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Number of Steamboat arrivals each month at St. Louis,-Amount of
Tonnage, -Also, the number of Keels and Flats. In order to give some idea, of the number of Steamboat arrivals and amount of tonnage, at different seasons of the year at the port of St. Louis, we give the following table, showing the number of arrivals each month, which will enable our readers to form an opinion as to what period of the year the heaviest portion of the commerce of St. Louis is carried on.
The month of December of course is not included in 1847.
To Prevent Wood Decaying. Take 12 ounces of rosin, and eight ounces of brimstone, each coarsely powdered, and three gallons of train oil.--' Heat them slowly, gradually adding four ounces of Bees. wax, cut in small bits. Frequently stir the liquor, which as soon as the solid ingredients are dissolved, will be fit for
What remains unused will become hard on cooling, and may be remelted on subsequent occasions. When it is fit for use, add as much Spanish brown, or red or yellow
ochre, or any color you want, first ground fine in some of the oil, as will give the shade you want; then lay it on as hot and thick as you can with a bruslı ; some days after the first coat is dried, give it a second. It will preserve plank for ages, and keep the weather from driving through brick work. Common white paint may be used on top of it, if required, for the sake of appearance. Two coats should always be given, and in compound machinery the separate paris should be varnished before they are put together, after which it will be prudent to give a third coating to the joints or to any other part which is peculiarly exposed to moisture, such as water- shoots, flood-gates, the beds of carts, the tops of posts, and all the timber which is near or within the ground. Each coat should be dry before the parts are joined, or the last coat applied. The composition should be applied when the wood is perfectly dry. It is necessary that compositions made of hot oil, should for the sake of security, be heated in metalic vessels, in the open air; for when the oil is brought to a boiling point, or Farenheit, the vapor catches fire, and though a lower temperature should be used in this process, it is not always possible to regulate the heat or to prevent the overflowing of the materials, in either of which cases, were the melting performed in a house, fatal accidents might happen.- Archives of Useful Knowledge.
Agricultural Chemistry. Agricultural Chemistry teaches us that there are essential ingredients in soils, which it is of the highest importance we should understand. It is inconirovertible that the salts existing in soils constitute but a very small portion of the whole mass of the soil—that they are not to be deemed accidental, but entirely indispensable to plants, which according to their respective nature admit one or another into their circulation, and perishing for want of the appropriate salt. By salts we must understand all those substances which consist of a base united with an acid. The principal bases are Potassa, Soda,
Lime, and Magnesia, which enter into the composition of all fertile soils. The acids with which these ordinarily combine are the Carbonic, the Sulphuric and Phosphoric. By bnrning plants, their combinations appear in ashes. An examination of the properties of their principal salts and their components, sheds a great light upon the subject. Let us begin with the bases. These are discovered to be metalic oxydes, the pure metals of which were obtained by Sir Ilumphrey Davy, and they are denominated respectively potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium and bone barytes, barium, &c. But potassium, which is the one most easily obtained, may be taken as a type of the class. It is a glittering metal, much like silver, but clear as water. It has some quality in common with sodium. When a current of water is passed over it, it is decomposed with great rapidity, devolving its oxygen. I often changes red color to blue. It combines with other acids, forming neutral salts, which are obtained by evaporation. The other alkaline metals follow the same process, but not so readily as potassium. The proportions in which they combine are 50 parts potassium, 8 of oxygen; making 48 of potassa, 24 parts of sodium, with 8 of oxygen, making 32 of soda.
Knowing the great importance of this to a farmer to know what amount his soil contains of potash, or of soda, we present them distinctly. Take a portion of the soil, and put it into boiling water, and then strain it through a filter. The water will extract all the soluble portions; then dry by evaporation, and the salt remaining will show by its form, its solubility, and by the action of the air upon it when exposed, what base it contains. That base will generally be found combined with sulphuric acid. When sulphate of potash is present, it will be discovered by its slow solution and its permanency when exposed to the air. Some plants receive from the soil minute portions of alkali, while others absorb an immense quantity. Some plants, Montena for example, contain a considerable quantity of sulpliurs, which, combining with oxygen, developes the offensive gas sulphurated hydrogen, as is often found in fire-arms when neglected; and with putrid eggs. To this is owing the nauseous smell of water in
which vegetables may have been cooked. So with the water near the mouths of rivers, especially on the coast of Africa. The copper of ships anchored there rapidly decays, and this is the attributed cause of the unhealthiness of those sbores. The best test of its
presence is sugar of lead in solution, which in a short time shows itself producing sulphuret of lead. Sulphurretted hydrogen is then unquestionably pernicious to animal life, but not to vegetables, for to some of them sulphur is necessary; it is essential in mustard, cabbages, and in a large class of plants.—Scientific American.
Valuable Discovery Messrs. Quarterman & Son, of No. 18 Burling Slip, this city, have made a valuable discovery in the mode of mix. ing paints, for which they have applied for letters patent, All artists' colors can be prepared in the composition, will keep moist for years and will mix either in turpentine, oil, or water. All paints prepared in this manner preserve their brilliancy much longer and are more durable than those prepared in the old way. This new mode is also applicable to paints used in bouse and ship painting. It is also so cheap and so simple in its application, that any painter or manufacturer can adopt it readily.--16.
New Threshing and Cleaning Machine. Mr. N. B. Lucas, of Jefferson county, Illinois, has invented a new Thresbing and Winnowing Machine, which can thresh and clean with ease 600 bushels of oats in a day, and about 500 of wheat. It threshes damp grain well separating the damp grain from the straw easily. The inventor says that there is no machinery that winds with damp straw; no elevators to choke; no hand required to pitch straw from the machine, as the machinery throws it in a pile, to be taken with a horse rake, and thereby saves the labor of a man.- 1b.
ART. 1.-POLITICAL ECONOMY. INTRODUCTION TO THE SUBJECT. DISTRIBUTION AND DIRECTION OF LABOR.
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE EMPLOYMENT OF EVERY INDIVIDUAL.
LA BOR. - THE IMPORTANCE OF LOCATING THE PRODUCER AND CONSUMER NEAR
TO EACH OTHER.
In discussing the leading subjects designed to be embraced in the WESTERN JOURNAL, we shall endeavor so to arrange them as to keep their relations to each other in constant view. By adopting this method, we shall be the better able 10 point out the connection of one interest with another, and to show the mutual dependence of each. Notwithstanding the practical application of these subjects is designed for the Valley of the Mississippi, (and, in that respect, local,) yet we shall aim to draw deductions from truths that are universal in their nature, and which are, therefore, interesting to the people of every country.
Writers on political economy regard the wealth of countries, with but little reference to the moral nature of man, or to the social condition of the people. They appreciate labor as the agent of civilization, and as the means of producing the appliances of human comfort; but propose no moral reward to the laborer; they offer no reasons calculated to reconcile him to his condition ; and leave him to toil under the influence of necessity, or from a desire to accumulate wealth, unchastened by moral refinement
In the course of our discussions, we shall endeavor to show that there are other and higher rewards associated with labor; and that it was ordained by the Creator not only for the purpose of feeding and clothing the body, but also to elevate and dignify the moral nature of man. These discussions will lead us to consider the importance of associating mental and moral improvement with useful employments; to the end that man may become reconciled to labor in obedience to the laws of his being.