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Tranflation of his Catholick Majefty's Orders, figned by the Balio Fray Don Julian de Arriaga, to Don Philip' Ruez Puente, dated Pardo, 7th of February, 1771.


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T being agreed between the King and his Britannick Majefty, by a convention figned at London on the 22d of January laft paft, by the Prince of Maferano and the Earl of Rochford, that the Great Malouine, called by the English Falkland Island, should be immediately replaced. in the precife fituation in which it was before it was evacuated by them on the 10th of June last year; I fignify to you, by the King's order, that as foon as the perfon commiffioned by the Court of London fhall prefent himself to you with this, you order the delivery of the Port de la Crufada or Egmont, and its fort and dependencies, to be effected; as alfo that of all the artillery, ammunition, and effects, that were found there belonging to his Britannick Majesty and his fubjects, according to the inventories figned by George Farmer and William Maltby,' Efqrs. on the 11th of July of the faid year, at the time of their quitting the fame, of which I fend you the enclofed copies, authenticated under my hand; and that as foon as the one and the other fhall be effected, with the due formalities, you cause to retire immediately the Officer, and other fubjects of the King, which may be there. God preferve you many years.


Pardo, 7th February, 1771.

The Balio Fray Don Julian de Arriaga.

To Don Philip Ruez Puente,.......

Declaration of INDEPENDENCE by the Reprefentatives of the United States of America, in Congrefs affembled, July, 1776.


HEN, in courfe of human events, it becomes neceffary for one people to diffolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to affume, among the powers of the earth, the feparate and equal ftation to which the laws of nature and of nature's



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God entitle them, a decent refpect to the opinions of mankind requires that they fhould declare the caufes which impel them to the feparationenca


We hold these truths to be felf-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed, by their Creator, with certain unalienable rights, that among these are, life, liberty, and the purfuit of happinefs. to fecure thefe rights, governments are inftituted among men, deriving their juft powers from the confent of the governed; that whenever any form of government becomes destructive to thefe ends, it is right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to inftitute new government, laying its foundation on fuch principles, and organizing its powers in fuch form, as to them fhall feem most likely to effect their fafety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate, that governments long established should not be changed for light and tranfient caufes; and accordingly all experience hath fhewn, that mankind are more difpofed to fuffer, while evils are fufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accuftomed. But when a long train of abuses and ufurpations, purfuing invariably the fame object, evinces a defign to reduce them under abfolute defpotifm, it is their right, it is their duty to throw off fuch government, and to provide new guards for their future fecurity. Such has been the patient fufferance of thefe colonies, and fuch is now the neceffity which conftrains them to alter their former fyftems of government. The hiftory of is a history of repeated injuries and ufurpations, all having in direct object the eftablishment of an abfolute tyranny' over these states. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world:

He has refufed to affent to laws the most wholesome and neceffary for the publick. good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pafs laws of immediate and preffing importance, unless fufpended in their operation till his affent fhould be obtained; and when fo fufpended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refufed to pafs other laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless thofe people would relinquish the right of reprefentation in the legif



Fature; a right ineftimable to them, and formidable to tyrants only low filtrecto

He has called together legiflative bodies at places unufual, uncomfortable, and diftant from the depofitory of their publick records for the fole purpofe of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has diffolved reprefentative houfes repeatedly, for oppofing, with manly firmnefs, his invafions on the rights of the people.


He has refufed, for a long time after fuch diffolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the legisla tive powers, incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercife; the state remaining, in the mean time, expofed to all the dangers of invafion from without, and convulfions within. JHe has endeavoured to prevent the population of these states; for that purpofe obftructing the laws for naturatization of foreigners, refufing to pafs others to encourage their migrations hither, and raifing the conditions of new appropriations of lands.


He has obftructed the adminiftration of juftice, by refufing his affent to laws for eftablishing judiciary powers.

He has made judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their falaries.

He has erected a multitude of new offices, and fent hither swarms of officers to harrafs our people, and eat out their fubftance.


He has kept among us, in times of peace, ftanding armies without the confent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the military independent of, and fuperior to, the civil power.

He has combined with others to fubject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our conftitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his affent to their acts of pretended legiflation:

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among


For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punishment for any murders which they fhould commit on the inhar bitants of these ftates;


For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world: For impofing taxes on us without our confent: For depriving us, in many cafes, of the benefits of trial by jury.

For tranfporting us beyond feas to be tried for pretended offences:

For abolishing the free fyftem of English laws in a neighbouring province, establishing therein an arbitrary government and enlarging its boundaries, fo as to render it at once an example and fit inftrument for introducing the fame abfolute rule into thefe colonies:

For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering fundamentally the forms of our governments:

For fufpending our own legislatures, and declaring themfelves invefted with power to legiflate for us in all cafes whatfoever..

He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection, and waging war against us.

He has plundered our feas, ravaged our coafts, burnt our towns, and deftroyed the lives of our people.

He is, at this time, tranfporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the works of death, defolation, and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy, fcarcely parallelled in the moft barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation. He has conftrained our fellow citizens taken captive on the high feas, to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themfelves by their hands.

He has excited domeftic infurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers the merciless Indian favages, whofe known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, fexes, and conditions.

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In every ftage of thefe oppreffions we have petitioned for redress in the most humble terms; our repeated petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A whose character is thus marked by every act


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which may define a
free people.

is unfit to be the ruler of a


Nor have we been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them, from time to time, of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurifdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and fettlement here. We have appealed to their native juftice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them, by the ties of our common kindred, to difavow thefe ufurpations which would inc vitably interrupt our connections and correfpondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of juftice and of confanguinity. We muft, therefore, acquiefce in the neceffity which denounces our feparation, and hold them, as we hold the reft of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends.

We, therefore, the reprefentatives of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, in GENERAL CONGRESS affembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name, and by the authority of the good people of these Colonies, folemnly publish and declare, that thefe United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES; that they are abfolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally diffolved; and that as FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and do all other acts and things which INDEPENDENT STATES may of right do. And for the fupport of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of DIVINE PROVIDENCE, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our facred honour.

Signed by order, and in behalf of the Congrefs,
JOHN HANCOCK, Prefident.


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