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INDEX

Abrogation of treaties contrary to the President resents it, 200; no system or

League, in Wilson's original draft, 291; team-work in American Commission, in Treaty, 309, 310.

201, 202, 204, 303; reason for PresiAffirmative guaranty of territory and in- dent's attitude, 202, 203, 211, 212; no

dependence, plan, 33; Wilson adopts, instructions during President's ab34, 35; in Fourteen Points, 35, 36, 316; sence, 203, 208, 209;

results of lack, Lansing's opposition, 37, 44, 85; con- 206; and Preliminary Treaty, 211, 212; stitutional and political arguments influence of lack on Wilson's leaderagainst, 48-50, 167–169; Lansing's ship, 212; text of Fourteen Points, “self-denying covenant” as substitute, 314-316. 52-54; in Wilson's original draft and Annunzio, Gabriele d', at Fiume, 233. in Treaty, 54-56, 93, 283, 303; as con- Arabia, disposition, 196. See olso Near tinuing balance of power, 78; Wilson East. adheres to, 86, 124; not in Cecil plan, Arbitral Tribunal, in Lansing's plan, 6391; in Lansing's resolution of princi- 65. ples, 116; other substitute, 123, 124; Arbitration, as form of peace promotion, as reason for rejection of Treaty by 33; in Lansing's plan, 63-65; in WilSenate, 125; retained in reported Cove- son's original draft, 285, 286, 289, 290; nant, 135; and dominance of Great in Cecil plan, 297; in Treaty, 304, 305, Powers, 166. See also Equality of na- 308, 309. See also Diplomatic adjusttions; League; Self-denying covenant. ment; Judicial settlement. Albania, disposition, 195.

Armenia, mandate for, 159; protectorate, Alliances. See French alliance.

195. See also Near East. Alsace-Lorraine, to be restored to France, Armistice, American conference on, 15. 196, 315.

Article X. See Affirmative guaranty. Amendment of League, provision for, Assembly (Body of Delegates), in Wil313.

son's original draft, 281, 282; analoAmerican Bar Association, Lansing's ad- gous body in Cecil plan, 295; in dress, 70.

Treaty, 300 American Commission, members, 15,48; Auchincloss, Gordon, and drafting of

ignored in League negotiations, 37, 41, League, 122, 123, 131. 42, 46, 87, 105-108, 137, 143, 217; con- Austria, Archduchy and union with Gerference of January 10, 106-108; igno- many, outlet to sea, 99, 195. rant of preliminary negotiations, 214, Austria-Hungary, dissolution, 194, 224; 216, 217; question of resignation over Fourteen Points on subject people, Shantung settlement, 264, 265; shares

315. in Shantung negotiations, 265, 266. Azerbaidjan, Wilson and, 99. See also Bliss; House; Lansing; White; Wilson.

Baker, Ray Stannard, and Shantung, American Peace Society, 30.

261. American programme, lack of definite, Balance of power, Clemenceau advo

as subject of disagreement, 8; Four- cates, 77; Wilson denounces, 77; and teen Points announced, 17; not worked Cecil plan, 89; League and, 165. See out, 190; insufficiency of Fourteen also Affirmative guaranty; Equality Points, 191; Lansing's memorandum of nations. on territorial settlements, 192-197; Balfour, Arthur, signs French alliance, effect of President's attendance at 182. Conference, 198; embarrassment to Balkans, Fourteen Points on, 315. See delegates of lack, 198, 199; projet also states by names. of treaty prepared for Lansing, 199; | Belgium, and Anglo-Franco-American alliance, 179; full sovereignty, 196, plan, 187; Fourteen Points on, 314. 315.

See also Mandates. Bessarabia, disposition, 194,

Commerce. See Non-intercourse; Open Bliss, Tasker H., American delegate, 48; Door.

opposes affirmative guaranty, 124; Commission of Inquiry, work, 17, 18. and Covenant as reported, 137; and Commission on the League of Nations, proposed French alliance, 179; and appointed, 117; and Wilson's return Shantung, letter to President, 255- to United States, 117, 118; meets, Wil261. See also American Commission; son's draft as groundwork, 119; meetAmerican programme.

ings and report, Wilson's address, 134; Body of Delegates. See Assembly. character of report and work, 134, Boers, and self-determination, 97.

137, 172; secrecy, 136, 235; Wilson's Bohemia, disposition, 194.

domination, 138. Bolshevism, peace as check to spread, Constantinople, disposition, 195. IIO.

Constitutional objections, to affirmative Bosnia, disposition, 194.

guaranty, 50-52, 167; and to Cecil Boundaries, principles in drawing, 102. plan, 91. Bowman, Isaiah, Commission of In- Council of Foreign Ministers, estabquiry, 18.

lished, nickname, 219. Brest-Litovsk Treaty, to be abrogated, Council of Four, self-constituted, 214; 193.

secrecy, 218, 236; “Olympians,” 222; Bucharest Treaty, to be abrogated, gives only digest of Treaty to other 193

delegates, 239, 240; Shantung barBuffer state on the Rhine, 179, 180. gain, 243, 254, 255, 261, 267. See also Bulgaria, boundaries, 195.

Secret diplomacy. Bullitt, William C., on revision of Cov- Council of Ten, and Lansing's substitute

enant, 123; testimony on Lansing inter- resolution on League, 115; during Wilview, 268, 269; Lansing's telegram to son's absence, 204; self-constituted President on testimony, 270; no reply organization, 213, 214; and Supreme received, 271; and Wilson's western War Council, 213; divided, 218; and speeches, 272.

secrecy, 235.

Council of the Heads of States. See Canada, Papineau Rebellion and self- Council of Four. determination, 103.

Council (Executive Council) of the Carnegie Endowment for International League, in Wilson's original draft, Peace, 30.

282, 283; analogous body in Cecil Cecil, Lord Robert, plan for League, 88, plan, 295;

in Treaty, 300, 301. 89; Wilson opposes it, 89-92; text of Covenant. See League of Nations. plan, 295-298.

Croatia, disposition, 194.
Central Powers, Wilson and need of Czecho-Slovakia, erection, 194, 224.

defeat, 17; hope in Wilson's attitude,
20; peace or Bolshevism, 110. See Dalmatia, in Pact of London, 223.

also Mandates, and states by name. Danzig, for Poland, 194. China. See Shantung.

Dardanelles, Fourteen Points on, 316. Chinda, Viscount, and Shantung, 254, Declaration of war, affirmative guaranty 255.

and power over, 49, 50, 167. Civil War, and self-determination, 100, Denmark, Schleswig-Holstein, 196;

Heligoland, 196.
Clemenceau, Georges, Supreme War Diplomacy. See Secret diplomacy.

Council, 14; advocates balance of Diplomatic adjustment, as basis of Covpower, 77; and Cecil plan, 89; and enant, 46; exalted, 67–70, 82, 169; Franco-American alliance, 180. See Lansing on judicial settlement and, also Council of Four.

70-73; in Wilson's original draft, 285Codification of international law, in 287; in Treaty, 305-307. See also Lansing's plan, 64, 65,

Judicial settlement. Colonies, disposition of, in Lansing's Disarmament, not touched in Lansing's

IOI.

course.

plan, 75; in Lansing's resolution of France, Alsace-Lorraine, 196, 315; resprinciples, 117; in Wilson's original toration, 315. See also Clemenceau;

draft, 284; in Treaty, 302, 303. French alliance; Great Powers. Dobrudja, disposition, 194, 195. Freedom of the seas, in Fourteen Points,

314. East Indians, and self-determination, 97. French alliance, as subject of disagreeEconomic influence on boundary lines, ment, 8; provisions of treaty, 178; re103.

lation to League, 179, 185; and reEconomic interdependence, importance moval of certain French demands in peace negotiations, 197.

from Treaty of Peace, 179, 180; and Economic pressure. See Non-inter- French adherence to League, 179-181,

185; Lansing's opposition, 182, 183, Egypt, and self-determination, 97; dis- 185, 186; drafted, signed, 182; Lanposition, 196.

sing and signing, 183; arguments for, Election of 1918, as rebuke to Wilson, 183-185.

32. Entangling alliances. See Isolation. Geographic influence on boundary lines, Equality of nations, sacrifice in Wilson's

103 draft of League, 44, 45, 67, 81, 85, 90; Georgia, Wilson and, 99. in Lansing's form for League, 58, 59; Germany, buffer state on the Rhine, ignored in Cecil plan, 88, 89; primacy 179, 180; and Russian route to the of Great Powers retained in reported East, 192, 193; Lansing's memoranCovenant, 135, 138; violation by dum on territorial settlements, 194, Treaty, 164-167, 273, 274; and secret 196, 197; military impotence, 197. diplomacy at Conference, 219, 238– See also Central Powers; French al240.

liance; Mandates. Esthonia, Wilson and, 99; autonomy, Ginn Peace Foundation, 30. 193.

Great Britain, and clause on self-deEthnic influence on boundary lines, 103. termination, 95; Egypt, 196. See also

See also Racial minorities; Self-de- French alliance; Great Powers; Lloyd termination.

George.

Great Powers, and mandates, 156–160. Finland, question of independence, 193. See also Balance of power; Council of Fiume affair, Lansing's attitude, 222; Four; Equality of nations.

Pact of London in light of dissolu- Greece, territory, 194. tion of Austria-Hungary, 223-225; Gregory, Thomas W., and Wilson's resulting increase in Italian claims as modus vivendi idea, 207. basis for compromise, 225; attitude Guaranty. See Affirmative; Self-denyof Italy toward Jugo-Slavia, 225, 226; ing. commercial importance of Fiume to Jugo-Slavia, 226; campaign of Italian Hague Conventions, and international delegates for Fiume, 227, 228; Italian

peace, 30. public sentiment, 228; character of Hague Tribunal, and Lansing's plan, 65, population, self-determination ques- 73; Wilson's contempt, 130; recognition, 229; efforts to get Wilson's ap- tion in Cecil plan, 296. proval, 229-231; threat to retire from Hands Off, as basis of Lansing's plan, 75. Conference, 231; Wilson's statement Health, promotion in Treaty, 312. against Italian claim, 232; withdrawal Heligoland, dismantlement, disposition, of delegation, 232; Italian resentment

196. against Wilson, 232; as lesson on Herzegovina, disposition, 194. secret diplomacy, 233-235; delegation Historic influence on boundary lines,

returns, 235; and Shantung, 259, 260. 103 Fourteen Points, announced, 17; af- Hostilities. See Prevention of war.

firmative guaranty in, 35, 38; insuf- House, Edward M., joins Supreme War ficient as programme, 191; text, 314- Council, 14; conference on armistice 316.

terms, 15; selection as peace negotiator, 15; and President as delegate, 15, 129, 131-133, 169; Lansing's appeal 25, 26; Commission of Inquiry, 18; ignored, 130, 131; in Cecil plan, 296. and drafting of League, 36, 42, 122, See also Arbitration; Diplomatic ad216; and international court, 73, 13!; justment. 132; and “self-denying covenant, Jugo-Slavia, and Anglo-Franco-Ameri79, 124; and balance of power, 78; can alliance, 180; port, 194; erected. of Commission on the League of Na- 194, 224. See also Fiume. tions, 117; and mandates, 153, 160; and data, 202; ignorant of Wilson's Kato, Baron, and Shantung, 248. programme, 205;, and Preliminary Kiao-Chau. See Shantung.

Treaty with detailed Covenant, 210, Kiel Canal, internationalization, 196. 211; and private consultations, 214. Koo, V. K. Wellington, argument on

See also American Commission. Shantung, 253. Hungary, separation from Austria, 194, 224.

Labor article, in Wilson's original draft,

293; in Treaty, 312. Immoral traffic, prevention in Treaty,312. Lansing, Robert, resignation asked and Immunities of League representatives, given, 3; divergence of judgment from 302.

President, 3, 4; reasons for retaining Indemnities, and mandates, 156, 157. office, 3, 137, 162, 187–189, 264, 265; India, German routes to, 192, 193. reasons for narrative, 4; imputation International commissions, in Cecil of faithlessness, 5, 24, 106, 163, 270; plan, 296; in Treaty, 313.

personal narrative, 6; subjects of disInternational court. See Judicial set- agreement, 8, 9, 278-280; attitude tlement.

toward duty as negotiator, 7, 8, 10; International enforcement. See Affirm- policy as to advice to President, 10; ative guaranty:

President's attitude towards opinions, International military force, in Wilson's 11, 23, 59, 60, 62, 79, 87, 105-108, 130,

original draft, 287; in Treaty, 308. 131; method of treatment of subject, International military staff, proposal, 12, 26, 27; conference on armistice 179, 185.

terms, 15; selected as a negotiator, 15; Interparliamentary Congress, in Cecil opposition to President being a deleplan, 296.

gate, 15, 21-23, 25; President's attiInviolability of League property, 302. tude toward this opposition, 23; and Irish, and self-determination, 97. Commission of Inquiry, 18; arrival in Isolation, policy, and affirmative guar- Paris, 48; and balance of power, 78,

anty, 39, 168; and mandates, 149; and 79; and paramount need of speedy French alliance, 180, 185, 186.

peace, 110-113, 209, 210; opposition Italy, and Cecil plan, 89; territory, 194, to mandates, 150-154, 160; opposition 315. See also Fiume; Great Powers. to French alliance treaty, 179, 180,

182, 183, 185, 186; signs it, 182, Japan, and Cecil plan, 89; in Council of 183; personal relations with President,

Ten, 213. See also Great Powers; 186; memorandum on American proShantung:

gramme (1918), 192-197; has projet Judicial settlement of international dis- of treaty prepared, Wilson resents it,

putes, Lansing's plan, 62-64; subor- 199-201; on lack of organization in dinated in Wilson's draft, 67, 74, 82, American Commission, 201; and lack 169; Lansing on diplomatic adjust- of programme, 205, 206; and Ameriment and, 70-73; Lansing urges as nu- can Commission during President's abcleus of League, 73; in Lansing's reso- sence, 203, 204, 208, 209; on Wilson's lution of principles, 116, 117; Lansing's modus vivendi idea, 207; opposition appeal for, in Covenant, 126-130; ar- to secret diplomacy, effect on Wilson, bitrators of litigant nations, 127; dif- 219–221; and Fiume, 222, 230; and ficulties in procedure, 127, 128; cost, Shantung, 254–256, 261-263; Bullitt 128; elimination from Covenant of ap- affair, 269–272; views on Treaty when peal from arbitral awards, how effected, presented to Germans, 272-274; and

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