout who had so early declared for the her with tears in their eyes. Ther Bourbons in the preceding campaign. was a little chapel close to where The inhabitants and national guard were lodged, and while the other la of that city, under the direction of dies went down to the frigate to pre Lynch, their loyal and faithful mayor, pare for the embarkation, we hear showed the best possible disposition; that the duchess herself had gone to and the princess stood forth among After we imagined that thu them, like one of those heroic women service would be nearly concluded of the age of chivalry, whose looks two of the ladies of our party entered and words were able in moments of the chapel, and placed themselves peril to give double edge to men's near to where they knew she wou's swords, and double constancy to their pass. As she came near them, obhearts. If shouts and vows of fidelity serving that they were English, and could have been a warrant for the much affected, she held out her hand faith of Frenchmen, it was impossible to them; one of them said, “Oh, go that this high-minded princess should to our England, you will be cherishhave been forced to give way. Buted there.' Yes, yes,' replied she; the troops which formed the garrison •I am now going to your country ;' of Bourdeaux caught the contagion and when they expressed a wish that of revolt. General Decaen, who pos- this storm would be quickly over, sessed the batteries which command- and that when she again returned 10 ed the city, declared himself for the France, it would be for lasting happi. usurper; while Clausel advanced to ness, the duchess replied, with an ex. the gates with a considerable force in pression which was almost cheerfu', the same cause. The duchess made • Indeed, I hope so.' This was the a last effort, assembled around her last time that any of us saw her. the officers, and laid their duty be. There was then in her expression a fore them in the most touching and look of sweet and tranquil suffering

, pathetic manner. But when she saw which was irresistibly affecting.”their coldness, and heard their faul. Lynch and other loyalists took the tering excuses, she turned from them

same opportunity of escaping from in disdain,_" You fear,” she said the tyranny of Buonaparte. Bour“ I pity you, and release you from deaux was instantly occupied by Geyour oaths.” On the 30th March, neral Clausel, whose arrival, in deshe arrived at the little port of Poil. spite of the scenes which had prelac, to embark on board an English ceded it, was welcomed with shouts frigate, and the following minute cir- of Vive l’Empereur ! cumstances of her departure

Toulouse on shared the fate of

• Travels in France during the years 1814-15. Edin. 1816. Vol. ii. p. 107.

ordeaux. On the evening of the embark for Spain. This convention of April, the citizens had cele. was concluded with General Gilly; ted, with apparent enthusiasm, an but Grouchy refused to give it his hemeral success of the Duke of sanction, and the Duke of Angou.. gouleine. At break of day on the leme was detained until Buonaparte's , they saw, to their astonishment, pleasure was known. Napoleon was e cannon of the ramparts turned not sorry to have this opportunity to on the town, the artillery-men un make an imposing show of generosir arms with lighted matches, and ty. He commanded Grouchy to disard the emperor proclaimed by the miss the duke, upon his granting his clamations of the soldiery. The promise to use his endeavours to protizens of Toulouse offered no resist. cure recovery of the crown jewels, ace, but submitted quietly to the which the king had carried with him arper.

to Ghent. He embarked The Duke of Angouleme did not at Cette, as had been April 16. rove more fortunate than his heroic agreed upon, to sail for onsort. At first, some glimpse of Barcelona, and was the last of the uccess seemed to shine on his arms. royal family of France who left the Some regiments expressed a disposi- kingdom, ion to remain faithful to the king; The stand made by the Duke of and there was a general disposition Angouleme might have been more among the national guards to be for successful, but for the treachery of ward in the royal cause.

Massena, who conducted himself so, The little army which the Duke as effectually to prevent the spirit of d'Angouleme had thus assembled, loyalty, expressed by the great seaamounted to nearly six thousand ports of Toulon and Marseilles, from men, and their first enterprize was having any beneficial effect on the

successful. They routed king's cause. Marseilles had been April 2. a considerable body of so zealous for the king as to put a

Buonapartists at the pas- price, by proclamation, on the head sage of the river Drome, and took of Buonaparte; and the wealth, as cannon, colours, and about eight hun- well as the population of this great dred prisoners, and obtained posses. Sea-port, might have given a vigorous sion of the course of the Isere. impulse to the royal cause. But Mas

The revolt, however, continued sena contrived to thwart their meaaround them, and many of the troops sures, and check their enthusiasm, of the line went over to the enemy. until it subsided under the discouraGenerals Grouchy and Piré advanced ging news which arrived from every npon the duke from different points. quarter, as well as under fear of the He received intelligence of the fate garrison. He discouraged all atof Bourdeaux and Toulouse, and that tempts to embody the royalists, or Montpellier and Nismes had, in like organize the national guard; and thus manner, fallen. Under those cir- contrived that, in those cities, as well cumstances, the duke opened a new as elsewhere, no party should be in gociation, by which he agreed to disa arms, except the troops of the line, miss his

army, and lay down his arms, whose disposition was the same there, od condition that his officers and sols as through all France. Both Mardiers should not be molested. For seilles and Toulon himself, he stipulated that he should were surrendered af. April 11, 12. be safely escorted to Cette, there to ter the Duke of An. VOL. VIII, PART I.

L

gouleme's capitulation, and the con- » act of the French people, and ex quest of France was, for the present, pressing his desire to maintain peace absolute and complete.

We must on the same principles as it had been now consider the effect which those settled with the Bourbons. These wonderful tidings produced upon the pacific overtures were, in general, a sovereigns and the nations of Eu- ferred to the Congress by the sove rope.

reigns to whom they were addressed, Buonaparte's apprehensions on this and it was the unanimous opinion of account were visible, from the great that assembly, that no answer should pains which he took to assure the be returned to them. people of France that there was no The allied powers had too strong occasion to fear foreign war. At first a recollection of the mode in which his friends and creatures confidently Buonaparte had formerly exercised averred, that the emperor had brought his authority, to connive for an ir with him a truce, concluded with all stant at his resuming it. The newe the nations in Europe, for twenty of his disembarkation at Cannes had years. Afterwards he had recourse no sooner reached Vienna, than the to other averments. He at one representatives of the powers asseurtime affirmed, that Austria was send. bled in the European Congress sent ing his wife and child to Paris, and forth the following denunciation of even named the day of their arrival, his person and purposes. and directed the ceremonies of their “ The powers who have signed the reception. At another time, Ney had treaty of Paris, assembled at the Coodirections to traverse the north of gress of Vienna, being informed of France, and impress on the people a the escape of Napoleon Buonaparte, belief, that Maria Louisa and her son and of his entrance into France with were detained at Vienna only as an armed force, owe it to their own pledges for Buonaparte's sincerely dignity, and the interest of social orkeeping a promise, which he had der, to make a solemn declaration of made to his father-in-law, to bestow the sentiments which this event has a free constitution on the French. excited in them. To such bare-faced imposture was he “ By thus breaking the convention reduced, rather than admit that in which had established him in the his return the French were to reap island of Elba, Buonaparte destroys the dreadful harvest of a new inva. the only legal title on which his exsion.

istence depended; and, by appearing In the mean whilc, he used such again in France with projects of con exertions as were in his power to pro- fusion and disorder, he has deprived cure peace, or at least to show that himself of the protection of the law, he desired it. Although the cession and has inanifested to the universe, of Belgium had been a point of grie- that there can be neither peace nor vous accusation brought against the truce with him. Bourbons, both by his creatures, and “ The powers consequently dein his own proclamation, Buonaparte clare, that Napoleon Buonaparte has hesitated not to offer to the allieu sove- placed himselt without the pale of cireigns his willingness to submit to the vil and social relations, and that, a9 treaty of Paris. He sent a leiter to an enemy and disturber of the tran this purpose to each principal court of quillity of the world, he has rendered Europe, acquainting the potentates lumself liable to public vengeance. with his restoration, as the unanimous They declare at the same time, that,

mly resolved to maintain eptire the not to lay down their arms but by comaty of Paris of the 30th of May, mon consent, or when the purpose of 14, and the dispositions sanctioned the war sirould have been attained, that treaty, and those which they or until Buonaparte should be ren. ve resolved on, or shall hereafter deredincapable of disturbing the peace solve on, to complete and to con- of Europe. After other subordinate lidate it, they will employ all their articles, the 7ih provided, that the eans, and will unite all their efforts, other powers of Europe should be inat the general peace, the object of vited to accede to the treaty; and the e wishes of Europe, and the con- 8th, that the King of France should ant purpose of their labours, may be particularly called upon to become ist again be troubled ; and to pro- a party to the league. A separate arde against every attempt which shall ticle provided, that the King of Great ireaten to replunge the world into Britain should have the option of fur. ve disorders of revolution.

nishing his contingent in men, or of " And although entirely persuade paying instead at the rate of 302. sterd, that all France, rallying round its ling per annum for each cavalry solegitimate sovereign, will immediately dier, and 201. per annum for each mnihilate this last attempt of a cri. fantry soldier, which should be want. ninal and impotent delirium, all the ing to make up his complement. To sovereigns of Europe, animated by this treaty a declaration was suhjointhe same sentiments; and guided by ed, when it was ratified by the Prince the same principles, declare, that if, Regent, referring to the eighth article contrary to all calculations, there of the treaty, and declaring that it should result from this event any real should not be understood as binding danger, they will be ready to give to his Britannic Majesty to prosecute the the King of France, and to the French war with the view of forcibly imposing nation, or to any other government, on France any particular government. that shall be attacked, as soon as they The other contracting powers agreed shall be called upon, all the assistance to accept of the accession of his Royal requisite to restore public tranquilli- Highness, under this explanation and ty, and to make a common cause limitation: against all those who should under: This treaty was laid before both take to compromise it.”

Houses of the British Parliament, with This manifesto was instantly fol. a message from the Prince, expressing lowed by a treaty betwixt Great Bri. his reliance on their support in such tain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia, re measures as he should find it neces. Dewing and confirming the league en. sary to adopt in concert with his allies, tered into at Chaumont. l'he 1st The debates which took place on this article declared the resolution of the occasion form at once an important high contracting parties to maintain part of our parliamentary history, and and enforce the treaty of Paris, which the best commentary upon the measecluded Buonaparte from the throne sures of the allies. But it is previousof France, and io enforce the decree ly necessary to mention what took of outlawry issued against him as above place in parliament upon the first mentioned. 2. Each of the contract news of Buonaparte's re-appearance ing parties agreed to keep constantly on the scene. in the field an army of 150,000 men Upon the 7th of April complete, with the due proportion of the Prince Regent sent a April 7. cavalry and artillery, s. They agreed message to the House of

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