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ratification of Treaty, 276. See also peace, 109-112, 173-177, 209–211;
American Commission; League; Wil- Wilson utilizes desire for peace to

force acceptance of League, 112, 119,
Latvia, Wilson and, 99; autonomy, 193. 140, 173-177; Lansing proposes reso-
League of Nations, principles as subject lution to Wilson, 113, 114; and to

of disagreement, 8; as object of peace Council of Ten, 115; drafted resolu-
negotiations, 18; as reason for Presi- tion of principles, 115-117; Commis-
dent's participation in Conference, sion on the League of Nations ap-
28; Wilson's belief in necessity, 28, 31; pointed, American members, 117;
American support of idea, earlier resolution and Wilson's return to
plans and associations, 29–33; diver- United States, 117-119; Wilson's
gence of opinion on form, 33; political draft before Commission, 119; Wilson
and juridical forms of organization, pigeonholes resolution, 119-121; re-
34; Wilson's belief in international vision of Wilson's draft, 122; Lan-
force and affirmative guaranty, 34, sing's appeal for international court,
35; affirmative guaranty in Fourteen 126-130; it is ignored, 130, 131; elimi-
Points, 35, 36, 316; Phillimore's re- nation of appeal from arbitral awards,
port, 36; preparation of Wilson's how effected, 129, 131-133, 169; re-
original draft, House as author, 36, 37, port of Commission, Wilson's ad.
42, 122, 216; Lansing not consulted, dress, 134; character of report and
reason, 37, 41, 42, 46; Lansing's op- work of Commission, main principles
position to affirmative guaranty, 37, unaltered, 134, 135, 137, 172; Wilson
44, 48-50, 78, 85, 167–169; Lansing and American opposition (Feb.), 135,
and non-intercourse peace plan, 40; 139-143; American Commission and
draft impracticable, 43; and equality report, 136, 137; amendments to
of nations, 44, 45, 67, 81, 85, 88-90, placate American opinion, 142, 143;
135, 138, 164-167, 273, 274; Lansing's reaction in Europe due to American
“self-denying covenant,” 44, 52-54, opposition, 143, 144; change in char-
86; Lansing accepts guaranty as mat- acter and addition of functions to pre-
ter of expediency, 45, 49; diplomatic serve it, 145, 148, 154, 156; summary
adjustment as basis of Wilson's draft, of Lansing's objections, 164-177; and
46; guaranty in first draft, later draft, French alliance, 179-181, 185; in a
and Treaty, 54-56, 93, 94; Lansing's preliminary treaty as a modus vi-
substitute, 56-59, 62-67, 74-76; his vendi, 206–208; as subject of Wilson's
communications not acknowledged, private consultations, 214; secrecy in
59, 60, 62, 79, 87; incorporation of de- negotiations, 216, 235; and Shantung
tailed Covenant in Treaty, 61; ir- bargain, 245-247, 261; Bullitt's report
reconcilable differences between Wil- of Lansing's attitude, 269-272; and
son's and Lansing's plans, 67–70, 85; carrying out of the Treaty, 273, 274;
Lansing on diplomatic adjustment as merely a name for the Quintuple Al-
versus judicial settlement, 70-73; liance, 273, 274; text of Wilson's origi-
Lansing urges international court as nal draft, 281-294; of Cecil plan, 295–
nucleus, 73; three doctrines of Lan- 298; in Treaty, 299-313. See also
sing's plan, 75; Lansing's first view of Mandates.
Wilson's draft, 79; his opinion of its League to Enforce Peace, 30; Wilson's
form, 81; of its principles, 81; Wilson address, 34, 35.
considers affirmative guaranty essen- Lithuania, Wilson and, 99; autonomy,
tial, effect on Treaty, 87, 124, 125; 193.
American Commission ignored on Lloyd George, David, Supreme War
matters concerning, 87, 105-108, 143,

Council, 14; and French alliance, 181,
217; Cecil plan, 88, 89; Wilson's op- 182. See also Council of Four.
position to it, 89-92; question of self- Log-rolling at Conference, 236.
determination, 94-105; Lansing's pro- London, Pact of, 223.
posed resolution of principles in
Treaty and later detailing, 109, 110, Makino, Baron, and Shantung, 254, 255.
170-172; detailed Covenant or speedy Mandates, in Smuts plan, Wilson adopts
it, 82; Lansing's criticism, 83-85, 160; | Palestine, autonomy, 196. See also Near
retained in reported Covenant, 135; East.
political difficulties, 149; Wilson's Pan-America, proposed mutual guar-
attitude, 150; legal difficulties, 150 anty treaty, 35, 39.
154; usefulness questioned, 155, 156; as Papineau Rebellion, and self-determi-
means of justifying the League, 156; nation, 103.
and indemnities, 156, 157; altruistic, Peace, Treaty of, inclusion of detailed
to be share of United States, 157– Covenant as subject of disagreement,
160; in Wilson's original draft, 291; 8; expected preliminary treaty, 76,
in Treaty, 310-312.

109; speedy restoration of peace ver-
Meeting-place of League, in Wilson's sus detailed Covenant, 110-112, 173-

original draft, 281; in Cecil plan, 297; 177, 209-211; Wilson employs desire
in Treaty, 302.

for, to force acceptance of League, re-
Membership in League, in Wilson's sulting delay, 112, 119, 140, 173-177;

original draft, 291; in Treaty, 299; delay on League causes definitive
withdrawal, 299, 313.

rather than preliminary treaty, 174;
Mezes, Sidney E., Commission of In- subjects for a preliminary treaty, 208,
quiry, 18; and data, 202.

209; influence of lack of American pro-
Miller, David Hunter, and drafting of

gramme, 206, 211, 212; Wilson's de-
Covenant, 122, 123, 131; and projet cision for a definitive treaty, 208; Lan-
of a treaty, 199, 200.

sing's views of finished treaty, 272-
Modus vivendi, Wilson and a preliminary 274; British opinion, 274; protests of
treaty as, 206–208.

experts and officials of American Com-
Monroe Doctrine, and affirmative cove- mission, 274, 275; Lansing and rati-

nant, 40, 49, 168; preservation in fication, 276. See also League.
Treaty, 310

Persia, disposition, 196.
Montenegro, in Jugo-Slavia, 194; Four- Phillimore, Lord, 'report on League of
teen Points on, 315.

Nations, 36.
Moravia, disposition, 194:

Poland, and Anglo-Franco-American al-
Munitions, regulation of manufacture liance, 180; independence, 194, 224,

and trade, in Wilson's original draft, 316; Danzig, 194.
284; in Treaty, 303, 312.

Postponement of hostilities, as form of

peace promotion, 33; in Wilson's origi-
National safety, dominance of principle, nal draft, 285; in Cecil plan, 297; in

Treaty, 304
Near East, United States and mandates, President as delegate, as subject of dis-
149, 158; Lansing's memorandum on

agreement, 8; Lansing's opposition,
territorial settlements, 195-196; man- 15, 21-24; origin of Wilson's intention,
dates in Wilson's original draft, 291; 16; influence of belligerency on plan,
mandates in Treaty, 310, 311; Four- 19; influence of presence on domina-

teen Points on, 316. (covenant. tion of situation, 20, 22; personal rea-
Negative guaranty. See Self-denying sons for attending, 20, 21; decision to
Non-intercourse, as form of peace pro- go to Paris, 22; decision to be a dele-

motion, 33, 40; constitutionality, 51, gate, 25; attitude of House, 26; League
52; in Wilson's original draft, 287, as reason for decision, 28.
288, 290; in Treaty, 307.

Prevention of war, in Wilson's original
Norway, Spitzbergen, 196.

draft, 288-290; in Cecil plan, 297; in

Treaty, 304. See also Arbitration;
Open Door, in Lansing's plan, 66, 75, League.
117; in Near East, 196, 311, 312; in Publication of treaties, in Lansing's plan,
former German colonies, 197; prin- 65, 66, 117; in Treaty, 309.
ciple in Wilson's original draft, 293; Publicity, as basis of Lansing's plan, 75.
and in Treaty, 311, 312; in Fourteen See also Secret diplomacy.

Points, 314.
Outlet to the sea for each nation, 197. Quintuple Alliance, League of Nations
Orlando, Vittorio Emmanuele, 228-235. as name for, 273, 274.

102.

Racial equality, issue in Shantung bar- 98, 99, 273; and Civil War, 100, 101;
gain, 243, 255.

and Fiume, 229; colonial, in Fourteen
Racial minorities, protection, in Wilson's Points, 314; Wilson's statement (Feb.
original draft, 294.

1918), 317.
Ratification of Treaty, Lansing's atti- Senate of United States, and affirmative
tude, 276.

guaranty, 125; opposition and Wil-
Red Cross, promotion in Treaty, 313. son's threat, 141; plan to check op-
Rhenish Republic, as buffer state, 179, position by a modus vivendi, 207:
180.

Separation of powers, Wilson's attitude,
Roumania, Bucharest Treaty to be ab- 70.

rogated, 193; territory, 194; Fourteen Serbia, Jugo-Slavia, 194; territory, 195;
Points on, 315.

Fourteen Points on, 315, 316.
Russia, Wilson's policy, 99, 100; and Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. See Jugo-

route for Germany to the East, 192, Slavia.
193; Lansing's notes on territorial Shantung Settlement, as subject of dis-
settlement, 193, 194; Fourteen Points

agreement, 9; and secret diplomacy,
on, 314

243, 244, 267; bargain, 243, 255, 261;
Ruthenians, and Ukraine, 194.

injustice, blackmail, 244; influence of

Japanese bluff not to agree to the
Schleswig-Holstein, disposition, 196. League, 245-247, 261-264; German
Scott, James Brown, drafts French control, 247; Japanese occupation,

alliance treaty, 182; and projet of a moral effect, 248, 257, 258; Chinese
treaty, 199, 200.

agreement to Japanese demands, re-
Secret diplomacy, as subject of disagree- sulting legal and moral status, 249,

ment, 8; in negotiation of League, 258, 259; status after China's declara-
136, 216, 235; as evil at Conference, tion of war on Germany, 249-252;
213; Lansing's opposition, its effect attitude of Allied delegates, 252; at-
on Wilson, 213, 219, 221, 237; Wilson's titude of American Commission, letter
consultations, 214-216; and Wilson's to Wilson, 252, 254–265; argument
“open diplomacy," 217; in Council before Council of Ten, 253; Japanese
of Four, 218, 236; public resentment, threat to American Commission, 253;
221, 222, 237; Fiume affair as lesson before Council of Four, 254; value
on, 233-235; perfunctory open plenary of Japanese promises questioned,
sessions of Conference, 235; Council 243, 259–262; and Fiume, 259, 260;
of Ten, 235; effect on Wilson's pres- question of resignation of American
tige, 236; responsibility, 237; effect Commission over, 264, 265; China
on delegates of smaller nations, 238, refuses to sign Treaty, 265; Wilson
239; climax, text of Treaty withheld permits American Commission to
from delegates, 239, 240; psychologi- share in negotiations, 265, 266; Ameri-
cal effect, 240; great opportunity for can public opinion, 266, 267; text of
reform missed, 241; and Shantung, Treaty articles on, 318, 319.
243, 244, 267; Fourteen Points on, Silesia, and Czecho-Slovakia, 194.
314. See also Publicity.

Slavonia, disposition, 194.
Secretariat of the League, in Wilson's Slovakia, disposition, 194.

original draft, 283; in Cecil plan, 296; Small nations. See Equality.
in Treaty, 301, 302.

Smuts, General, and disarmament, 75;
"Self-denying covenant” for guaranty plan for mandates, 82, 155.

of territory and independence, Lan- Society for the Judicial Settlement of
sing's advocacy, 44, 52; House and, International Disputes, 30.
79; Wilson rejects, 86; suggested by Sonnino, Baron Sidney. See Fiume.
others to Wilson, 123.

Sovereignty, question in system of man-
Self-determination, in Wilson's draft of dates, 151, 291.

Covenant, 93, 283, 292; why omitted Spitzbergen, disposition, 196.
from treaty, 94; in theory and in prac- Strategic influence on boundary lines, 103.
tice, 96-98, 102-105; Wilson aban- Straus, Oscar S., favors League as re-
dons, 98-100; violation in the treaties, ported, 136.

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