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extends likewife the engagements of this treaty, which are founded upon the natural rights of nations, to the Courts of France and Spain; which faid Courts, until the date of the prefent convention, have no treaty of commerce with her empire.

His Majefty the King of Sweden, for his part, refers chiefly to the eleventh article of this treaty of commerce with the Court of Great Britain, and to the tenor of the preliminary treaty of commerce concluded between Sweden and France in the year 1741; and although the articles that are to be deemed contraband are not expreffly af certained and determined in the laft-mentioned treaty, the two powers having understood to confider each other as Gens amiciffima, the Court of Sweden has, however, reserved to itself the fame advantages which the HanfeTowns enjoy in France fince times immemorial until the prefent period. The advantages which are included in the treaty of Utrecht being fully confirmed, the King has nothing to add thereto. With regard to the Court of Spain, his Swedish Majefty finds himself in the fame. fituation as the Emprefs of Ruffia, and following her Majefty's example, the King likewife extends to the Court of Spain all the engagements of the above-mentioned treaties, as being founded upon the natural rights of na


In confequence of this difference in the above article, the two Kings who have joined her Majefty the Empress of Ruffia, in this affair, have acceded, as principal contracting parties, to the treaties and conventions concluded between them and her faid Imperial Majefty, and to this effect they have figned with their own hand a feparate act, which faid acts have been exchanged in due form at Petersburg by the Ministers of her Imperial Majefty,

Their High Mightineffes the States General of the United Provinces, alfo acceded to the faid convention on the 20th of November, 1780, and under the fame conditions, for what concerns the articles of contraband, according to the treaties fubfifting between their High Mightineffes and other powers, which faid convention has been figned at Petersburg by their Plenipotentiaries


on the 5th of January, 1781, with the addition of the following article:

XIII. For what concerns the command in chief of the naval forces, in cafe the fquadrons or fhips of war of the two high contracting parties fhould happen to meet, or find it expedient to form a junction, it is hereby ftipulated and agreed, that the fame fhall be obeyed as is cuftomary between crowned Sovereigns and the Republick of Holland.

Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the Empire of Ruffia and the Crown of Denmark, concluded at St. Petersburg, the of October, 1782.

In the Name of the Moft Holy and Undivided Trinity.


ER Imperial Majefty of all the Ruffias and his Majefty the King of Denmark, having it equally at heart to cement more and more, by all the ties of friendship and good correfpondence, the ftrict union which fubfifts between their Majefties and their respective states, have, amongst other objects, exerted their endeavours to extend and encourage, as much as poffible, a reciprocity of commerce between their subjects; and the more effectually to obtain this end, they have judged it proper to collect into one point of view, and establish the rights and reciprocal obligations upon which they have mutually agreed between them, to encourage industry, and to facilitate the mutual exchanges between the two nations, and to reduce the feveral points agreed on between them for that purpose into a treaty of commerce in due form: in confequence whereof, and to proceed without delay to the completion of fo falutary a work, their faid Majesties have chofen and named for their Plenipotentiaries, viz. For her Imperial Majefty of all the Ruffias, the Sieur John Count d'Ofterman, her Vice Chancellor, and Knight of the Order of St. Alexander Newfky, and of St. Anne; the Sieur Alexander Count de Worrontzoff, Privy Counsellor, Senator, Prefident of the College of Commerce,

Commerce, her Majefty's Chamberlain, and Knight of the Order of St. Alexander Newfky; the Sieur Alexander de Bezborodko, Major General of the Armies, Member of the College of Foreign Affairs, and Colonel Commandant of the Kiovie Regiment of the Militia of Little Ruffia; and the Sieur Peter de Bacounin, Counsellor of State, Member of the College of Foreign Affairs, and Knight of the Order of St. Anne :-And on the part of his Danish Majefty, the Sieur Peter Chriftian de Schumacher, his Counfellor of Conferences, Envoy Extraordinary, and Minifter Plenipotentiary at the Imperial Court of Ruffia, who, after having exchanged between 1 them their credentials found in good and due form, have fixed, concluded, and finally agreed, upon the following articles, viz.


Article I. There fhall fubfift between her Imperial Majefty of all the Ruffias, her heirs and fucceffors to the Throne, of the one part, and his Majesty the King of Denmark, his heirs, and fucceffors to the Throne, of the other part, as also between their states, kingdoms, provinces, cities, and fubjects, to perpetuity, a lafting peace, familiarity and good understanding; and in virtue of this concord, as well the faid two powers as their fubjects, without exception, fhall afford mutually, on all occafions, and particularly that which concerns commerce and navigation, all the aid and affiftance poffible in difplaying for this purpofe all the zeal of friends and good neighbours, and without ever hazarding any thing that can turn to the prejudice or detriment of either of the parties.

II. Perfect liberty of conscience shall be granted to the fubjects of the two nations in their respective states, and, confequently, they fhall have free liberty to exercise the duties of their religion in their own houses, in buildings, or churches, deftined or permitted for that purpose by Government, without being troubled or molefted on any account whatsoever.

III. The fubjects of Ruffia in Denmark, or the fubjects of Denmark in Ruffia, fhall be conftantly regarded and treated as the most favoured nations and the two high contracting parties engage, between them, to grant to

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their refpective fubjects all the accommodation and affiftance, and all the commercial advantages which can naturally arife from fuch a preference, in order, as much as poffible, to extend and raise to a flourishing state the commerce of the fubjects of Ruffia in Denmark, and of the fubjects of Denmark in Ruffia; provided, nevertheless, that in all cafes where the prefent treaty fhall not ftipulate fome exemption or privilege in favour of the two nations, or of fome one in particular, the Ruffian or Danish merchants fhall fubmit in their trade or traffic to the Tariff or Cuftom Book, ordinances, and laws of the country in which they fhall be fettled.

IV. It fhall be permitted to the fubjects of each of the allied powers in the states of the other, to navigate, fell, and transport freely by water and by land, in all the ports, cities, and roads of the two countries, all merchandize of which the coming in and going out is not prohibited, on payment, however, of the cuftoms and prescribed rights in each place, and upon conforming thereto in the fame manner as the veffels and carriages laden with the like transports of merchandizes do to the laws eftablished in the place where fuch commerce fhall be carried on, Her Imperial Majefty of all the Ruffias excepts only from the aforefaid permiffion, her ports of the Black Sea, of the Cafpian Sea, and her other poffeffions in Afia; and his Danish Majefty excepts only his poffeffions in America, and the other eftablishments which he poffeffes out of Europe.

V. The commercial fubjects of the two high contracting parties fhall pay for their merchandises the cuftoms or duties fixed in the refpective ftates by the custom-rate books, according to the prefent or future regulations. And her Imperial Majefty of all the Ruffias is fatisfied, that the gives his Danish Majefty a moft convincing proof of the efteem in which the holds his Majefty, in the favour and preference which the profeffes in future to give to the Danish fubjects in her dominions, in granting them permiffion to difcharge the duties or cuftoms in the current money of the country, without being fubject, as heretofore, to pay the fame in rixdollars valuing the rixdollar at 124 copecks current money of Ruffia; except, never



theless, the ports of Livonia, Estonia, and Finland, which have particular cuftoms and privileges to which the prefent treaty is not to extend.

VI. As a reciprocal return for the advantages granted by the preceding article in favour of the commercial fubjects of Denmark, his Danish Majefty wishing to benefit the trade of the fubjects of Ruffia in his ftates, agrees, by the present treaty, to grant them the following advantages:

1. That the Ruffian leaf tobacco, known in Europe under the name of Ukraine tobacco, through the paffage of the Sound, fhall pay in future only eight ftivers for ten pounds of the weights of Ruffia.

2. That fuch merchandifes as are valued or estimated by the rate of the last, or by weight and measure, fhall be examined and taxed in paffing the Sound according to the lafts, measures, and weights actually used in the places and ports of the Ruffian empire, from whence fuch merchandifes fhall be cleared out.

3. That the pieces of Riga timber, known under the name of Surren Balden, which are five, fix, seven, eight, and nine fathoms in length, fhall pay for their paffage through the Sound, for twenty pieces two and an half reichs-orts, and those of the length of from four to one fathom, and lefs, fhall be reduced to the duty and to the measure of the pieces of from nine to five fathoms in length, and fhall pay the customs of the Sound according to that reduction made on the measure of the great pieces.

4. That the Vedaffe or Veidaffe fhall be paid at the rate of a dozen ftivers, the last which fhall contain twelve tons of the fize of those now in ufe at Riga.

VII. And, moreover, his Danish Majefty, accustomed to favour the interests of the empire of Ruffia as those of an ancient friend and ally of his Crown, will permit the fubjects of Ruffia to enjoy, throughout the Sound, an equal treatment with the nations the most favoured of Denmark, in requiring only one per cent. for all merchandifes, of which mention is not made in the tariff or cuftom book.

VII. The veffels and merchandises which belong to the fubjects of Ruffia fhall not be fearched in paffing the


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