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DICTIONARY OF DATES,

AND

UNIVERSAL REFERENCE,

RELATING TO ALL AGES AND NATIONS;

COMPREHENDING EVERY REMARKABLE OCCURRENCE, ANCIENT AND MODERN-THE FOUNDATION,
LAWS, AND GOVERNMENTS OF COUNTRIES-THEIR PROGRESS IN CIVILIZATION, INDUSTRY,
AND SCIENCE-THEIR ACHIEVEMENTS IN ARMS-THE POLITICAL AND SOCIAL
TRANSACTIONS OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE--ITS CIVIL, MILITARY,
AND RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS-THE ORIGIN AND

ADVANCE OF

HUMAN ARTS AND INVENTIONS,

WITH COPIOUS DETAILS OF

ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, AND IRELAND;

THE WHOLE

COMPREHENDING A BODY OF INFORMATION, CLASSICAL, POLITICAL,

AND DOMESTIC,

FROM THE EARLIEST ACCOUNTS TO THE PRESENT TIME.

BY JOSEPH HAYDN.

FIFTH EDITION.

TO WHICH IS ADDED, A COPIOUS INDEX OF LEADING NAMES.

LONDON:
EDWARD MOXON, DOVER STREET.

MDCCCLI.

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THE design of the Author has been, to attempt the compression

of the greatest body of general information that has ever appeared in a single volume, and to produce a Book of Reference whose extensive usefulness may render its possession material to every individual—in the same manner that a London Directory is indispensable, on business affairs, to a London merchant.

He grounds his hope of the Public taking an interest in this work altogether upon its own intrinsic utility. Its articles are drawn principally from historians of the first rank, and the most authentic annalists; and the DICTIONARY OF DATES will, in almost every instance, save its possessor the trouble of turning over voluminous authors to refresh his memory, or to ascertain the date, order, and features of any particular occurrence.

The volume contains upwards of FIFTEEN THOUSAND ARTICLES, alphabetically arranged; and, from the selection of its materials, it must be important to every man in the British Empire, whether learned or unlearned, or whether connected with the professions or engaged in trade,

It would be difficult to name all the authors from whose works the Compiler of this volume has copiously extracted; but he may mention among the classics, Herodotus, Livy, Pliny, and Plutarch. He has chosen, in general chronology, Petavius, Usher, Blair, Prideaux, and the Abbé L'Englet du Fresnoy.

For the events embraced in Foreign history, he has relied upon Henault, Voltaire, La Combe, Rollin, Melchior Adam, the Nouveau Dictionnaire, and chief authors of their respective countries. On subjects of general literature, his authorities are Cave's Historia Literaria, Moreri, Bayle, Priestley, and others of equal repute. And English occurrences are drawn from Camden, Stowe, Hall. Baker, Holingshed, Chamberlayne, Rapin, Hume, Gibbon, Goldsmith, &c. Besides these, the Compiler has freely used the various abridgments that have brought facts and dates more prominently forward; and he is largely indebted to Chambers, Aspin, Beatson, Anderson, Beckmann, the Cyclopædias, Annual Register, Statutes at Large, and numerous other compilations. In almost every instance the authority is quoted for the extract made, and date assigned, though inadvertence may have prevented, in some few cases, a due acknowledgment.

The leading events of every country, whether ancient or modern kingdoms, are to be found in the annals of each respectively, as in the cases, for instance, of GREECE, ROME, the Eastern EMPIRE, ENGLAND, FRANCE, and GERMANY. But, independently of this plan of reference, when any historical occurrence claims, from its importance, more specific mention, it is made in a separate article, according to alphabetical arrangement.

Thus, in the annals of England, the dates are given of the foundation of our universities, the institution of honorary orders, and signature of Magna Charta ; we find, in those annals, the periods of our civil wars, and remarkable eras in our history, set down as they have occurred; but if more ample information be necessary to the Reader, and if he desire to know more than the mere date of any fact or incident, the particulars are supplied under a distinct head.

In the same way, the pages of Battles supply the date of each, in the order of time; yet in all instances where the battle has any relation to our own country, or is memorable or momentous, the chief features of it are stated in another part of the volume.

The Compiler persuades himself that the DICTIONARY OF DATES will be received as a useful companion to all Biographical works, relating, as it does, to things as these do to persons, and affording information not included in the range or design of such publications.

LONDON, May, 1841.

This, the Fifth Edition of the DICTIONARY OF Dates, has been corrected with much care. Every article the Work originally contained has been amended, its dates verified, and its general accuracy ascertained; and several hundreds of new articles have been added, these being respectively of great moment and importance, and not easily accessible to the Author in the earlier Editions, and not now produced without exceeding labour and research, and (in numerous instances) an examination of the Public Records. The Princes of Europe, with historic notices, the Judges of England and Ireland, and the Administrations and Governments of Great Britain, all compiled from the best authorities and from official

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