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with sixteen hundred spindles. The mill employs about fifty hands and uses about six hundred and fifty bales of cotton per annum. We have not been furnished with the details of the business, but are informed by Mr. Adolphus Meier, one of the proprietors, that labor is abundant and easily procured at prices as low as those paid by eastern manufacturers.

This establishes an important fact, and is calculated to remove every doubt in regard to the advantages connected with the manufacture of cotton in St. Louis, for it would be an useless waste of time to undertake to prove that the raw material, provisions and fuel can all be obtained here cheaper than in New Engtand, and none can be so blind as not to perceive that if the fabric can be produced as cheap here as there, that the cost and charges incident to transporting it from the east, to say nothing of the profits to the merchant, are all saved to the western

But more than all this, the establishment of manufactures affords a home market for western products, freed from the competition of other countries.

In collecting statistics for the Western JOURNAL, we have been careful to inquire in regard to the facilities of procuring labor, and we have been uniformly answered that labor of every kind was abundant, and easily procured at fair prices. This is a state of things which those at a distance would not expect to exist in a country so newly settled and thinly inhabited. Most of the foreigners who come to the west land at St. Louis. Very many of them are mechanics and laborers who rely upon daily employment for subsistence, and as there is but little demand for farm labor, many remain in the city, and are compelled by necessity to labor for such prices as they can obtain. These are the principal causes of the abundance and cheapness of labor in St. Louis; and as long as foreign emigration shall continue to flow into the west, we hazard little in expressing the opinion, that labor will be as cheap, and probably cheaper, here than in any other city in the Union.

The proprietors of the St. Louis Cotton Factory appear to have acted with caution in the commencement of their business, and having taken ample time to tes the experiment, they are about to add one thousand spindles to their establishment. When we take into consideration the sagacity and prudence of the proprietors, this increase in their business affords strong proof that it has been profitable.

We acknowledge our obligations to J. M. P., for his interesting communication upon the subject of Electric Light. We should have been pleased to have given it a place in the present number, but our matter had been arranged for the press before its reception. It will find a place in the May number

We are greatly indebted to Col. Benton and Judge Bowlin, for many valuable THE

WESTERN JOURNAL.

Volume 1.]

MAY, 1848.

[Number v.

ART. I.-SLAVERY IN THE UNITED STATES. ALTHOUGH man is so constituted that by the aid of artificial means he can exist upon every part of the globe, yet, both his physical and moral condition is

greatly influenced by climate and other physical causes. The effects flowing . from these causes, and the influence which they exert over the individual and

social character of the inhabitants of the several divisions of the earth, are legitimate subjects of inquiry for the natural and social economist, and address themselves to the consideration of the people of every country.

These influences impress themselves upon the moral, political and religious institutions as well as upon the philosophy of every people, and finally give direction to their destiny. The statesman, the philosopher, or the divine, who has not made himself acquainted with this subject so as to enable him to perceive and appreciate its bearings upon the human character, is, to a great extent, in. competent to discharge the duties of his functions, and therefore liable to do injury, rather than to promote the cause in which he labors. The inhabitants of every clime are continually operated upon, and acting under these influences, without perceiving their force; and each wonders at the stupidity of those of other and different climes, in adopting and observing habits and customs so different from their own. He, therefore, who shall endeavor to remove and obliterate these influences must Jabor in vain; they are part and parcel of man's nature, and cannot be eradicated. They are, however, subject to modification, and are the legitimate agents to be used in giving direction to the genius and civilization of the people of every

climate. To the people of the United States, this subject is one of more than ordinary interest, arising from the fact that our territory extends through so many degrees of latitude, and embraces so many different interests.

The population of the United States, although coming principally from the same region, began to exhibit the effects of climate shortly after its settlement in

VOL. 1, NO. V-24

this country. In traveling from Maine to Georgia, the change is so gradual that we scarcely perceive it until we have arrived at the end of our journey; then, if we look around us, we shall find ourselves in the midst of a people differing from those we had seen in Maine in almost every thing which meets the eye, or addresses itseli to the ear. We shall find the people here engaged in pursuits adapted to the climate, and cherishing an institution which the northern people have long since abolished, because it was not suited to their latitude. The philosopher would appreciate these facts and perceive the true cause ; but he would find no reason to condemn the southern people for retaining this institution, nos would he discover any merit in those of the north for abolishing it. He would see that both bad acted in obedience to the laws of natural economy, operating through the agency of climate, and would be surprised to find that ibis institution should have become the subject of much excitement and unkind feeling between the people of the north and those of the south.

Looking with painful emotions upon the excitement and disquietude arising from the institution of slavery in the southern States, and being satisfied that the origin of this excitement can be referred to no adequate and just cause, we are induced to offer the result of our reflections upon the subject. In doing so, we shall endeavor to place it upon what we esteem its true basis, and discuss it upon the principles of natural and social economy. - Man requires more exercise, as well as more food and clothing, in a cold than in a hot climate. These demands stimulate him to both physical Jabor and mental improvement. But in high northern latitudes the long and severely cold winters allow of so little profitable employment in the year, that the labor which can be performed during summer is barely sufficient to supply the wants of winter, and the progress of civilization is retarded from a lack of accumulated wealth, and of commercial and social intercourse with more favored climes. As we proceed towards the equator, the physical inducements to labor gradually lose their power, and moral and social inducements are substituted in their stead.

In the temperate zone these two—the physical and moral inducements-combine to produce the highest state of civilization to which man is capable of attain. ing. Here the necessity of providing for winter is sufficient to stimulate him to labor during the other seasons, and his labors producing more than is required for the mere wants of existence, a surplus accumulates and constitutes wealth ; and thus a portion of the inhabitants are, to some extent, relieved from the necessity of appropriating all their time and labor to the production of articles of mere necessity, and employ themselves in improving the mind and in producing works of art. :

Proceeding still further towards the equator, we find man in the torrid zone almost exempt from the necessity of labor. Here nature produces spontaneously almost every thing which he requires for food; he requires neither shelter nor clothing to protect him from the cold; and lacking those powerful physical influ. ences which stimulate the inhabitants of colder climes, he becomes indolent and prone to relaxation of both body and mind. His propensities and passions, stimulated by the climate, gain the ascendancy over his moral nature, and he remains in ignorance, and the worst state of barbarism, perhaps, known to man.

Although this is a condition naturally arising from climate, it is not, however, a necessary and inevitable result. In regard to climate, the inhabitants of the tropics were more favored than those of any other part of the earth ; relieved from the strong physical necessity of labor, which was imposed upon the inhab-. itants of colder regions, they were in a condition to appropriate more of their time to intellectual improvement, and to the general purposes of civilization. The advantages afforded by the climate were equal to a vast amount of accumulated wealth, which, if properly appreciated, would have made them the most enlightened people of the earth. From these causes we should naturally look to the region of the tropics for the earliest dawnings of civilization; and, so far as we can trust history, this was the case in the old world, and the monumental ruins of Central America bear evidence that it was also the case upon this continent. It may be asked why this early state of civilization was not sustained and improved ? We answer, because the natural advantages of the climate, constituting a condition of wealth similar in its consequences to the large accumulated wealth in other climates, the inhabitants of the former, like the wealthy individuals of the latter, indulged in idleness and vice, which sooner or later, inevitably results in degradation. As well might we expect that the rich and luxurious citizen of Rome, in the days of the Empire, would go out to labor, as that the African would leave the cool shade, and expose himself to toil under the direct rays of a tropical sun, unless urged to it by some powerful physical cause. And hence it is, that slavery has always existed in some form or other in Africa, and other tropical regions. And whether the institution be domestic or political, the rod is the same and only impelling power, and without its influence the inhabitants of these regions cease to labor and to enlarge the means of supporting an increase of population. By continued wars, and the sale of captives into slavery, the increase of population is prevented; and thus they are made the instruments of thrusting themselves out of the land which they refuse to cultivate, and are compelled to labor in foreign climes. These are the causes which have sent the Africans to our shores, and placed them in the hands of our ancestors, from whom they have descended to the present generation. That the condition of the Africans has been greatly improved by their transportation hither, no one can doubt who has any knowledge of the present condition of the race in this, and their own country. And, while working out their own improvement, they have been made a powerful agent in promoting the advancement of civilization throughout christendom, and, perhaps, throughout the whole earth. By the great surplus which they produce over the quantity which they consume, an immense addition is annually made to the wealth and comfort of all nations who, either directly or indirectly, participate in

commerce

our commerce. This, of itself, is almost sufficient to account for the unparalelled improvement which has taken place within the present century in the condition of the poorer classes of the countries with which we have commercial intercourse. Without this institution it is altogether probable that neither cotton nor sugar would, up to the present time, have been cultivated in this country as an article of

Hitherto slavery has been the most important agent in developing the resources of every part of the country, as well in the north as in the south; and we can perceive no reason why the agency of slave labor will be less important to our future prosperity than it has been to the past. The mind of the civilized world is awakened to the subject of ameliorating the general condition of labor; and while this mighty change is progressing, it is important that it should be sustained by some great source of over production, like that of slave labor in the United States—for, if such a revolution should happen as would materially reduce the quantity of cotton grown in the United States for a series of years in succession, it would produce a revulsion in the leading pursuits of both Europe and America, which would seriously retard the improvements of the age.

But with all these causes and effects in view, there are those in the United States, who are ever laboring to produce excitement in regard to Slavery. The original agitators were of that unfortunate class of individuals who are more zealous than wise. Seizing upon the abstract proposition that slavery is an evil, they overlook all the causes which may have led to its existence; they are blind to the effects which it is producing upon the slaves, as well as to the advantages which are evidently accruing to the rest of the world; and more than all, with a total disregard of the rights of the owner, and the laws of the country, and at the hazard of a servile war, they would set the African free. These are the fanatics, whose numbers we believe to be small, and we sincerely hope that no occasion will arise that will tend to increase them. But, although few in number, they are ever active and vigilant in pursuing their object, and notwithstanding they are blind in regard to every thing else, they are shrewd in regard to this. They understand as by instinct the kind of individuals upon whom they can operate and bring over to their faith, and are ever on the watch to acquire influence in the politics of the country. The demagogue, (a fanatic also in one sense of the term,) always upon the look out for strength, is ever found ready to serve those who will promise him support—and thus a league is formed between these two disorganizers, whereby the quiet and happiness of a nation is disturbed.

We are, however, constrained to believe that there are very many good and sensible individuals among those who are denominated abolitionists, who conscientiously believing that slavery is an evil-and, perhaps, a national sin-and not having examined the subject, feel it their duty to act with the opposing party, without apprehending the injury which may result from such a connection. Such individuals are still open to reason, and to them we desire to address our views.

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