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In many states of the Union, a law exists prescribing eight as the maximum number of hours of labor constituting a legal day's work. Some statutes have the hours limited for all labor performed upon public works either directly by the State or municipality or by contractors or sub-contractors for the same. In other instances, the law forbids all labor in excess of eight hours, except as otherwise agreed upon. Again, eight hours is the specified working-day for prison labor, upon irrigation works, in penal institutions and reformatories, and in mines, smelters, and ore-refining establishments. By Act of Congress, eight hours constitutes a legal day's work upon government contracts for the United States.

In Massachusetts, nine hours constitutes a day's labor for all laborers on public works. The reduction of a day's labor for public employés to eight hours has been agitated for some years. The legislature of 1899 provided for the eight-hour day for public employés in cities and towns accepting the provisions of chapter 344 at an annual election. This act was amended in 1900 so that upon petition of 100 registered voters in a city and 25 registered voters in a town the measure must be submitted to the people. In 1903, the bill entitled “ An Act to constitute eight hours a maximum day's work for public employés” was vetoed by the Governor on the ground that the proposition was unconstitutional (his opinion being upheld by the Attorney-General), and that by the passage of the bill an unwarranted expense would be put upon the Commonwealth.

We present a digest of the eight-hour law in the states and territories having such enactment. The states and territories are alphabetically arranged.

Arizona. Act 8. Eight Hour Legislation affecting Miners. Restricts the employment of workingmen in all underground mines or workings to eight hours per day except in cases of emergency where life or property is in imminent danger. Approved March 10, 1903.

California. CHAP. 107. Eight-hour Day upon Public Works. The time of service of any laborer, workman, or mechanic employed upon the public works of the State or any political sub-division thereof or work done for the same is limited and restricted to eight hours in any one calendar day. It is unlawful for any agent of the State or for any contractor or sub-contractor having contract upon public works to require any labor to be performed in excess of eight hours except in case of extraordinary emergency. The requirement of the eight-hour day must be stipulated in every contract upon public works. It is provided that the contractor shall forfeit as a penalty $10 for each laborer, workman, or mechanic under him for each calendar day during which such laborer, workman, or mechanic is required or permitted to work more than eight hours in violation of the provisions of this act. Penalty of fine not exceeding $500 or by imprisonment not exceeding six months or by both such fine and imprisonment is provided for violation of the act. Approved March 10, 1903.

Colorado. CHAP. 9. Eight-hour Day upon Public Works. Amends sections 1, 2, and 3 of an act regulating the hours of labor of mechanics, workmen, and other laborers, which was passed in 1893. As amended, the act prohibits all work on behalf of the State, county, township, school district, municipality, or incorporate town, in excess of eight hours a day or 48 hours a week. Approved February 27, 1894.

CHAP. 103. Eight-hour Day in Smelters and Mines. The hours of labor for workingmen in smelters and all other institutions for the reduction or refining of ores and metals, underground mines or workings, are limited to eight a day, with penalty for violation. Approved March 16, 1899.

Connecticut. CHAP. 37. Eight Hours for all Labor. Eight hours of labor performed in any one day by any one person shall be deemed a lawful day's work, unless otherwise agreed upon. Approved June 28, 1867.

District of Columbia. CHAP. 19, Sec. 892. Eight-hour Day upon Public Works. The service and employment of all laborers and mechanics employed by the government of the United States or by the District of Columbia or by any contractor or sub-contractor upon such works is limited and restricted to eight hours in any one calendar day. It is unlawful for any officer of the government or any contractor or sub-contractor to require or permit any laborer to work more than eight hours except in case of extraordinary emergency. Any officer of the gorernment of the United States or of the District of Columbia or any contractor or sub-contractor employing laborers upon public works in behalf of the government intentionally violating this act shall be punished by a fine not to exceed $1,000 or by imprisonment for not more than six months or by both. Provisions of the act are not applicable to contracts entered into prior to August 1, 1892. Code Book of the District of Columbia, 1902.

Hawaii. Act 37. Eight-hour Day upon Public Works. No person shall be employed as a mechanic or laborer upon any public work carried on by this territory or any political subdivision thereof, whether by contract or otherwise, unless such person is a citizen of the United States or eligible to become a citizen, except in case of necessity. Eight hours shall constitute a day's labor on all public works or in any public office of this territory whether the work is done by contract or otherwise. The full eight hours is not applicable to Saturdays or holidays. A stipulation that not more than eight hours' labor in any one calendar day shall be required to be contained in all contracts. Penalty provided for violation of act. Approved April 23, 1903.

Idaho. SEC. 622. Eight-hour Day upon Public Works. Not more than eight hours' actual work shall constitute a lawful day's work on all State, county, and municipal works, provided that nothing in this act shall be construed as meaning any labor except manual labor employed by the day, and shall not apply to State, county, or municipal officials or to employés of the State or county who are paid monthly or yearly salaries. All bids for work must contain the eight-hour clause. Approved February 6, 1899. Political Code, 1901.

Minois. Chap. 48. Eight Hours' Labor upon all Work. On and after the first day of May, 1867, eight hours of labor between the rising and the setting of the sun in all mechanical trades, arts, and employments, and other cases of labor and service by the day, except in farm employments, shall constitute and be a lawful day's work, unless otherwise specified. Approved March 5, 1867.

Indiana. CHAP. 81, Sec. 7052. Eight Hours a Day's Work except in Agricultural Labor and Domestic Service. Eight hours shall constitute a day's work for mechanics, workingmen, and laborers excepting agricultural or domestio labor. Agreement between employer and employé for extra compensation for overwork is permitted. Act shall apply to persons, firms, corporations, companies, or associations employing labor in this State, and to all mechanics, workingmen, and laborers now or hereafter employed by this State or any municipal corporation herein, through its agents or officers, or in the employ of persons contracting with the State. Penalty for violation. Anno. Stat., 1894.

Kansas. CHAP. 64a. Eight-hour Day upon Public Works. Eight hours shall constitute a day's work for all laborers, workmen, and mechanics or other persons employed by or on behalf of the State of Kansas or any city, township, or other municipality of said State except in case of extraordinary emergency. In all cases of emergency, the laborers, workmen, and mechanics so employed and working in excess of eight hours per calendar day shall be paid, on the eight-hour basis, not less than the current rate of per diem wages in the locality where the work is performed. These provisions also apply to workmen employed by contractors or subcontractors having contracts within the State of Kansas on behalf of the State. All contracts made on behalf of the State with any corporation, person or persons for the performance of any work or the furnishing of any material manufactured within the State shall be considered as made upon the eight-hour day basis, and it shall be unlawful for any such contractor or person to work employés in excess of eight hours in any one calendar day except in case of emergency. Penalty provided for violation of act. Act does not apply to existing contracts. General Statutes of Kansas, 1901.

Maryland. CHAP. 458. Eight Hours a Day's Work in Baltimore. No mechanic or laborer employed by the mayor and city council of Baltimore, or by any official, agent, contractor, or sub-contractor under them, shall be required to work more than eight hours in any one day, provided, further, that this section shall not apply to employés in the fire department, Bay View Asylum, or Baltimore City Jail. Provides penalty for violation of act. Approved April 9, 1898.

Massachusetts. CHAP. 106, REVISED LAWS, Sec. 20. Provisional Eight-hour Day for Public Employés. In a city or town which by a vote taken by ballot at an annual election accepts the provisions of this section or has accepted the corresponding provisions of earlier laws, eight hours shall constitute a day's work for all laborers, workmen and mechanics who are employed by such city or town. If a petition for such vote, signed by 100 or more registered voters of a city, or twenty-five or more registered voters of a town, is filed with the city or town clerk, respectively, thirty days or more before an annual election, such vote shall be taken at such election.

CHAP. 494. Appointment of Additional Commissioners to further the Adoption by the States of a Uniform Law making Eight Hours a Legal Day's Labor. The governor shall, with the advice of the council, appoint, within thirty days, two persons, one representing the working class and one representing manufacturers . . . to endeavor to promote uniform legislation, making eight hours a legal day's labor throughout the United States. Approved June 19, 1902.

Minnesota. CHAP. 310. Bight-hour Day upon Public Works. An Act to provide for limiting the hours of daily service of laborers, workmen, and mechanics employed upon public works or work done for the State to eight in any one calendar day except in cases of extraordinary emergency, except work done upon public military or naval defences in time of war, and except in case of employment of labor in agricultural pursuits, provided that nothing herein contained shall be construed to apply to the employment of labor on work now in progress whether contracted for or not; providing for the insertion of certain stipulations in contracts for public works; imposing penalties for violations of the provisions of this act, and providing for the enforcement thereof. This act shall not apply to any contract work done for any town or county in this State. Approved April 13, 1901.

Missouri. Sec. 8136. Eight Hours a Day's Labor. From and after the first day of May, 1867, eight hours shall constitute a legal day's work unless otherwise agreed upon, not applicable to persons employed by the month nor to laborers or farm hands or those engaged in agriculture. Rev. Stat., 1899, Art. 1, Chap. 121.

Eight-hour Day for Miners. It shall be unlawful for any person or corporation engaged in mining for minerals, coal or any valuable substance or making excavations beneath the surface of the earth while searching for same to work their employés at such labor longer than eight hours in a day of 24 hours. It is declared that eight hours shall constitute a day's work for all laborers and employés engaged in the kind of labor aforesaid. Penalty is provided for violation of act. Approved March 23, 1901. (Sections 8793 and 8794, chap. 133, art. 2, Rev. Stat. of 1899 amended.)

Sec. 9696v. Eight Hours upon Road Work. It shall be the duty of the road overseer to require of each laborer a faithful performance of duty and to require him to do eight hours actual service each day. Approved March 26, 1901.

Eight Hours in Mines and Smelters. Act to prevent persons and corporations from working laborers in smelters and all other institutions for the reduction and refining of ores more than eight hours in 24 and fixing eight hours as a day's work for such laborers. Approved March 9, 1903.

Montana. Eight-hour Day in Mines and Smelters. Eight hours shall constitute a day's work for workingmen in all underground mines or workings except in cases of emergency. The period of employment of workmen in smelters, stamp mills, sampling works, concentrators, and all other institutions for the reduction of ores and refining of ores and metals shall be eight hours per day except in cases of emergency. Penalty provided for violation of act. Approved February 2, 1901.

No. 71, ART. III, SEC. 19. Eight-hour Day upon Public Works. Any person subject to the payment of road poll tax in any district may, in lieu thereof, work on the roads in such district at the rate of two dollars per day of eight hours, until he shall have worked out such poll tax; . . . Eight hours labor, in the meaning of this act, shall be eight hours actual labor upon the roads or highways, exclusive of the time consumed in going to and from such labor. Approved March 11, 1901.

Nevada. CHAP. 4. Eight-hour Day upon Irrigation Works. Sec. 4. Provides that in the construction of irrigation works in the State eight hours shall constitute a day's work, and no Mongolian labor shall be employed thereon. Approved Feb. 16, 1903,

CHAP. 10. Hours of Labor in Mines. Regulates the hours of employment of workingmen in all underground mines or workings and in smelters and ore reduction works to eight per day, and provides penalties for violations thereof. Approved Feb. 23, 1903.

CHAP. 37. Eight-hour Day upon Public Works. On public works, all works or undertakings carried on or aided by the State, county, or municipal governments, eight hours shall constitute a day's labor; violation of act creates forfeiture to contractors. Approved March 9, 1903.

New Mexico. CHAP. 40. Eight Hours upon Public Highways. That all able-bodied male persons between 21 and 60 years must labor upon public highways the number of days required by the road supervisor (not less than two nor more than five) of eight hours each ; $1 per day to be paid in lieu thereof. Approved March 18, 1901.

New York. GENERAL LABOR LAW, ART. 1. Eight Hours a Day's Work. Eight hours shall constitute a legal day's work for all classes of employés in this State except those engaged in farm and domestic service unless otherwise provided by law. This section does not prevent an agreement for overwork at an increased compensation except upon work by or for the State or a municipal corporation or by contractors or sub-contractors therewith. Each contract to which the State or a municipal corporation is a party, which may involve the employment of laborers, workmen or mechanics, shall contain stipulation that no laborer, workman or mechanic in the employ of the contractor, sub-contractor or other person doing or contracting to do the whole or a part of the work contemplated by the contract shall be permitted or required to work more than eight hours in any one calendar day, except in cases of extraordinary emergency caused by fire, flood or danger to life or property. The wages to be paid for a legal day's work as hereinbefore defined to all classes of such laborers, workmen or mechanics upon all such public work or upon any material to be used upon or in connection therewith shall not be less than the prevailing rate for a day's work in the same trade or occupation in the locality within the State where such public work on, about or in connection with which such labor is performed in its final or completed form is to be situated, erected or used. Each such contract hereafter made shall contain a stipulation that each such laborer, workman or mechanic employed by such contractor, sub-contractor or other person on, about or upon such public work, shall receive such wages herein provided for. Each contract for such public work hereafter made shall contain a provision that the same shall be void and of no effect unless the person or corporation making or performing the same shall comply with the provisions of this section; and no such person or corporation shall be entitled to receive any sum nor shall any officer, agent or employé of the State or of a municipal corporation pay the same or authorize its payment from the funds under his charge or control to any such person or corporation for work done upon any contract which in its form or manner of performance violates the provisions of this section, but nothing in this section shall be construed to apply to persons regularly employed in state institutions, or to engineers, electricians and elevatormen in the department of public buildings during the annual session of the legislature. [As amended by L. 1899, ch. 567 and L. 1900, ch. 298.)*

CHAP. 588. Eight-hour Day upon Reservoir Construction in New York City. The aqueduct commissioners in providing new reservoirs are authorized to contract with such persons and upon such terms as will best serve the interests of the city of New York, and that eight hours shall constitute a day's work for all labors performed by said person or corporation in the performance of his or its contract, and that no laborer in the performance of any such contract shall be required or permitted to work more than eight hours. Approved April 14, 1902.

Ohio. Eight-hour Day upon Public Works. The service of all laborers, workmen, and mechanics employed upon any public works or on work done for the State or for any political sub-division thereof, whether by contract or otherwise, is limited and restricted to eight hours in any one calendar day. It is unlawful for any officer or agent of the State or any contractor or sub-contractor hiring workmen on behalf of the State to work employés in excess of eight hours per day except in case of emergency and except ou work upon public military or naval works of defense in time of war, and except in case of employment of labor in agricultural pursuits. It shall be stipulated in every contract made on behalf of the State that eight hours shall be the working-day except in cases as hereinbefore mentioned. Each contract shall stipulate a penalty for violation of the act of $10 for each laborer for each and every calendar day in which he shall labor more than eight hours. It is the duty of the inspector to report such violation to the proper officer of the State. Penalty is provided for violation of the act. Passed April 16, 1900.

Pennsylvania. Eight Hours a Day's Labor. On and after July 1, 1868, eight hours of labor between the rising and setting of the sun shall be held to be a legal day's work in all cases of labor by the day where there is no contract to the contrary. This act not applicable to agricultural labor or service by the week, month; or year. Approved April 14, 1868.

Eight Hours in Penal Institutions. Eight hours out of the 24 hours shall constitute a day's work in penitentiaries and reformatory institutions receiving support from the Common

* The prevalling rate of wages clause in this section was declared unconstitutional by the Court of Appeals February 26, 1901.

wealth. All superintendents and officers, and all persons authorized to make contracts for work around said penitentiaries or reformatories are forbidden and prohibited to allow employés or under officers to work more than eight hours in each 24. Approved May 20, 1891.

CHAP. 397. Eight-hour Day upon Public Works. Eight hours out of each 24 shall be a legal day's work for mechanics, workmen, and laborers in the employ of the State or any municipal corporation, or otherwise engaged upon public works. Applicable persons w

ing for contractors upon public works. None but citizens of the United States, or aliens who have declared their intention, who have been residents of the State six months, can be employed on public works. Penalty for violation. Approved July 26, 1897.

Porto Rico. Sec. 624. Eight-hour Day upon Public Works. No laborer shall be compelled to work more than eight hours in any one day upon public works, and they shall be if possible residents of the municipality. Approved March 1, 1902.

Tennessee. CHAP. 368. Eight Hours upon Public Highways. All county prisoners subject to labor shall be employed hereafter as far as practicable upon the public highways . eight hours shall be a day's work upon the highways whether performed by convicts or free road bands. Approved April 22, 1899.

CHAP. 8. Eight Hours upon Public Roads. Males between 18 and 50 years subject to work upon the roads; eight hours to be a day's work; 50 cents a day to be paid for all labor assigned but unperformed. Approved February 8, 1901.

Utah. CHAP. 98. Eight-hour Day upon Public Works. Provides that eight hours shall constitute a day's work in all penal institutions and upon all works and undertakings carried on or aided by State, county, or municipal governments. Violation of act on part of any corporation, contractor, or officer of the State is deemed a misdemeanor. Approved March 12, 1903.

CHAP. 2, Sec. 1337. Eight-hour Day in Mines and Smelters. The period of employment of workingmen in all underground mines or workings and in smelters and all other institutions for the reduction or refining of ores or metals shall be eight per day, violation being a misde

Rev. Stat., 1898.

Washington. CHAP. 101. Eight-hour Day upon Public Works. Eight hours in any one calendar day shall constitute a day's work on any work done for the State or any county or municipality thereof. Work done by contract or sub-contract on any building or improvements or works on roads, bridges, streets, alleys, or buildings for the State shall be done under the provisions of this act, except in case of emergency when the hours for work may be extended, the rate of pay for time employed in excess of eight hours of each calendar day to be one and one-half times the rate allowed for the same amount of time during eight hours' service. These provisions to be stipulated in all contracts, sub-contracts, or agreements for work done for the State. Penalty provided for violation of act. Approved March 13, 1899.

West Virginia. CHAP. 17. Eight Hours upon Public Works. Eight hours to constitute a day's work for all laborers, workmen, and mechanics employed by or on behalf of the State or by any contractor or sub-contractor on any public works of the State. Penalty is provided for violation of act. Approved February 20, 1899.

Wisconsin. CHAP. 83. Eight Hours in Manufacturing and Mechanical Establishments. Provides for an eight-hour work day on all day contracts in manufacturing and mechanical business, unless specified to the contrary. Anno Stat., 1889.

Wyoming. Eight-hour Day. Eight hours' actual work shall constitute a lawful day's work in all mines, and on all State and municipal works. Constitution, Art. XIX, Sec. 1.

United States. Eight Hours upon Government Work. Provides for an eight-hour workday for all laborers, workmen, and mechanics employed by or on behalf of the government of the United States. Rev. Stat. 1878, Title 43, Sec. 3738.

CHAP. 1093. SEC. 4. Eight Ilours upon Irrigation Works. Secretary of the Interior may cause contracts to be let for the construction of irrigation works ... Provided, That in all construction work eight hours shall constitute a legal day's work and no Mongolian labor shall be employed thereon. Approved June 17, 1902, Acts of Congress.

meanor.

It will be seen from the above laws that there are 27 states and territories, besides the United States, having an eight-hour day. There are six states where eight hours is prescribed as the limit for a day's work, unless specified to the contrary; these are Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, New York, and Pennsylvania. Nevada and the United States specify the eight-hour day upon irrigation works and New York for laborers upon the reservoir. In Wisconsin, the eight-hour day is prescribed in manufacturing and mechanical establishments, unless

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