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either nation fhall take fuch commiffion or letters of marque, he fhall be punished as a pirate.

XXIV. The veffels of the fubjects of either of the parties coming upon any of the coafts belonging to the other, but not willing to enter into port, or being entered into port, and not willing to unload their cargoes, or to break bulk, fhall not be obliged to do it, but, on the contrary, fhall enjoy all the franchises and exemptions which are granted by the rules fubfifting with refpect to that object.

XXV. When a veffel belonging to the fubjects and inhabitants of either of the parties, failing on the high fea, Thall be met by a fhip of war or privateer of the other, the said ship of war and privateer, to avoid all diforder, fhall remain out of cannon fhot, but may always fend their boat to the merchant fhip, and cause two or three men to go on board of her, to whom the mafter or commander of the faid veffel fhall exhibit his paffport, ftating the property of the veffel, and when the faid veffel fhall have exhibited her paffport, the fhall be at liberty to continue her voyage, and it fhall not be lawful to moleft or fearch her in any manner, or to give her chace or force her to quit her intended course.

XXVI. The two contracting parties grant mutually the liberty of having each in the ports of the other, confuls, vice confuls, agents, and commiffaries, whofe functions fhall be regulated by a particular agreement.

XXVII. The prefent treaty fhall be ratified on both fides, and the ratifications fhall be exchanged in the fpace of eight months, or fooner if poffible, counting from the day of the fignature.

In faith whereof, the refpective Plenipotentiaries have figned the above articles, and have thereunto affixed their feals.

Done at Paris, the 3d day of April, in the year of our Lord 1783.






Separate Article.

THE King of Sweden, and the United States of North America, agree, that the prefent treaty fhall have its full effect for the fpace of fifteen years, counting from the day of the ratification, and the two contracting parties referve to themselves the liberty of renewing it at the end of that term.

⚫ Done at Paris, the 3d day of April, in the year of our Lord 1783.



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Separate Articles.

Article I. His Swedish Majefty fhall ufe all the means in his power to protect and defend the veffels and effects belonging to citizens or inhabitants of the United States of North America, and every one of them which fhall be in the ports, havens, roads, or in the feas near the countries, iflands, cities, and towns of his faid Majesty, and fhall use his utmost endeavours to recover and reftore to the right owner all fuch veffels and effects which fhall be taken from them within his jurifdiction.


II. In like manner, the United States of North America fhall protect and defend the veffels and effects belonging to the fubjects of his Swedish Majefty which fhall be in the ports, havens, or roads, or on the feas near to the countries, iflands, cities, and towns of the said ftates, and fhall ufe their utmost efforts to recover and reftore to the right owners all fuch veffels and effects which fhall be taken from them within their jurifdiction.

III. If, in any future war at fea, the contracting powers refolve to remain neuter, and as fuch, to obferve the ftricteft neutrality, then it is agreed, that if the merchant thips of either patty fhould happen to be in a part of the fea where the thips of war of the faid nation are not stationed, or if they are met on the high fea, without being able to have recourfe to their own convoys, in that cafe,


the commander of the fhips of war of the other party, if required, fhall, in good faith and fincerity, give them all neceffary affiftance, and, in fuch cafe, the fhips of war and frigates of either of the powers fhall protect and fup port the merchant fhips of the other, provided, neverthelefs, that the fhips claiming affiftance are not engaged in any illicit commerce contrary to the principles of the neutrality.

IV. It is agreed and concluded, that all merchants, captains of merchant fhips, or other fübjects of his Swedish Majefty, fhall have full liberty, in all places under the dominion or jurifdiction of the United States of America, to manage their own affairs, and to employ in the management of them whomfoever they please; and they fhall not be obliged to make ufe of any interpreter or broker, nor to pay them any reward unless they make ufe of them. Moreover, the mafters of the fhips fhall not be obliged, in loading or unloading their veffels, to, employ labourers appointed by publick authority for that purpose; but they fhall be at full liberty themselves to load or unload their veffels, or employ in loading or unloading them whomfoever they think proper, without paying reward under the title of falary to any other perfon whatever; and they fhall not be obliged to turn over any kind of merchandifes to other veffels, nor to receive, them on board their own, nor to wait for their lading longer than they pleafe, and all and every of the citizens, people, and inhabitants of the United States of America, fhall reciprocally have and enjoy the fame privileges and liberties in all places under the jurisdiction of the faid


V. It is agreed, that when merchandifes fhall have been put on board the fhips or veffels of either of the contracting parties, they fhall not be fubjected to any examination; but all examination and search must be before lading, and the prohibited merchandifes must be stopped on the fpot before they are embarked, unless there is full evidence or proof of fraudulent practice on the part of the owner of the fhip, or of him who has the command of her. In which cafe, only he fhall be refponfible and fubject to the laws of the country in which he may be.

In all other cafes, neither the subjects of either of the contracting parties, who fhall be with their veffels in the ports of the other, nor their merchandifes, fhall be feized or molested on account of contraband goods which they fhall have wanted to take on board, nor fhall any kind of embargo be laid on their fhips, fubjects, or citizens of the ftate, whofe merchandises are declared contraband, or the exportation of which is forbidden, those only who fhall have fold, or intended to fell or alienate fuch merchandifes, being liable to punishment for fuch


Done at Paris, the 3d day of April, in the year of our Lord 1783.



NOW, therefore, to the end, that the faid treaty may, with all good faith, be performed and obferved on the part of thefe ftates, all the citizens and inhabitants thereof, and more efpecially all officers and others in the service of the United States, are hereby enjoined and required to govern themfelves ftrictly in all things according to the ftipulations above recited.

Done in Congrefs at Princeton, this 25th day of September, in the year of our Lord 1783, and of our Sovereignty and Independence the 8th.



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Giving Leave to all Foreigners, of what Nation or Country foever, to carry on a free and unlimited Trade, both Sea and Land, with the feveral Countries bordering upon the Euxine, which have lately been annexed to the Rufian Dominion; and allotting Specially to fuch foreign Nations the Ports of Cherfon in the Government of Ca therineflaw, Sebaftopolis (formerly called Acht-air) and Theodofia (formerly called Caffa) both in the Province of Taurica, where they may refide and carry on their Traffic with the fome Immunities and Privileges, religious and civil, as are allowed at Petersburg and Archangel.

Catherine the Second, the



W Emprefs and Autocratice of all the Ruffias, of

Mufcovy, Kiovia Wolodomiria, Novogorod, Czarina of Cazan, Czarina of Aftrachan, Czarina of Siberia, Czarina of the Cherfonefus Taurica, Lady of Pickof, and Great Duchefs of Smolensko, Duchefs of Estonia, Livonia, Carelia, Twer, Ingorie, Permio, Vitatkia, Bulgaria, and other places; Lady and Great Duchefs of the country of Lower Novogorod, Chernigof, Razan, Poloszk, Roftof, Jaroflof, Belofersk, Uderfk, Obdorfk, Coudink, Wityrpfk, Mftiflawfk, and Sovereign of all the northern coafts, Lady of the Twerfky country, of the Carthalinian and Grauzinian Czars, of the country of Carbadinia; of the Princes of Circaffia, and thofe of the mountains, and of the other countries, heirefs Lady, and Sovereign Ruler.

Our endeavours to increase the trade of our own fubjects, and of the other nations throughout the Black Sea, and the Mediterranean, have met with the wished-for fuccefs; the treaty of commerce which we concluded with the Ottoman Porte on the 10th of June, 1783, having finally removed thofe impediments and difficulties which, from the particular conftitution of the Turkish Government, had obftructed the faid trade in every step of its progrefs; which can only be guarded againft by the inftitution of proper laws for the protection of comY 3


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