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'nsurrection of La Vendee.-Motion of Seguevel.-Death of La Roche-Jaquelein, and Capitulation of the Royalists.- Preparations of the Allies. The Position of their Armies.--Forces of Wellington-Of Blucher.- Preparations of Buonaparte.-His Plan of Attack. He fortifies the Frontier on the Austrian Line.-Calls his best Generals around him.-- Concentrates his Arniy al Avesnes- His Address to them.--Commences the Campaign- Takes Charleroi, and compels Ziethen to retire.-Battle of Ligny under Fleurus-Dreadful Conflict.-Prussians finally defeated.-Imminent Danger of Blucher.--He effects his retreat unmolested. - Ney attacks the Advanced Guard of Wellington at Quatre Bras.— The British Army comes up-Severe Action.— The French take the Wood-But are dislodged by the Guards And finally compelled to retire.—Loss on either Side.— T'he Duke of Wellington retreats- Is pursued by the French.-Skirmish at Genappes.- The British arrive on the field of Waterloo, and bivouac for the Night.
We are now to consider the prepa- ants in the royal cause. Brittainy, rations of the allies, contrasted with Poitou, Anjou, and Maine, were the those of Buonaparte. But, before en scenes of a variety of conflicts fought tering on this important field, it is at Aizenai, at Aiquillon, at Lege, in proper to discuss the internal disor. the marshes near St Gilles, and at ders, which, breaking out in the west various other points, between the of the kingdom, had some share in royalists and the soldiers of Buona. embarrassing and paralyzing the ef- parte, of which the result varied acforts of Napoleon.
cording to circumstances. The ob. We have already mentioned the ject of most of these skirmishes was unsuccessful attempt of the Duke of to secure or intercept the quantities Bourbon to raise in arms the inhabit of arms and ammunition which the ants of La Vendee. But D’Auti- English vessels landed at different champ, Suzannet, La Roche-Jaque- points for the service of the insurlein, Sassineau, and other chiefs of the gents. The minister at war saw himroyal party, proved subsequently more self compelled to send a considerable successful. The necessity of drawing body of forces to the scene of action, troops towards the frontiers obliged which were commanded by Generals Napoleon to withdraw some of the Lamarque and Travot. They were forces stationed in La Vendee and empowered to treat the insurgents the neighbouring departments, and with the utmost severity, and when, about the middle of May there was a after the restoration of Louis, they general insurrection of the inhabito were in danger of being called to
account for various acts of military down their arms on condition of beviolence, they justified themselves ing suffered to live unmolested on by producing the instructions of Car- their estates. It seemed to be destined not, which were found to equal in that no Frenchman, whatever his siatrocity any that bad been issued tuation or principles, should have any since the reign of terror. Yet the direct influence in the second restora. Chamber of Deputies did not in all tion of the Bourbons; as a penalty for respects sanction the severities of the their national vanity, which had asgovernment. When a member, called serted the first to be their own volunLeguevel, made a motion for punishing tary deed. Thus ended the affair of with pains and penalties the royalists of La Vendee. the west, the assembly heard him with While these events were passing in patience and approbation propose that France, the allies made the most githe goods and estates of the revolters gantic preparations for the renewal of (whom he qualified as brigands, priests, war. The Chancellor of the Excheand royalists,) should be confiscated; quer of England had achieved a loan but when he added, that not only the of thirty-six millions upon terms surinsurgents themselves, but their rela- prizingly moderate, and the command tions in the direct line, whether ascend of this treasure had put the whole ants, or descendants, should be decla. troops of the coalition into the most red outlaws, a general exclaniation of active advance. horror drove the orator from the tri. The seat of the Congress had been bune.
removed from Vienna to Frankfort, to There is little of general interest in be near the theatre of war. The Em. the events of this second war of La perors of Russia and Austria, with the Vendee, which was terminated by an King of Prussia, had once more placed action near La Roche-Serviere, in themselves at the head of their rewhich both parties claimed the advan. spective armies. The whole French tage, but which was decided against frontier was menaced by immense the royalists by the death of the gal. forces. One hundredand fifty thousand lant La Roche-Jaquelein. This gen. Austrians, disengaged from Murat, tleman possessed all the loyalty and might enter France through Switzerdevotion of his gallant brother, who land, the Cantons having acceded to had fallen in the same cause. Like the coalition. An army equal in him, he addressed his adherents :- strength menaced the higher Rhine. “ ]f 1 advance, follow me-if I fly, Schwartzenberg commanded in chief, kill me—if I fall, avenge me.” La having under him Bellegarde, and Roche-Jaquelein fell, but his follow. Frimont, Bianchi, and Vincent. Two ers failed to avenge him. The spirit of hundred thousand Russians were presse the insurgents subsided after his death, ing towards the frontiers of Alsace.
and they submitted to Buo- The Archduke Constantine was nomiJune 26. naparte by an armistice, or nal generalissimo, but Barclay de Tol
. capitulation, just when hold- li, Sacken, Langeron, &c. were the ing out a few days longer would have efficient commanders. One hundred brought them news of the desperate and fifty thousand Prussians, under condition of his affairs. Augustus, Blucher, occupied Flanders, and were brother of the fallen La Roche-Ja- united with about eighty thousand quelein, signed the armistice, or ra- troops in British pay, and others une ther surrender, by which the chiets der the Duke of Wellington. There disbanded their followers, and laid was also to be reckoned the contin,
ents of the different princes of Ger- Whatever jealousies might have been jany, so that the allied forces were instilled into them for their religion Tossly computed to amount to up- and privileges under the reign of a vards of one million of men. The protestant and a Dutch sovereign, eader must not, however, suppose, they were swallowed up in their aphat such an immense force was, or prehensions for the returning tyranny ould be, brought forward at once. of Napoleon. Some of these troops They were necessarily disposed on behaved with distinguished valour; various lines for the convenience of and most of them supported the aniubsistence, and were to be brought cient military character of the Wal. ip successively in support of each loons. The Dutch corps were in geother.
neral enthusiastically attached to the The Duke of Wellington's army Prince of Orange, and the cause of might contain about thirty thousand independence. English troops. They were not, It had been expected and dehowever, those veteran soldiers who signed, that the Duke of Wellinghad served under him during the ton's army should receive a large and peninsular war; the flower of which valuable addition, by a detachment of had been dispatched upon the Ameri- that Portuguese army, which had can expedition. Most were second been formed by British officers, and battalions, or regiments which had distinguished itself under the combeen lately filled up with new re mand of the British general. But cruits. The foreigners were fifteen the jealous or selfish policy of the thousand Hanoverians, with the ce. Portuguese Council of Regency delebrated German legion eight thou- clined to listen to this proposal, alsand strong, which had so often dis- though Portugal was at least as much tinguished itself in Spain ; five thou. interested as any nation in Europe, sand Brunswickers, under their gallant in the instant suppression of Napoduke; and about eighteen thousand leon, and his usurped power. Belgians, Dutch, and Nassau troops, The Prussian army had been recommanded by the Prince of Orange. cruited to its highest war-establishGreat and just reliance was placed ment, within an incredibly short space upon the Germans ; but some appre- of time, after Buonaparte's return hensions were entertained for the had been made public, and was reinsteadiness of the Belgian troops. Dis. forced in a manner surprising to those contents prevailed amongst them, who do not reflect, how much the rewhich, at one period, broke out in sources of a state depend on the zeal open mutiny, which was not subdued of the inhabitants. Their enthusiaswithout bloodshed. Most of them tic hatred to France, founded partly had served in the French ranks, and on the recollection of former inju. it was feared some of them might ries, partly on that of recent success, preserve predilections and correspon- was animated at once by feelings of dencies dangerous to the general triumph and of revenge, and they
Buonaparte was under the marched to this new war, as if to a same belief. He brought in his train national crusade against an inveterate several Belgian officers, believing enemy, whom, when at their feet, there would be a movement in his they had treated with injudicious clefavour so soon as he entered the mency. They were, however, dc. Netherlands. But the Flemings are prived of a valuable part of their army à people of sound sense and feeling. by the discontent of the Saxon troops.
A mutiny had broken out among were occasioned chiefly by treachery, them, when the Congress announced and especially the delivering up of al their intention of transferring part of the strong places, by order of the the Saxon dominions to Prussia; Count d'Artois, in his capacity of much bloodshed had ensued, and it Lieutenant-General of the kingdon. was judged most prudent that the By this single act, France had last troops of Saxony should remain in 12,000 pieces of cannon, mostly of garrison in the German fortresses. brass, the value of which is estimated Such was the nature and quality of at 200,000,000 of francs. This loss
, the armies of the allies stationed in however, had been entirely supplied; the Netherlands.
the arsenals, magazines of powder, and The means of France to meet and armouries, were in full activity; and repel so formidable an invasion, were after having armed the national guard enumerated by Carnot in a report and associations, there would remain made to the two Chambers on the in the magazines 600,000 muskets in state of the nation, after the depar- reserve.” ture of Buonaparte for the army. The There remained to be added to result of this document bore, that these large armies, the national guards, “ on the 1st of April, 1814, the army amounting probably to a million of consisted of 450,000 men, exclusive armed men, but of whose capacity of 150,000 prisoners, all veteran sol. and zeal for actual service, beyond diers, and of 115,000 conscripts of that of securing the public tranquillithe levy of 1815, of which 45,000 only, ty, great doubts might be entertained. out of 160,000, had been raised. The Corps of federates were formed in allast government, at once prodigal and most all the districts where materials avaricious, alarmed at its own strength, could be found of which to construct and essentially hostile to the army, had them. taken, it was said, every possible means From this immense armed force, of diminishing it. Theorator then des- Buonaparte had selected a grand arcribed the various oppressions to which my to serve immediately under his the army had been exposed, particu- own command. The preparations larly by the introduction of the emi were of the most extensive and formigrants, and which had reduced its dable nature. The number of the number to 175,000 men. Since the troops amounted to about 150,00 20th of March last, its number had men, as many perhaps as can possibly been raised to 375,000 combatants of move in one line of operations, or be every description : and before the 1st conveniently subjected to the imme. of August, it would amount to 500,000, diate command of one general-inindependent of the national guards. chief. This army comprehended the The imperial guards, termed the surest imperial guard of all descriptions, and bulwark of the throne in time of war, the mosť chosen and devoted regiand its finest ornament in tiine of ments of infantry and cavalry of the peace, had a separate article allotted line. The cavalry was completed and to it in the official report. The mi- remounted in such a manner as to nister condemned the injustice with excite the surprise of the British offiwhich it was treated by the last go. cers, who naturally concluded, that vernment, and announced that it al. after the immense losses of the cam. ready amounted to 40,000 men. paign 1814, Buonaparte must have
“ The losses of artillery bad been been deficient both in cavalry and ar, in a great measure repaired; they tillery. It was generally supposed
hat the English and Prussians were forming, or rather to attack them selesirous to fight in the celebrated parately to prevent their consolidation lains of Fleurus, on account of these in line. If he should succeed in thus Heged advantages. But in the day overwhelming the advance of the Ausftrial, Napoleon was found superior trians and Russians, by directing his a the number both of horse and field- main force to this one point, before uns.
they were fully prepared, it was suppoThus perfectly prepared for ac sed he might break up the plan of the ion, no doubt was made, that allies for this campaign. Buonaparte would open the cam But Buonaparte was guided by no aigo, by assuming offensive opera- ordinary principles of tactics on this ions. Of peace there remained no occasion. He was aware his first pass rope, for the war had been actually would be the most decisive in vigour, commenced by Great Britain in her and determined to aim it at the heart wn proper element, by the capture of his enemy. Schwartzenberg he vf the Melpomene, and some slight knew, and had heard of Wellington; kirmishes had taken place on the ad- he, therefore, opposed walls and foranced posts. To wait till the enemy tified places against the slow and cauiad assembled their full force on his tious approach of the Austrian general; rontier, would have suited neither the while he himself, with his chosen army nan nor the moment. It was most of veterans, should engage the more agreeable to his system, his disposi- enterprising Briton. Entrenchments tion, and his interest, to rush upon were, therefore, constructed in the five some separate army of the allies, and principal passages of the Vogesian by its dispersion, or annihilation, give mountains, and all the natural passes courage to France, animate her to and strong-holds of Lorraine were put fresh exertions in his cause, intimi- in the best possible state of defence. date the allies, and gain time for sow. The posts on the inner line of defence ing in their league the seeds of dis- were strengthened with the greatest union. Even the royalists, whose in care. The fine military position unterest was so immediately connected der the walls of Lyons was improved with the defeat of Buonaparte, were with great expense and labour; a dismayed by witnessing his immense tete-de-pont was erected at Brotteau ; preparations, and sadly anticipated a draw-bridge and barricade protectthe first victories as their result, thoughed the suburb la Guillotiere; redoubts they trusted that, us in 1814, he would were erected between the Saonne and be at length worn out by force of Rhine, and upon the heights of Pierre numbers and reiterated exertions. Encise and the Quarter of Saint John. But though all guessed at the mode Guise, Vitri, Soissons, Chateau-Thiof tactics which Napoleon would em. erry, Langres, and all the towns capaploy, there was a difference of opinion ble of any defence, were rendered as respecting the point on which his first much so as posts, palisades, redoubts, exertions would be made ; and, in ge- and field-works, could make them. neral
, it was augured, that, trusting The Russian armies, though pressto the strength of Lisle, Valencien- ing fast forward, were not as yet arnes, and other fortified places on the rived upon the line of operations ; frontiers of Flanders, his first real at- and Napoleon doubtless trusted that tack, whatever diversion might be these impediments, in front of the made elsewhere, would be made upon Austrian line of operations, would Manheim, to break asunder the Aus- arrest any hasty advance on their trian and Russian armies as they were part, since the well-known tactics of