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should be protected by a British guard; but should they go to the fort, they would be subject to a general massacre by the savages, which would be inevitable if the garrison fired a gun. This information I received from doctor Day, who was passing through the village when every person was flying for refuge to the enemy: Immediately on being informed of the approach of the enemy, I placed ammunition, &c. in the block-houses; ordered every gun charged, and made every preparation for action. About 9 o'clock I could discover that the enemy were in possession of the heights that commanded the fort, and one piece of their artillery directed to the most defenceless part of the garrison. The Indians at this time were to be seen in great numbers in the edge of the woods. At half past 11 o'clock, the enemy sent in a flag of truce, demanding a surrender of the fort and island to his Britannic majesty's forces. This, sir, was the first information I had of the declaration of war; I, however, had anticipated it, and was as well prepared to meet such an event as I possibly could have been with the force under my command, amounting to 57 effective men, including officers. Three American gentlemen, who were prisoners, were permitted to accompany the flag: from them I ascertained the strength of the enemy to be from nine hundred to one thousand strong, consisting of regular troops, Canadians and savages; that they had two pieces of artillery, and were provided with ladders and ropes for the purpose of scaling the works if necessary. After I had obtained this information, I consulted my officers and also the American gentlemen present, who were very intelligent men; the result of which was, that it was impossible for the garrison to hold out against such a superior force. "In this opinion I fully concurred, from the conviction that it was the only measure that could prevent a general massacre, The fort and garrison were accordingly surrendered.
The enclosed papers exhibit copies of the correspondence between the officer commanding the British forces and myself, and of the articles of capitulation. This subject involved questions of a peculiar nature; and I hope, sir, that my demands and protests will meet the approbation of my government. I cannot allow this opportunity to escape without expressing my obligation to doctor Day for the service he rendered me in conducting this correspondence.
In consequence of this unfortunate affair, I beg leave, sir, to demand that a court of inquiry may be ordered to investigate all the facts connected with it; and I do further request, that the court may be specially directed to express their opinion on the merits of the case.
I have the honour to be, sir, &c
Lieutenant of Artillery, His Excellency Gen.
Commancing the N. W. Army.
P. S. The following particulars relating to the British force were obtained after the capitulation, from a source that admits of no doubt.
Regular troops, 46 (including 4 officers.)
It may also be remarked, that one hundred and fifty Chippewas and Ottawas joined the British two days after the capitulation.
SANDWICH, August 7, 1812. SIR,
On the 4th instant major Van Horn, of colonel Findlay's regiment of Ohio volunteers, was detached from this army, with the command of 200 men, principally riflemen, to proceed to the river Raisin, and further, if necessary, to meet and reinforce captain Brush, of the state of Ohio, commanding a company of volunteers, and escorting provisions for this army. At Brownstown, a large body of Indians had formed an ambuscade, and the major's detachment received a heavy fire, at the distance of fifty yards from the enemy. The whole detachment retreated in disorder. Major Van Horn made every exertion to form, and prevent the retreat, that was possible for a brave and gallant officer, but without success. By the return of killed and wounded, it will be perceived that the loss of officers was uncommonly great. Their efforts to rally their companions was the occasion of it.
I ain, very respectfully,
WM. HULL. Hon. Wm. Eustis, Secretary of War.
Killed, 7 officers-10 privates:--number of wounded unknown.
DETROIT, August 13, 1812. SIR,
The main body of the army having re-crossed the river to Detroit, on the night and inorning of the 8th instant, 600 men were immediately detached under the command of lieutenant colonel Miller, to open the communication to the river Raisin, and
protect the provisions under the escort of captain Brush. This detachment consisted of the 4th United States' regiment, and two small detachments under the command of lieutenant Stansbury, and ensign M'Labe of the 1st regiment, detachments from the Ohio and Michigan volunteers, a corps of artillerists, with one six pounder and an howitzer under the command of lieutenant Eastman, and a part of captains Smith and Sloan's cavalry, commanded by captain Sloan of the Ohio volunteers.
Lieutenant colonel Miller marched from Detroit on the afternoon of the 8th instant, and on the 9th, about 4 o'clock, P. M. the van guard, commanded by captain Snelling of the 4th United States' regiment, was fired on by an 'extensive line of British troops and Indians at the lower part of the Magaugo, about 14 miles from Detroit. At this time the main body was marching in two columns, and captain Snelling maintained his position in a most gallant manner, under a very heavy fire, until the line was formed and advanced to the ground he occupied, when the whole, excepting the rear guard, was brought into action.
The enemy were formed behind a temporary breast-work of logs, the Indians extending in a thick wood on their left. Lieutenant colonel Miller ordered his whole line to advance, and when within a small distance of the enemy made a general discharge, and proceeded with charged bayonets, when the British line and Indians commenced a retreat. They were pursued in a most vigorous manner about two miles, and the pursuit discontinued only on account of the fatigue of the troops, the approach of evening, and the necessity of returning to take care of the wounde The judicious arrangements made by lieutenant colonel Miller, and the gallant manner in which they were executed, justly entitle him to the highest honour. From the moment the line commenced the fire, it continually moved on, and the enemy maintained their position until forced at the point of the bayonet. The Indians on the left, under the command of Tecumseh, fought with great obstinacy, but were continually forced and compelled to retreat. The victory was complete in every part of the line, and the success would have been more brilliant had the cavalry charged the enemy on the retreat, when a most favorable opportunity presented. Although orders were given for the purpose, unfortunately they were not executed. Majors Van Horn and Morrison, of the Ohio volunteers, were associated with lieutenant colonel Miller, as field officers in this command, and were highly distinguished by their exertions in forming the line, and the firm and intrepid manner they led their respective commands to action.
Captain Baker of the 1st United States' regiment, captain Brevoort of the 2d, and captain Hull of the 13th, my aid-decamp, and lieutenant Whistler of the 1st, requested permission to join the detachment as volunteers. Lieutenant colonel Miller assigned to captain Baker and lieutenant Whistler, separate commands; and captains Brevoort and Hull, at his request
attended his person and aided him in the general arrangements. Lieutenant colonel Miller has mentioned the conduct of those officers in terms of high approbation. In addition to the captains who have been named, lieutenant colonel Miller has mentioned captains Burton and Fuller of the 4th regiment, captains Saunders and Brown of the Ohio volunteers, and captain Delandre of the Michigan volunteers, who were attached to his command, and distinguished by their valour. It is impossible for me, in this communication, to do justice to the officers and soldiers, who gained the victory which I have described. They have acquired high honour to themselves, and are justly entitled to the gratitude of their country.
Major Muir of the 41st regiment, commanded the British in this action. The regulars and volunteers consisted of about 400, and a large number of Indians. Major Muir and two subalterns were wounded, one of them since dead. About forty Indians were found dead on the field, and Tecumseh, their leader, was slightly wounded. The number of wounded Indians who escaped has not been ascertained. Four of major Muir's detachment have been made prisoners, and fifteen of the 41st regiment killed and wounded. The militia and volunteers attached to his command, were in the severest part of the action, and their loss must have been great—it has not yet been ascertained.
I have the honour to be, yours, &c.
Brig. Gen. commanding N. W. Army. Hon. Wm. Eustis, Secretary of War. Killed and wounded in the action near Maguago, Aug. 9, 1812.
4th U.S. regiment—10 non-commissioned officers and privates killed, and 45 wounded. Ohio and Michigan volunteers-8 killed and 12 wounded.
GENERAL HULL'S CAPITULATION.
DETROIT, August 12, 1812.
I have several times written to you since I heard you were on your march, but I find that my letters have never reached you. Two detachments have been sent to meet you, but both returned with loss. We have abandoned Canada, and the British force is now opposite this place pointing their artillery; the firing will commence shortly. I fear you will not be able to see us. If possible take care of yourself and party. The enemy may not have force to see you and attend to us.
The bearer will, or can give you a hint of our situation. Adieu, I have not time to write.
DUNCAN M ARTHUR. Captain H. Brush.
DETROIT, 14th August, 1812 SIR,
The state of the communication between this and the river Raisin, is such that a sufficient detachment cannot be sent at present to bring on the provisions with safety. You will there. fore remain at the river Raisin, and in conjunction with Le Croix's corps and your own, protect the provisions and yourselves until further orders. The detachment sent for the purpose of opening the communication are so fatigued after a severe and victorious battle that it will return here.
I am, respectfully,
W. HULL, Gen. Commanding. Captain Brush, or the commanding
officer at the river Raisin. P.S. If consulting with colonel Anderson and captain Jobart, the bearer of this, and from all the information you can obtain, it should be the opinion, you can come an upper road crossing the river Huron, at Godfrey's trading establishment, you are authorized to proceed that route, in which case you will give me an immediate notice. No person must know this excepting colonel Anderson, captain Jobart, and yourself. Take captain Jobart for a guide, and if he recommends other guides, with him, they shall be paid. Captain Le Croix, with his company, will proceed on with you.
W. HULL Captain Brush.
RIVER RUSH, August 16th, 1812. SIR,
By the within letter you will see that the army under general Hull has been surrendered. By the articles you will see that provision has been made for the detachment under your command; you will, therefore, I hope, return to Ohio with us.
DUNCAN M'ARTHUR. Captain Henry Brush.
HEAD QUARTERS, AT DETROIT, August 16th, 1812. SIR,
I have signed articles of capitulation for the surrender of this garrison in which you and your detachment are prisoners of war. Such part of the Ohio militia as have not joined the army, will be permitted to return to their homes, on condition that they will not serve during the war. Their arms, however, will be delivered up if belonging to the public.
I am, very respectfully, &c.
W. HÚLL, Brig. Gen.
Commanding the N. W. army. Colonel Duncan M'Arthur.