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The facts relating to the number of employés involved in labor disputes for the entire period, by industries, may be seen from the following table :
Employés involved in Strikes and Lockouts : By Industries.
277 25,511 10,427
11 12,185 118,389
11 741 2,567
11 4,769 66,973
132 878 3,026
100 3,852 6,465
11 1,077 3,567
108 260 333
50 799 1,276
277 25,511 4,280
11 5,474 57,719
132 1,425 3,966 1,304 8,715
125 4,901 9,233 214 68
10 1,075 1,731 3,760
175 5,986 1,306
378 3,046 6,131
50 799 1,258
In Cotton Goods, there were 257,571 employés before the occurrence of labor disagreements; 66,973 employés either struck or were lockedout; 118,389 employés were thrown out of employment; 3,567 new employés were hired after strike.
In the building trades there were 33,654 employés before strike; strikers numbered 22,621; 25,511 employés were thrown out of employment; 2,747 new employés were hired after dispute.
The causes and results of strikes and lockouts, as well as the number of establishments involved, may be seen from the following table. The causes of disputes have been classified; when more than one question figured in the disturbance, the principal one has been considered in the classification.
In 2,623 establishments, the industrial disputes were for wages; in 1,360, for hours of labor; and in 716, for hours of labor and wages. Thus it will be seen that in 4,699 establishments, or 83.33 per cent of the total number involved, wages or hours of labor were the principal cause of dissension. After wages and hours of labor, trade unionism, in one form or another, was the most frequent cause of dispute, there being 417 establishments under this head.
The cities in Massachusetts having the largest number of strikes or lockouts during the 20-year period were Boston, Lynn, Fall River, and Haverhill. Particular facts relating to the number of establishments involved, employés thrown out of employment, and financial loss to employés and employers, are shown in the next table.
In the preceding table, strikes and lockouts have been considered separately. The number of strikes occurring in Boston was 363, or 21.29 per cent of the total number occurring in Massachusetts during the period under consideration. The next following in numerical order is Lynn, with 155, or 9.09 per cent; Fall River follows, with 146, or 8.56 per cent. The number of strikes occurring in these three cities was 664, or 38.94 per cent of the total number occurring in the Commonwealth.
Of the 97 lockouts in Massachusetts during the 20 years, 22 occurred in Boston, and 10 in Haverhill. It will be seen from the table that the greatest number of employés thrown out of employment was in Fall River (66,424), the wage loss of employés being also heaviest in this city ($2,123,252). The assistance given employés by labor organizations and others was greatest in Boston, the amount being $342,865; the loss of employers was also greatest in Boston, totalizing $1,504,152.
STATISTICAL ABSTRACTS. Eight-hour Working-day for City Em. machinery in manufacturing and mercantile establish. ployes.
ments was 1,491. The District Police (to whom all At the last municipal election in Taunton, held
such returns are made) report that in addition to the Dec. 2, 1902, it was voted to accept the Act making
above number there were 990 accidents in manufactur. eight hours a day's work for all laborers, workmen,
ing and mechanical establishments not due to running and mechanics employed by the city. This is in ac- machinery. Forty-eight accidents proved fatal. cordance with the provisions of Chap. 106, $ 20, of the Revised Laws.
Receipts of Coal at Boston. All cities in the Commonwealth have now voted The following tabular statement shows the coast. upon and accepted the eight-hour working-day for wise receipts of coal at Boston during the years 1901 city employés. In addition to the cities, many towns and 1902, as compiled from monthly official statements have also adopted the act.
of the Boston Chamber of Commerce :
Railroad Employes in Massachusetts. The average number of employés on all railroads in Massachusetts during the year 1901 was 63,564. The number of employés injured was 384, comprising 279 trainmen and 105 employed in other capacities. Of the total number of injuries to employés, 61 proved fatal and 323 non-fatal.
The number of passengers injured by accidents in 1901 was 37, of which number four proved fatal. In addition to the 384 employés and 37 passengers killed or injured, 44 persons met with injuries on highway crossings or stations and 146 trespassers were killed or injured. Of the total number injured, 19 were children.- Railroad Commissioners Report, 1901.
2,163,558 1,012,404 2,110,830 2,224,509 2,139,989 971,649 2,083,691 2,103,697 23,569 40,755 47,139 120,812
41,766 538,031 1,001,530 2,163,558 1,054,170 2,848,861 3,226,039
- Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance. December, 1902.
Textile Industries in Massachusetts. According to the Twelfth United States Census, there are 511 establishments in Massachusetts in the textile industries. They may be industrially classified as follows: Wool manufactures (excluding hosiery and knit goods), 195; cotton manufactures, 163; hosiery and knit goods, 54; dyeing and finishing, 37; flax, hemp, and jute goods, 28; silk manufactures, 20; cotton small wares, 14. Of the 195 establishments engaged in wool manufactures, 131 make woollen goods; 45, worsted goods; eight, carpets (other than rag); seven, felt goods; and four, wool bats. Of the 131 woollen goods 'establishments, 29 manufacture shoddy; 11, fur hats; five are engaged in wool scouring and wool pulling, and one in wool carding.
Foreign Parentage. The aggregate number of persons of foreign parentage in Massachusetts, according to the Census of 1900, is 1,746,581, or 62 per cent of the total popula. tion.
The aggregate number of persons of foreign parent. age in the city of Boston, according to the Census of 1900, is 404,999, or 72 per cent of the total population of the city.
By the term “ persons of foreign parentage” is meant those persons having foreign fathers and mothers, foreign fathers and native mothers, or forelgn mothers and native fathers.
Industrial Accidents in Massachusetts.
The number of accidents which occurred in Massachusetts during the year 1902 to persons operating
Population of African Descent.
towns of the Commonwealth and 25,661 in the cities. The latter number is distributed as follows: Beverly, 50; Boston, 11,691; Brockton, 310; Cambridge, 3,888; Chelsea, 731; Chicopee, 10; Everett, 634; Fall River, 324; Fitchburg, 65; Gloucester, 39; Haverhill, 373; Holyoke, 40; Lawrence, 87; Lowell, 136; Lynn, 784; Malden, 446; Marlborough, 31; Medford, 244; Mel. rose, 130; New Bedford, 1,685; Newburyport, 97; Newton, 505; North Adams, 90; Northampton, 108; Pittsfield, 277; Quincy, 27; Salem, 156; Somerville, 140; Springfield, 1,021; Taunton, 226; Waltham, 51; Woburn, 261; and Worcester, 1,104.
The first and only office was opened in New York City in July, 1896. The number of applicants for work at the free employment bureau for the three months ending September 30, 1902, was 1,122. There were 873 applicants for help, 970 situations being se. cured. The percentage of applicants securing em. ployment during the quarter specified was 79.
Free Public Employment omces. As the question of establishing free public employ. ment offices in Massachusetts is being agitated con. siderably at the present time, it may be interesting to note what is being done by other States in this line of work. For this purpose we append brief summaries of the work in the free public employment offices in the States in which they have been established. In most cases, the offices were either created or con. firmed by legislative act, and are under the direct supervision of the Bureaus of Statistics of Labor in the respective States referred to.
Missouri. In 1897, a free public employment office was established in St. Louis without legislative enact. ment, but with the endorsement of the Governor of the State. The legislature of 1899 passed an act establishing free public employment offices in cities of Missouri having a population of 100,000 or more, This then provided for the establishment of offices at St. Louis and Kansas City, but by the Census of 1900 the city of St. Joseph came within the limit of popu. lation prescribed, and an office was accordingly opened there in 1901. A summarized report of the aggregate work of the three offices for the year end. ing September 30, 1902, follows: Applications for employment, 11,836 (10,089 males and 1,747 females); applications for help, 16,944 (12,052 males and 3,892 females); number of positions secured, 7,263 (5,889 males and 1,374 females). The report shows that the work is constantly increasing, and that the establishment of free employment bureaus in Missouri has proved of great value. Whereas a large proportion of the applications, both for employment and help among the females, was for domestic service and hotel and restaurant work, yet when both sexes are considered, applications were filled in over 50 other branches of occupations.
Ohio. Obio was the first State in the country to establish free public employment offices. In 1890 the legislature passed an act establishing offices in five of the largest cities – Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati, Dayton, and Toledo. They have proved of great benefit to the working people of the State. The latest report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of Ohio shows that the number of applications for em. ployment in 1901 was 23,323 (12,635 males and 10,688 females); the number of applications for help, 28,274 (11,727 males and 16,547 females); the number of positions secured, 16,837 (8,155 males and 8,682 females). The combined operations of the offices for the year 1902 follow: Applications for employment, 26,968; applications for help, 36,613; positions secured, 21,428.
Nebraska. The law creating a free employment department in Nebraska was passed by the legisla. ture in 1897. The department is located at the State House in Lincoln. It has been suggested by the Com. missioner of the Bureau of Labor and Industrial Statistics of that State that an office established in Omaha, conducted under practical methods, would meet with much more success than has attended the Lincoln agency. The work reported from the em. ployment department, for the years 1901 and 1902, is as follows: Applications for employment, about 500; applications for help, about 200.
Washington. In April, 1894, a municipal free em. ployment bureau was established in Seattle, Washington. The report of the State Labor Commissioner of Washington states that, in 1901, 25,095 positions were furnished by the public employment office, covering about 35 branches of occupations.
Montana. An act creating free employment offices was passed in Montana in 1895, and was an amend. ment to one section of the law establishing the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The repeal of the law in 1897 was superseded by an act enabling municipalities to establish offices under their own administration. A bureau is maintained in the City of Butte which re. ports the work of the agency for nine months in 1902, as follows: Applications for work, 3,234; posi. tions filled, 2,199; applications for help, 2,638.
Illinois. The free employment offices of Mlinois were created by legislative act in 1899. Three offices were opened in Chicago, and on July 1, 1901, a fourth office was opened at Peoria. The work of tbe offices for the year 1901 follows: Applications for employment, 27,605 (16,324 males and 11,281 females); applica. tions for help, 28,124 (15,322 males and 12,802 females); positions secured, 23,996 (13,625 males and 10,371 females). The work which the free employment offices are doing is being more appreciated each year by firms employing skilled labor. Large numbers of laborers and farm hands continue to seek and find employment. In the “manual labor" class, the places provided applicants totalize to the thousands, the classes of “ domestic service” and “transportation” being also prominent for the number who have found employ. ment. The work of the offices for 1902 follows: Ap. plications for employment, 40,349; positions secured, 35,809.
California. In 1895, an employment office was opened in San Francisco, under the management of the Bureau of Labor, without legislative enactment. The regular appropriation of the Bureau was enlarged by private subscriptions for the maintenance of the office. This office was discontinued in 1896.
New York. Free public employment offices in the State of New York were established by an Act of the Legislature passed May 28, 1896, providing that offices be opened in all cities having a population of 1,500,000,
West Virginia. In 1901, the legislature of West Virginia created a free public employment bureau. The Commissioner of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, under whose supervision the free public employment bureau is, reports that the first year of the depart. ment has been remarkable for its industrial activity, Connecticut. The rapid growth of trade unioniem in Connecticut le clearly shown by the increase in the number of unions in 1902 as compared with 1901. In 1902, the number of separate and distinct unions in the State was 510. Membership aggregating 32,256 was reported from 314 organizations in 1901.
and that the demand for labor was greater than the supply. The work of tbe year follows: Applications for employment, 1,208; applications for help, 1,304; positions secured, 1,044.
Maryland. In August, 1900, without legislative en. actment, the Bureau of Industrial Statistics of Mary. land opened a free employment agency, which has met with great success.
The Commissioner of the Bureau reports that for the year 1901 there were 108 applications for employment, 389 applications for help, and 59 positions secured.
Connecticut. In 1901, the legislature passed an act establishing free public employment bureaus in five cities in Connecticut, the Commissioner of Labor to appoint the superintendents of such offices. The following statement shows approximately the work accomplished by the bureau in the year ending December 1, 1902: Applications for employment, 14,200; applications for help, 11,000; number of persons securing positions, 7,700. Most of the applications were for positions as farm laborers for the males, and as domestic servants for the females,
Massachusetts. The labor organizations in Massachusetts make no returns to the Bureau of Statistics of Labor, but in 1902, a canvass was made by the Special Agents of the Bureau, and data secured relative to the names of the different trades unions through. out the State as well as the secretaries of same. This information was published in the August Bulletin and again (revised and corrected) in the November Bul. letin, No. 24. The number of trade unions reported in Massachusetts in November, 1902, was about 1,300, including central and affiliated bodies. As the number of members was only returned in a few instances, we are not able to show the aggregate membership. The largest number of trades unions was found in the following cities : Boston, 221; Springfield, 67; Worces. ter, 63; Lowell, 57; Holyoke, 53; and Brockton, 51.
Kansas. Free public employment bureaus were created in Kansas by the legislature of 1901, the Director of said bureau to be appointed by the Gov. ernor, local agencies may be established in cities of the first and second class within the State. In May, 1901, an office was opened at Topeka. The director reports the work of the department as very satis. factory. The number of applications for employment for the year ending Dec. 31, 1902, was 1,588, while the number of applicants securing positions was 1,281; the applications for help numbered 1,434.
Missouri The total number of labor organizations in Missouri in November, 1901, was 410, with a membership of 52,426. Of this number, 51,048 were males and 1,378 females. The average initiation fee was reported to be $9.39. The average cost per annum per member was $9.06. The total number of strikes dur. ing the year, in which these labor unionists were involved, was 177; 119 were satisfactorily settled, 33 were compromised, and 15 failed. The average length of strikes was 69 days. The total number of persons involved was 16,149, while 19,277 persons were bene. fited by the disputes. Reduction in working hours was reported by 51 unions. The total number of in. dustrial accidents reported by trade unionists was 852; of these, 101 were fatal.
Minnesota. In 1901, the legislature passed an act establishing free public employment offices in cities of over 50,000 population. A bureau was opened in Duluth on Nov. 4, 1901, and has met with great Success. From the opening of the bureau up to Dec. 31, 1902, employment was furnished to 5,175 persone, of whom 5,017 were males and 158 females.
Wisconsin. The legislature of 1901 passed an act creating free public employment offices in cities of 30,000 population and over. The Governor was in. structed to appoint the superintendents on recom. mendation of the Labor Commissioner. Under the provisions of the Act, offices were opened in Milwaukee and Superior under the supervision of the Bureau of Labor and Industrial Statistics. During the first year, ending June 28, 1902, there were 9,002 applications for employment, 9,051 applications for help, while the applicants securing positions numbered 7,380.
New York. The number of labor organizations in New York State on September 30, 1902, was 2,229, the total membership being 329,098, a very large increase, both in number of unions and membership, over 1901. Unemployment in New York City during the entire quarter ending September 30, 1902, covered 4,543 members (4,243 males and 300 females). This is the smallest number reported since 1897. The number of trade unionists idle at the end of the quarter was 13,644, 13,185 being males and 459 females. The greatest amount of unemployment was reported in the building trades, 3,735 members being idle at the end of the quarter. The cause of idleneas in 2,088 cases was slack trade; in 957 cases, weather or lack of material; in 244 cases, sickness or old age; in 236, for strike or lock. out; and in 210 for various other reasons. The next largest amount of unemployment was reported in clothing and textiles, 2,682 members being idle; 2,151 on account of slack trade; 405 for sickness or old age; 60for strike and lockout; and four for lack of material.
Trades Unions. We find that labor organizations in many States make either quarterly or annual returns to their respective Bureaus of Labor Statistics. To show the present status of trade unionism in a few of the States, we append the following data, compiled from the latest reports of the various Bureaus :
Colorado. The number of labor unions in Colorado in 1902 was 426, with an aggregate membership of 46,946. Great activity was reported during the past two
years, the membership and influence of the unions having greatly increased. It is estimated that about 35 per cent of the wage earners of the State are mem. bers of labor organizations. There are over 40 miners' unions in the State, affiliated with the Western Federation of Miners.
Collateral Legacy Taxes. Pennsylvania. The collateral inheritance tax of Pennsylvanin was enacted April 7, 1826. This enactment fixed the rate on the clear value of bequeathed estates from $250 and upwards at $2.50 per hundred. By Act of 1846 the rate was changed from $2.50 per hundred to $5 per hundred, interest to begin to run on same one year after death of decedent. The law as it stands in Pennsylvania follows:
“All Estates, real, personal, and mixed of any kind whatsoever, passing from any person, seized or pos