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the object of popular revenge, by yard, the lionest consideration of alpleading that he had no allusion in most the whole House of Commons, particular to what had happened at and of all thinking persons without Mr Robinson's, (although it was only doors, stigmatized his conduct on this upon that occasion, during the whole as a home-attempt made to buy or riots, that the soldiers had made ef. redeem his fading popularity, by fective use of their arms;) but to heating the popular odium against an the general system adopted by the individual, of whom it was hard to say ministers, of protecting the city by whether he had been most injured in soldiers in place of peace-officers, property or distressed in feelings; and and this at a time when the joint ef- to encourage the violence of the rabforts of the civil and military had ble, by representing as tyrannical and proved totally inadequate to protect illegal, the means which were necessathe property of individuals, offending rily employed in repressing it. only by discharging their duty as le The violent agitation occasioned by gislators on a question where their the corn bill was suddenly and effecopinions were corroborated by those tually silenced by the arrival of the of Sir Francis Burdett himself. With news that Buonaparte had again land. such obliquity of intellect will party- ed in France ; a stupendous piece of spirit, or rather a feverish appetite for intelligence, before which all topics the garbage of popularity, endow such of domestic interest at once sunk inas prize the shout of a mob beyond the to annihilation. These extraordinary dignity of moral independence. Sir tidings reached London on the evenFrancis on this occasion received from ing of the 10th March ; and there Lord Castlereagh a severe and merit was no more heard of the corn' bill, ed reprehension. “ It was a little too than if the subject had never agitated much," his lordship observed, “ con- the popular mind. sidering how many lives had been It was perhaps owing to the aplost on a preceding occasion to pre- pearance made in the House of Com. serve the honourable baronet from mons by Sir Francis Burdett, that the being attached by an order of the grand jury of Middlesex found a true House of Commons, that he should bill against the corporal and two' solpresume to question an Englishnan's diers stationed in the house of Mr right to defend his castle and his fa- Robinson, as also against his butler mily from the violence of an ungo- James Ripley, for the murder of Jane verpable and furious rabble. As the Watson. However absurd the con. honourable baronet, departing entire. duct of the grand jury, it was fortuly from the question before the nate, as giving an opportunity of a so. House, her supported nor opposed lemn trial of the most important questhe corn bill, he could conceive no tion, how far a person acting like Rippurpose for which he came down, ex. ley under a sense of duty to his mascepting in order to subvert the con ter, and in defence of his property, or stitution." From this strong charge like the soldiers defending a post to Sir Francis Burdett could only escape which they had been called by the by such intemperance of personal re- civil authority, are entitled to use crimination as drew down the censure arms in protection of that which is of the Speaker. But, however the entrusted to their charge. The spirit “ throng of words” which came from of democracy, always at work on such him with such effrontery might serve occasions, failed pot, by the manufachis cause with his friends in Palace- ture of false reports and malicious in

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sinuations, industriously circulated in ly endeavoured to shew that they har. pamphlets, to keep up the popular vio- boured no malice from recollection of Jence, and prepossess, if possible, 'the a transaction, which, in its first aspect, minds of the jurors against the pri- operated so powerfully upon their feelsoners. But the law, a law of infinite ings. There is a generosity in this conconsequence to the protection of good duct peculiarly characteristic of a free order, property, and tranquillity, was people, whose sober moments are aldistinctly laid down by the prisoner's ways marked by a love of justice and counsel, on the authority of Lord a deference to the law, and who seek Hale, Lord. Mansfield, and other rather a fair and impartial investigalearned judges, was recognized by the tion of such grievances as they supjudges, (Lord Ellenborough and Mr pose themselves to have sustained, Justice Chamber) as indisputable, and than the gratification of vindictive received as such by a jury assembled feelings towards those whom they in the ordinary manner for transacting consider as the authors of them.' And the business of the sessions; who with- while we think it right that every atout hesitation pronounced a verdict tempt at systematic riot and violence of Not Guilty. Upon this solemn oc- should be checked early, and at a pecasion, it was acknowledged as law riod when it may be possible to select that the peaceable master of a family, the ringleaders as the objects of the with his inmates, friends, and neigh- resistance which they have provoked, bours, as well as the peace-officers we are as far as Sir Francis Burdett and military who are called in to bis himself from desiring that every ebulassistance, is justified in resisting lition of popular feeling, though tu. whatever violence may be offered to multuously and riotously expressed, person, house, or property ; while, on should be made an excuse for em. the other hand, those assembled for ploying deadly retaliation. The minds purposes of mischief and destruction, of the English common people cannot led away by their own passions or the retain that energy of feeling which instigation of others, as well as they makes each regard the prosperity and who in idle curiosity augment their fame of his country as matters of his numbers, must in future be aware of own special concern, without the risk the risk in which they stand, since if of its being expressed with occasional their death ensues in such circum- violence. We do not therefore think stances, the law will justify those em- either the huzzas or hootings of a ployed in protecting at once private mob, accompanied with some insoproperty and the public peace.

lence to their betters, and probably It must not beforgotten that thegood. the demolition of some panes of glass, nature and candour of the English as fit subjects either of serious apprepopulace, qualities which they always hension or severe repression. We shew when neither led away by their would rather now and then endure own prejudices, or the misrepresenta- the fever-fit of licence, than sleep tions of their demagogues, were re the death-sleep of military despotism. markably displayed on this occasion. But every thing has its bounds; and Satisfied with the fairness of the inves- when the property and lives of the tigation, and satisfied that the conduct lieges are daringly assailed, they must of the soldiers had been entirely blame be boldly defended, or the supine goless, they greeted them on their ac vernment which stoops to endure such quittal with three cheers, sought to scenes of outrage, must be contented shake hands with them, and anxious to witness the streets of Londongleam

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ing with conflagration, and at length upon the landing of Buonaparte, was flooded with the gore of her citizens; in the act of being carried into execuas in the memorable year 1780, when tion, a grenadier of the Coldstream only the firmness of the sovereign, in was observed taking a friendly farecommanding his troops to act in de well of a cobler with whom he had fence of the peace, saved the capital been quartered. They had exhaust. from total destruction,

ed their parting draught, and were We will close this chapter with an shaking hands cordially. “God bless anecdote, trifling in itself, but impor- you, my good fellow,” said the sol. tant as it serves to shew the deep in. dier ;'“ do you look after the corn bill terest which the very lowest ranks of at home, and leave me to manage the British public take in the concerns Buonaparte.” The first impulse of of the state; a circumstance arising the reader may be to laugh; but as solely out of the freedom with which both men were perfectly serious in public measures are submitted to their the division of their public duty, we discussion, and to which the wisest may estimate, from this trilling cirand best-informed foreigners are dis- cumstance, the quantity of patriotism posed to ascribe the peculiar energy in a state where the meanest indivi. of our national character. When the dual considers her safety and fame as order for embarking the Guards for intrusted to his charge, and dependent Flanders, which followed immediately on his efforts.

CHAP. VI.

Internal State of France.- Defects of the Administration.-Count de Blacas.

State of Parties.-Royalists, comprehending the Nobles, and Clergy, and Vendeans.—Tumult at the Funeral of Mademoiselle de Raucour.-Sepulchral Honours paid to Louis XVI. and his Queen.- Jealous Fears of the possessors of National Domains.- Republicans.-Buonapartists.--Discontents of the Army.- Constitutionalists.Purchasers of National Domains.-Resemblance between the State of France and of England after the Restoration.

France, so long the centre of those quicksilver from the grasp of arbitrary successive revolutions which had dis- power, and re-uniting and re-appear: turbed the tranquillity of Europe, ap- ing when the prospect of profit and of peared now to be in the situation of security call it forth to action, began an exhausted volcano. The thunders again to put in motion commercial of the eruption seemed over, but its speculations. Marseilles, Nantes, and former

ravages were still visible, and Havre, resumed the appearance of tra. it was manifest to every reflecting ding cities, and again sent merchant mind, that many years must pass away vessels to sea. The cellars of Bourere their traces could be obliterated. deaux were once more emptied of her The very extravagance of those hopes, wipes and brandies, and her warewhich were naturally entertained upon houses replenished in lieu of them the restoration of the royal family, with colonial produce. Nor was it a like too early and too luxuriant a show matter of indifference to Paris at least, of blossom, diminished the chance of that crowds of foreigners, and particutheir ripening into the expected fruit, larly of English, rushed thither to and exasperated the disappointment spend large sums of money, and aug. of the over-sanguine expectants. ment in no small proportion the revi

Yet symptoms of recovering pro- ving circulation of wealth. But this sperity began to appear in this rich hopeful commencement was checked country. The manufactures of Rouen, and counterbalanced by many circumLyons, and other French towns, were stances of discontent and disappointresumed with a zeal and readiness ment, some arising out of the nature which alarmed their competitors in of things, and totally uncontroulable Great Britain. Capital, which has such by human wisdom, and others out of a wonderful capacity of escaping like the errors of the government, and the

evil passions and contending interests sion in the measures of his governof the governed.

ment. “ Send him back to us," said The sort of enthusiasm with which an Englishman, who had listened imthe Bourbons had been at first wel patienily to a Parisian, as he lamentcomed, soon faded into indifference, ed betwixt pity and scorn the king's and indifference was succeeded by incapacity to mount on horseback,doubt, and suspicion, and dislike. The “ send the excellent old man back to fabulist, in the apologue of the frogs us, and you shall have a king will suit who demanded a king, has described you better-we will send you young the sensation produced by a tyrant Astley the equestrian, the best horsesucceeding to a mild and over-easy man in Europe." But however just the monarch. But it was · reserved to reproof, it is no less certain that the France to exhibit the counterpart of bodily infirmities of Louis, and the the fable, and to show how the aqua want of personal activity which necestic nation would have probably de. sarily attended them, were of great meaned themselves had the indulgence prejudice to his affairs at this critical of Jupiter again substituted a mere period. The gifted eye of Burke passive type of monarchy, and banishe had foreseen, when few but himself ed King Stork to some remote islet. anticipated the possibility of the reIn the person of Louis XVIII. himself, storation of the royal family, that perthe French could indeed find nothing sonal activity would be a quality in to censure, nor any thing to contemn, the highest degree essential to the excepting those corporeal infirmities, restored monarch. A king of which disease inflicts upon some, and France," he said, " ought, speaking age upon all. Even the revolutionists literally, to spend six hours in the day yielded their unwilling assent to his upon horseback.” The necessity of merits :- An excellent temper,—à this proved as true as most of his other sound judgment,-a cultivated un- prophecies ; for the deficiency was derstanding,-a disposition to make most severely felt in the king's affairs. every sacrifice for the welfare of the The constitution which the king people,ấeven honcur and good faith had solemnly sanctioned, although it in his engagements, his worst enemies could not be termed perfect, was in were compelled to allow him. He most respects adapted to France in its possessed also a readiness of good-hu- existing state, and contained not only moured repartee, which uses to weigh the elements of a free and representamuch with the French nation, and that tive government, but the means of gra. overflowing and kindly quality of the dual improvement, as circumstances heart, which they express by the word should require and experience should bonhommie. He had one quality, and point out. The charter, as it was call

. only one of the original monarch of ed, recognized, in the most formal the frogs, but it was the very quality manner, what Britons consider as their on which the veneration due to King most sacred rights. 1. It establishLog suffered shipwreck --an inertness ed three branches of the legislature, arising from the bodily infirmity at by king, peers, and a house of reprewhich we have hinted, which pre- sentatives, whose concurrence was revented his dazzling the eyes of his quired in framing laws. 2. It guafrivolous subjects, by assuming the ranteed personal liberty, and toleradress and activity of his warlike pre- tion concerning religious faith. 3. decessor, and something like a corre It recognized the liberty of the press. sponding want of firmness and deci. 4. The ministers were held respon

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