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INDEX

Abrogation of treaties contrary to the President resents it, 200; no system or

League, in Wilson's original draft, 291; team-work in American Commission,
in Treaty, 309, 310.

201, 202, 204, 303; reason for Presi-
Affirmative guaranty of territory and in- dent's attitude, 202, 203, 211, 212; no

dependence, plan, 33; Wilson adopts, instructions during President's ab-
34, 35; in Fourteen Points, 35, 36, 316; sence, 203, 208, 209;

results of lack,
Lansing's opposition, 37, 44, 85; con- 206; and Preliminary Treaty, 211, 212;
stitutional and political arguments influence of lack on Wilson's leader-
against, 48-50, 167-169; Lansing's ship, 212; text of Fourteen Points,
“self-denying covenant” as substitute, 314-316.
52-54; in Wilson's original draft and Annunzio, Gabriele d', at Fiume, 233.
in Treaty, 54-56, 93, 283, 303; as con- Arabia, disposition, 196. See olso Near
tinuing balance of power, 78; Wilson East.
adheres to, 86, 124; not in Cecil plan, Arbitral Tribunal, in Lansing's plan, 63-
91; in Lansing's resolution of princi- 65.
ples, 116; other substitute, 123, 124; Arbitration, as form of peace promotion,
as reason for rejection of Treaty by 33; in Lansing's plan, 63-65; in Wil-
Senate, 125; retained in reported Cove- son's original draft, 285, 286, 289, 290;
nant, 135; and dominance of Great in Cecil plan, 297; in Treaty, 304, 305,
Powers, 166. See also Equality of na- 308, 309. See also Diplomatic adjust-

tions; League; Self-denying covenant. ment; Judicial settlement.
Albania, disposition, 195.

Armenia, mandate for, 159; protectorate,
Alliances. See French alliance.

195. See also Near East.
Alsace-Lorraine, to be restored to France, Armistice, American conference on, 15.
196, 315.

Article X. See Affirmative guaranty.
Amendment of League, provision for, Assembly (Body of Delegates), in Wil-
313:

son's original draft, 281, 282; analo-
American Bar Association, Lansing's ad- gous body in Cecil plan, 295; in
dress, 70.

Treaty, 300.
American Commission, members, 15, 48; Auchincloss, Gordon, and drafting of

ignored in League negotiations, 37, 41, League, 122, 123, 131.
42, 46, 87, 105-108, 137, 143, 217; con- Austria, Archduchy and union with Ger-
ference of January 10, 106-108; igno- many, outlet to sea, 99, 195.
rant of preliminary negotiations, 214, Austria-Hungary, dissolution, 194, 224;
216, 217; question of resignation over Fourteen Points on subject people,
Shantung settlement, 264, 265; shares 315.
in Shantung negotiations, 265, 266. Azerbaidjan, Wilson and, 99.
See also Bliss; House; Lansing; White;
Wilson.

Baker, Ray Stannard, and Shantung,
American Peace Society, 30.

261.
American programme, lack of definite, Balance of power, Clemenceau advo-

as subject of disagreement, 8; Four- cates, 77; Wilson denounces, 77; and
teen Points announced, 17; not worked Cecil plan, 89; League and, 165. See
out, 190; insufficiency of Fourteen also Affirmative guaranty; Equality
Points, 191; Lansing's memorandum of nations.
on territorial settlements, 192-197; Balfour, Arthur, signs French alliance,
effect of President's attendance at 182.
Conference, 198; embarrassment to Balkans, Fourteen Points on, 315. See
delegates of lack, 198, 199; projet also states by names.
of treaty prepared for Lansing, 199; Belgium, and Anglo-Franco-American

IIO.

alliance, 179; full sovereignty, 196, plan, 187; Fourteen Points on, 314.
315.

See also Mandates.
Bessarabia, disposition, 194.

Commerce. See Non-intercourse; Open
Bliss, Tasker H., American delegate, 48; Door.

opposes affirmative guaranty, 124; Commission of Inquiry, work, 17, 18.
and Covenant as reported, 137; and Commission on the League of Nations,
proposed French alliance, 179; and appointed, 117; and Wilson's return
Shantung, letter to President, 255- to United States, 117, 118; meets, Wil-
261. See also American Commission; son's drait as groundwork, 119; meet-
American programme.

ings and report, Wilson's address, 134;
Body of Delegates. See Assembly. character of report and work, 134,
Boers, and self-determination, 97.

137, 172; secrecy, 136, 235; Wilson's
Bohemia, disposition, 194.

domination, 138.
Bolshevism, peace as check to spread, Constantinople, disposition, 195.

Constitutional objections, to affirmative
Bosnia, disposition, 194.

guaranty, 50-52, 167; and to Cecil
Boundaries, principles in drawing, 102.

plan, 91.
Bowman, Isaiah, Commission of In- Council of Foreign Ministers, estab-
quiry, 18.

lished, nickname, 219.
Brest-Litovsk Treaty, to be abrogated, Council of Four, self-constituted, 214;
193

secrecy, 218, 236; “Olympians,” 222;
Bucharest Treaty, to be abrogated, gives only digest of Treaty to other
193

delegates, 239, 240; Shantung bar-
Buffer state on the Rhine, 179, 180. gain, 243, 254, 255, 261, 267. See also
Bulgaria, boundaries, 195.

Secret diplomacy.
Bullitt, William C., on revision of Cov- Council of Ten, and Lansing's substitute

enant, 123; testimony on Lansing inter- resolution on League, 115; during Wil-
view, 268, 269; Lansing's telegram to son's absence, 204; self-constituted
President on testimony, 270; no reply organization, 213, 214; and Supreme
received, 271; and Wilson's western War Council, 213; divided, 218; and
speeches, 272.

secrecy, 235

Council of the Heads of States. See
Canada, Papineau Rebellion and self- Council of Four.
determination, 103.

Council (Executive Council) of the
Carnegie Endowment for International League, in Wilson's original draft,
Peace, 30.

282, 283; analogous body in Cecil
Cecil, Lord Robert, plan for League, 88, plan, 295; in Treaty, 300, 301.

89; Wilson opposes it, 89-92; text of Covenant. See League of Nations.
plan, 295-298.

Croatia, disposition, 194.
Central Powers, Wilson and need of Czecho-Slovakia, erection, 194, 224.

defcat, 17; hope in Wilson's attitude,
20; peace or Bolshevism, 110. See Dalmatia, in Pact of London, 223.

also Mandates, and states by name. Danzig, for Poland, 194.
China. See Shantung.

Dardanelles, Fourteen Points on, 316.
Chinda, Viscount, and Shantung, 254, | Declaration of war, affirmative guaranty
255

and power over, 49, 50, 167.
Civil War, and self-determination, 100, Denmark, Schleswig-Holstein, 196;

Heligoland, 196.
Clemenceau, Georges, Supreme War Diplomacy. See Secret diplomacy.

Council, 14; advocates balance of Diplomatic adjustment, as basis of Cov-
power, 77; and Cecil plan, 89; and enant, 46; exalted, 67–70, 82, 169;
Franco-American alliance, 180. See Lansing on judicial settlement and,
also Council of Four.

70–73; in Wilson's original draft, 285–
Codification of international law, in 287; in Treaty, 305-307. See also
Lansing's plan, 64, 65.

Judicial settlement.
Colonies, disposition of, in Lansing's | Disarmament, not touched in Lansing's

IOI.

plan, 75; in Lansing's resolution of France, Alsace-Lorraine, 196, 315; res-
principles, 117; in Wilson's original toration, 315. See also Clemenceau;
draft, 284; in Treaty, 302, 303.

French alliance; Great Powers.
Dobrudja, disposition, 194, 195. Freedom of the seas, in Fourteen Points,

314.
East Indians, and self-determination, 97. French alliance, as subject of disagree-
Economic influence on boundary lines, ment, 8; provisions of treaty, 178; re-
103.

lation to League, 179, 185; and re-
Economic interdependence, importance moval of certain French demands
in peace negotiations, 197.

from Treaty of Peace, 179, 180; and
Economic pressure.

See Non-inter- French adherence to League, 179-181,
course.

185; Lansing's opposition, 182, 183,
Egypt, and self-determination, 97; dis- 185, 186; drafted, signed, 182; Lan-
position, 196.

sing and signing, 183; arguments for,
Election of 1918, as rebuke to Wilson, 183-185.

32.
Entangling alliances. See Isolation. Geographic influence on boundary lines,
Equality of nations, sacrifice in Wilson's

103.
draft of League, 44, 45, 67, 81, 85, 90; Georgia, Wilson and, 99.
in Lansing's form for League, 58, 59; Germany, buffer state on the Rhine,
ignored in Cecil plan, 88, 89; primacy 179, 180; and, Russian route to the
of Great Powers retained in reported East, 192, 193; Lansing's memoran-
Covenant, 135, 138; violation by dum on territorial settlements, 194,
Treaty, 164-167, 273, 274; and secret 196, 197; military impotence, 197.
diplomacy at Conference, 219, 238- See also Central Powers; French al-
240.

liance; Mandates.
Esthonia, Wilson and, 99; autonomy, Ginn Peace Foundation, 30.
193.

Great Britain, and clause on self-de-
Ethnic influence on boundary lines, 103. termination, 95; Egypt, 196. See also

See also Racial minorities; Self-de- French alliance; Great Powers; Lloyd
termination.

George.

Great Powers, and mandates, 156-160.
Finland, question of independence, 193. See also Balance of power; Council of
Fiume affair, Lansing's attitude, 222; Four; Equality of nations.

Pact of London in light of dissolu- Greece, territory, 194.
tion of Austria-Hungary, 223-225; Gregory, Thomas W., and Wilson's
resulting increase in Italian claims as modus vivendi idea, 207.
basis for compromise, 225; attitude Guaranty. See Affirmative; Self-deny-
of Italy toward Jugo-Slavia, 225, 226;

ing.
commercial importance of Fiume to
Jugo-Slavia, 226; campaign of Italian Hague Conventions, and international
delegates for Fiume, 227, 228; Italian

peace, 30.
public sentiment, 228; character of Hague Tribunal, and Lansing's plan, 65,
population, self-determination ques- 73; Wilson's contempt, 130; recogni-
tion, 229; efforts to get Wilson's ap- tion in Cecil plan, 296.
proval, 229-231; threat to retire from Hands Off, as basis of Lansing's plan, 75.
Conference, 231; Wilson's statement Health, promotion in Treaty, 312.
against Italian claim, 232; withdrawal Heligoland, dismantlement, disposition,
of delegation, 232; Italian resentment 196.
against Wilson, 232; as lesson on Herzegovina, disposition, 194.
secret diplomacy, 233-235; delegation Historic influence on boundary lines,

returns, 235; and Shantung, 259, 260. 103.
Fourteen Points, announced, 17; af- Hostilities. See Prevention of war.

firmative guaranty in, 35, 38; insuf- House, Edward M., joins Supreme War
ficient as programme, 191; text, 314- Council, 14; conference on armistice
316.

terms, 15; selection as peace negotia-
tor, 15; and President as delegate, 15, 129, 131-133, 169; Lansing's appeal
25, 26; Commission of Inquiry, 18; ignored, 130, 131; in Cecil plan, 296.
and drafting of League, 36, 42, 122, See also Arbitration; Diplomatic ad-
216; and international court, 73, 131, justment.
132; and “self-denying covenant, Jugo-Slavia, and Anglo-Franco-Ameri-
79, 124; and balance of power, 78; can alliance, 180; port, 194; erected,
of Commission on the League of Na- 194, 224. See also Fiume.
tions, 117; and mandates, 153, 160;
and data, 202; ignorant of Wilson's Kato, Baron, and Shantung, 248.
programme, 205; and Preliminary Kiao-Chau. See Shantung.
Treaty with detailed Covenant, 210, Kiel Canal, internationalization, 196.
211; and private consultations, 214. Koo, V. K. Wellington, argument on
See also American Commission.

Shantung, 253.
Hungary, separation from Austria, 194,
224.

Labor article, in Wilson's original draft,

293; in Treaty, 312.
Immoral traffic, prevention in Treaty,312. Lansing, Robert, resignation asked and
Immunities of League representatives, given, 3; divergence of judgment from
302.

President, 3, 4; reasons for retaining
Indemnities, and mandates, 156, 157. office, 3, 137, 162, 187–189, 264, 265;
India, German routes to, 192, 193. reasons for narrative, 4; imputation
International commissions, in Cecil of faithlessness, 5, 24, 106, 163, 270;
plan, 296; in Treaty, 313.

personal narrative, 6; subjects of dis-
International court. See Judicial set- agreement, 8, 9, 278-280; attitude
tlement.

toward duty as negotiator, 7, 8, 10;
International enforcement. See Affirm- policy as to advice to President, 10;
ative guaranty:

President's attitude towards opinions,
International military force, in Wilson's 11, 23, 59, 60, 62, 79, 87, 105-108, 130,

original draft, 287; in Treaty, 308. 131; method of treatment of subject,
International military staff, proposal, 12, 26, 27; conference on armistice
179, 185.

terms, 15; selected as a negotiator, 15;
Interparliamentary Congress, in Cecil opposition to President being a dele-
plan, 296.

gate, 15, 21-23, 25; President's atti-
Inviolability of League property, 302. tude toward this opposition, 23; and
Irish, and self-determination, 97.

Commission of Inquiry, 18; arrival in
Isolation, policy, and affirmative guar- Paris, 48; and balance of power, 78,

anty, 39, 168; and mandates, 149; and 79; and paramount need of speedy
French alliance, 180, 185, 186.

peace, 110-113, 209, 210; opposition
Italy, and Cecil plan, 89; territory, 194, to mandates, 150-154, 160; opposition
315. See also Fiume; Great Powers. to French alliance treaty, 179, 180,

182, 183, 185, 186; signs it, 182,
Japan, and Cecil plan, 89; in Council of 183; personal relations with President,

Ten, 213. See also Great Powers; 186; memorandum on American pro-
Shantung.

gramme (1918), 192-197; has projet
Judicial settlement of international dis- of treaty prepared, Wilson resents it,

putes, Lansing's plan, 62-64; subor- 199-201; on lack of organization in
dinated in Wilson's draft, 67, 74, 82, American Commission, 201; and lack
169; Lansing on diplomatic adjust- of programme, 205, 206; and Ameri-
ment and, 70-73; Lansing urges as nu- can Commission during President's ab-
cleus of League, 73; in Lansing's reso- sence, 203, 204, 208, 209; on Wilson's
lution of principles, 116, 117; Lansing's modus vivendi idea, 207; opposition
appeal for, in Covenant, 126-130; ar- to secret diplomacy, effect on Wilson,
bitrators of litigant nations, 127; dif- 219–221; and Fiume, 222, 230; and
ficulties in procedure, 127, 128; cost, Shantung, 254-256, 261-263; Bullitt
128; elimination from Covenant of ap- affair, 269–272; views on Treaty when
peal from arbitral awards, how effected, presented to Ger ans, 272-274; and

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