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picion of the attachment it implies, and only warn security of every Indian treaty? Not fidelity or frim of the inefliciency of their wavering support, honor, but fear! In all ages it has reigned prewhile he observes their settled opposition, borne donnant in the rude and the cultivated mind. along the ample tide of hope and experiment, What was it that ensured a performance of the gainst the man with whom he has deliberately truce and capitulation of the northern Gith, chosen to identiti binselt.

when he hung, with his collected legions, pon The great criine impeded to Jackson is the the barriers of the koman republic? Nothing punishuinent of the wretches who excited, aided, but a terror of the veteran army of Aurelia'), tinci abetted, in the butchery of herpless babes, which, in the event of his proving faithless, threat, and the shiainetiss, wanton, and inhuman dishonor encid him with instant destruction. And depend of suppliant women. And upon this point, what upon it, such is the construction of human, S is the argument advanced! Our attention has well as animal nature, that where you operate been invited to the period at which we assume tol judiciously upon this sensation, the effect will be *** interpolate the Indian public law witla revolt.! broad and palpable. To this, however, it is reing cruelties!” The Indian public law! and pray li joine«l, the indian prisoner is disgrace, and it is when is this? When we are serong, the loris of id mercy to take his life. But if any thing, it ad is the soil, and the degradeil aborigines are weak, it double justification. In his just execution für emaciated, and sunk into a disgracetii servituue ! unprovoked murders, you satisfy the law and fill to our will! I challenge the epoch of our history, is up the extent of whatever compassion can be when the clemency exercised in this unfortunate shown to the unhappy victim. And as to the cast of beings was milder, or more universal, than wbitemen who were condemnedl and executeil, at the priseni day. The charge, 100, of having they had become outlaws to the forins of justice, (lives.elthem of their land, covering our neighbor's Il Clissociated the uselves from the claims of Use orgood', is echoed to the transatlantic reproach. Ti dinary rules of trial, and it was not worth the inis forgotten, that in the inmense waste betweenquiry' whether they were combatants, provided our remotest border and the Pacific uide, there is Their information, intelligence, skill, 19 cmning, room for ten times ten their number; or, that all had been employed to combine the arts of assusinost within the sphere of a single nation of Indi. sination and rapine. ans, there is space enough, according to the ordi- The fundamental basis of all military operations, nary arrangements of civilization, to receire every || is retaliation whether excited in the fresh com. tribe belonging to the northern section of the con- bat upon the ficld, or meditated in a pass, or an tinent. Bli we have violated “the Indian public ambuscade, or upon prisoners under the sanctity law by revilting cruelties." For myseit, consult of your Hag. It must depend upon your enemy ing their habits, customs, and inanners, I am un- how for you carry the l'etaliation. if his exeiadvised of any other definition their sachers have tions have been directed against the helpless and siven to this, than tha which is engraven b, the the innocent, and who were not lauful objects of jcaiping knife and indented by the tomahawk. in warfare, and to spill whose blool it became as the very precept and split of the boasted Iniliun mich a crime as if it fell from the heart of a bro. oublic luwo miglii be pleided an extenuation of the ther, the act at once constitutes hini a murderer severest punishments. It has neither a Bible nor and an outlaw, and subjects him (whether as an Alcoran on which to rest--it is literally in principal or accessary) to the immediate sentence scribed in blood, and built upon human heca-l of the general, or a subaltern, maintaining the setombs! Go to the river Raisin ransack the north - Il parate command. For all other powers are con. western campaigns from their earliest date, and cluded, under such circumstances, and there lies the practice of its principles will be found to have

but one question-has the wretch subjected him. continued immutably the same-the armed, the self to the judgement pronounced on an illegal unarned, and the prisoner, to have shared alike, species of wartare? It is not material, that he is either (leath, or the more refined horrors of the

a savage-ignorance or education cannot shield stake! Travel round to the South-pause at Fort the culpril-nor can the Cloristian cast his minile Mims-listen to the mournful recital of its catas over his iniquities! And for the civilized stes: trople, and the burning blond of the mother and perado, there is no greater pallitrion! if there is the child will whisper agonies, of which your any difference, his is a more aggravated, heinous, wildest fancy can form no conception! Teil ime and unpardonable ottence! A fictitious indask of not, then, that we have "interpolated the Indian benevolence and pluilanthropy, whics transientiy priblic law with rerolling cruelties--but at once bides the craft and dissimulation of the arch hya allow the mind to yield itself to the conclusion, pocrite, while he plots and foments the discords necessity has reduced us to a policy carrying with lot rebellion, or the equally terrible designs of init a retributive force and equity in its decisions discriminate theft and slaughter, may contribute and effects.

sophistry for the tongue of the mercenary advo. While we hear, in one breath, the complaint of cate or the corrupt judge, but cannot, even to the out having despoiled the fine texture of the In- most fertile apologist, afford a sustantial arguJian code; in the next, it is guardedly insinuated, ment for acquittal and justification! Against his that the most respectable writers declare retalia execution remonstrance would fall poweriess and tion only justifiable as calculated to produce fief contempuble at the fiat of justice.

Here is a fair and undisguised confession, What, for example, is the tenure by which man that, when thus qualified, it is justifiable. But it holds his life? Toat of a natural and absolute right is asserted to have no influence upon the Indian! || derived from the supreme ruler of the universe. 1 appeal to experience!. Answer me. Is not all And how is it forfeited? By violating the moral and history against the denial? What has been the natural obligations of society, or in other words,

those peculiar duties and privileges to winch • The idea and words were used by a M. H. R. in the de- every individual has an irrevocable and inalienable see the di bate on this subject in the House of Represen- !l relation. Therefore, in the manageinent of a de

claim, according io the laws of dependence and


fence to which you have been driven by foul, and I unoffending, innocent inmates! --Should they corrupt, and unnatural machinations, what can be bave been suffered, again, to mature the festering more just than to retaliate upon the leads of the fires of their bloodly and raricorous ambition ? No! principals, who have disowned, as it were, their The voice of reason cries, No! Not the long cata. allegiance to humanity and law, and irremediably logue of their crimes has, already, pronomced lost their innate pretensions to liberty and life, the their doom. Consult the security of the infant, the enormities to which their demoniac contrivances wife and the husband, and, in merey to the living, hirte given existence, and to which language can perpetuate its awful moni'ory. Placing, therefore, apply no adequate epithet? The mere tools of the execution of Arbutlinott and Arnbrister, who their dark purposes, vegetating in an unlettered | merged their cliaracter in that of the Indian, pon stupidity, andonly acquiring heat and motion, from the basis of natural law, calculating the mischiefs the steam and stews of their more polished, prac. they had caused, the insuperable !ecessity of tised, and wity barbarity, might, in a disposition | putting a period to their desulating intiuence; o: piiy and forgiveness, be sheltered, witii a par- considering, also, the impracticability of achies don, where the warrant of death couli reach the ring this in any o:lier way, which coull be deri. powerful projectors of sich wicked and hateful secl, as final and effective, and, lastly, contempla. deeris, uie they remained no security could ting, together with the justice and present ien. be hoped for--the future would be a laithtul mir | ency of the inestre, its future example ani For of the past. You might smite the branches of li consequences, experience and reason coalesce in the great tree one by one to the earth, but if you prochaining their approbation of the conduct of left is strong, massive, and incorrigible bouy General Jackson. standing unhuit and glorying in your credulity, it is to the imputation the unfeeling may attemp! -would soon piit forth new and wider shoots, and to cast upon the motives of the general, i ciase it scatter again, on all sides, its deadly fruit. The with its alihors as to contemptible, mean, and only alternative was the desiruction of those who of words, to demand a serious refutation. The infused vigor and energy into the direful policies Book of his life is before you, and, I am persuasivit, of a savage war.

it woull be a dirici and malignant insult to your In fine, what is the principle laid down by one gratitude and understanding for any mi to priof the ables: legal commentators, and in winch all end to suppose it was necessary. others concur, in regard to war? “That if the cause and the inform-let the females of Orleans ha and end of the war be justifiable, all the means asked ther. when the British Lion, fresh from that appear necessary to the end are justitiable the sack of Washington, waved beio.e ibeir city, aiso. This is the principle, he coutinues, which the intentions of the general were dosabied on the defends those extremities to which the violence memorable plains of Chalmoite? - Vo! I am stors of W'ar usually proceeds: for since war is a coulest-for they would not stop to listen to so 5:se ti} by force, it has naturally no boundary but that in interrogatoir: Concours of the reconsibility lie which force terminates, the destruction of the life assumeil

, and how ear« less he was of the resulito against which the force is direcied” Consequent. himsuit, on teir bended knees they wank their Îy, as no gratuitous barbarity can be attributed to 104, he was marie ihe hap!!, ignor:ble, and gi. any act in war, which eventually becomes condu-l rious, instrument of subduing the enemy', ni of cive, or is absolutely necessary, to its termination, shielding from his libidinis contid avaricious lusts it is perfectly consistent with the rules, obliga their persons and their fortunes And upon such tions, and principies of law, whether marua, carable and virtuous monuments of his faine, are civil, natural, or revealed. Viewing the subject

, written in legille and universally acknowlediger! then, placed upon such inmorcable ground, it is characters, the intentions of his heart, over wich useless and worse than vain, 10 arras this cole' the saint might mediate wiihout a blush, the poi. or that system, with its forms and :echnicalities, losopher pause, while he gathered the rich irezin order to impugn or arrest the retaliation, for it sures of their instruction, and with whoin the hero is strictly an act of war, and competent to scue to should unite in their imitation and applause. decide and execute, but the commanding oflicor

PLINE, himself He will take care to make the only question proper to be determined, whether the

MR. ADAMS' LETTER. mandate of natural law, the subsiratim of all other laws, will be obeyed. Superadded to evcry The Secretary of State of the United States, 10 other reason adduced, if the character of the the Minister Plenipotentiary of the Unito enemy is such as to lay him open to the intrigues States in Spaili, at Madrid, (No. 7.) of impostors and incendiaries, who would repro.

Thepiirtment of Sinte, duce by their arts after a short interval of peace,

Washington, 29th Nov. 1818. S and when the conqueror's arms were withdrawn, Sir, - Your despatches, to No. 92. inclusie', the same state of anarchy, discord, and massacre, with their enclosures, liave been received as iisis the dernier mode of prosecuting the war to a suc- Department. Among these enclosures, are we cessful issue, would be dictated by sell preserva. several notes addressed to you by Pizaro in re tion, and insolve in it the ruin and downtal of the lation to the transactions clurmg tlie czinpiga instigators Generosity cannot appease them, i General Jackson against the Seminole lodiang anci moderation will teach them no lesson, and the lithe banditti of Negroes combinti with them, illici concord, safety and happiness of society, louilly particularly to his procecuings in Florida, withinust demand their death. For with their dissolucion be boundaries of the nited States. would perish the real causes of war, and time In the fourth and last of those notes of sir. Pi. and tranquility would, if it were possible, open zurro, he has given firmal notice that the kite the door to oblivion For one immen! Spise

his master, has issueil orders for the suspeed15.6 is these mal facir is to have beer gassed by, and the the negotiation beiween the United Stales and black clouds of affliction would have hovered over Sprin, imuil satisfaction shall have been inuie is? every cottage of your line, and its poor, barnlegs, "the American to lim for these pro

ceedings of general Jackson, which he considers || quence of their falling into the hands of general as acts of unequivocal hostility against him, and as | Jackson. outrages upon his honor and dignity; the only ac- In the month of August, 1814, while a war exceptable atonement for which, is stated to consist listed between the United States and Great Britain, in a disavowal of the acts of the American ge- to winch Spain had formally declared herself nelle neral, thus complained of the infliction upon him | tral, a British force, not in the fresh pursuit of a of a suitable punishment for his supposed miscon. | defeated and Aying enemy-not overstepping an duct, and the restitution of the posts and territo-l imaginary and equivocal boundary between their ries taken by him from the Spanish authorities, own territories and those belonging, in some sort, with inclemnity for all the property taken, and all || as much to their enemy as to Spain, but approachdamage- an injuries public or private, sustained ing by sea, and by a broad and open invusion of in consequence of it.

the Spanish province, ai a thousand miles, or an Within a very few days after this notification, ocean's distance from any British territory, landed Mr. Pizarro must have received, with copies of || in Florida, took possession of Pensacola and the the correspondence between Mr. Onis and this fort of Barrancas, and invited, by public proclaDepartment, the determination which had been mations, all the runaway Negroes-all the savage taken by the President, to restore the place of Indians--all the pirates, and all the traitors to Pensacola, with the fort of Barrancas, to any per: exist within reach of their summons, to join their

their country, whom they knew or imagined to son properly authorized, on the part of Spain, to receive them, and the fort of St Marks to iny | standard, and wage an extirminating war against Spanish force adequate to its protection against the portion of the United States immediately borthe Indians, by whom its forcible occupation had dering upon this neutral, and thus violated terribeen threatened, for purposes of hostility against tory of Spain. The land commander of this Brithe United States. The officer commanding at

tish force, was a certain colonel Nicholls, who, the post, has been directed to consider 250 men

driven from Pensacola by the approach of general as such adequate force; and, in case of their apJackson, actually left, to be blown up, the Spanislı pearance, with proper authority, to deliver it up fort of Barrancas, when he found it could not af. to their commander accordingly.

ford him protection, and, evacuating that part of From the last mentioned correspondence, the the province, landed at another, established him

self on the Appalachicola river, and there erected Spanish government must likewise have been satisfied that the occupation of these places in Spa: | tribe of black, white, and red combatants, against

a fort, from which to sally forth with his motley nista Florida, by the commander of the American | the defenceless borders of the United States, in forces, was not by virtue of any order received by that vicinity. A part of this force consisted of a him from this government to that effect, nor with any view of wresting the province from the poslonies, in wbich George Woodbine was a Captain,

of colonial marines, levied in the British co. session of Spain; nor in any spirit of hostility to the Spanish government; that it arose from inci- !!:—2.) and Robert Chrystie Armbrister was a

Lieutenant. dents which occurred in the prosecution of the

LIX.) As between the United States and Great war against the Indians—from the imminent danger in which the fort of St. Marks was of being seized LX.] Britain, we should be willing to bury this by the Indians themselves, and from the manifes-transaction in the same grave of oblivion with tations of hostility to the United States, by the other transactions of that war, had the hostilities commandant of St. Marks and the Governor ofl of colonel Nicholls terminated with the war. But Pensacola, the proofs of which were made known | he did not consider the peace which ensucd be.

tween the United States and Great Britain, as have to general Jackson, and impelled him, from the necessities of self-defence, to the steps of which ing put an end either to his military occupations the Spanish government complains.

or to his negotiations with the Indians, against the

United States. Several months after the ratificaIt might be sufficient to leave the vindication of tion of the treaty of Ghent, he retained his post these measures upon those grounds, and to furnish, and his party-colored forces, in military array, in the enclosed copies of general Jackson's let. ters, and the vouchers by which they are support. United States had stipulated to put an end, imme.

JI-2.) By the 9th article of that treaty, the ed, the evidence of that hostile spirit on the part || cliately after its ratification, to hostilities with all of the Spanish commanders, but for the terms the tribes or nations of Indians with whom they in which 'Mr. Pizarro speaks of the execution of || might be at war at the time of the ratification, and two British subjects, taken, one at the fort of St.

to restore to them all the possessions which they Marks, and the other at Suwany, and the intima- had enjoyed in the year 1811. This article had tion that these transactions may lead to a change no application to the Creek nation, with whom in the relations between the two nations, which is the United States had already made peace, by a doubtless intended to be understood as a menace

treaty concluded on the 9th day of August, 1814, of war.

more than four months before the treaty of Ghent It may be, therefore, proper to remind the go. I was signed Yet, colonel Nicholls not only affect. vernment of Iris Catholic Majesty of the incidentsed to consider it as applying to the Seminoles of in which this Seminole war originated, as well as Florida, and the ontlawed Red Sticks, whom he of the circumstances connected with it, in the re. had induced to join him there, but actually perlations between Spain and her ally, whom she sup. || suaded them that they were entitled, by virtue of poses to have been injured by the proceedings of the treaty of Ghent, to all the lands which had begeneral Jackson, and to give to the Spanislı cabi. | longed to the Creek nation, within the United net some precise information of the nature of the States, in the year 1811, and that the government business, peculiarly interesting to Spain, in which || 11. i. III ] of Great Britain woull support them in these subjects of her allies, in whose favor she that pretension. fle asserted also this doctrine in takes this interest, were engaged, when their pro- a correspondience with colonel Hawkins, then the jects of every kind were terminated, in conse.ll agent of the United States with the Creeks, and

gave him notice, in their name, with a mockery | general Jackson wrote a letter to the governor of of solemnity, that they had concluded a treaty of Pensacola, calling upon him to put down this alliance, offensive and defensive, and a treaty of common nuisance to the peaceable inhabitants of IX.) Navigation and Commerce with Great Bri. || XV.] both countries. That letter together with tain, of which more was to be heard after it should the answer of the governor of Pensacola, have be ratified in England. Colonel Nicholls then || already been communicated to the Spanish minisevacuated his fort, which, in some of the enclosed | ter here, and by him, doubtless, to his government. papers, is called the fort at Prospect Bluff, but | Copies of them are, nevertheless, now again enwhich he had denominated the British post on the || XXIII.) closed; particularly as the letter from the Appalachicola; took with him the white portion governor, explicitly admits--that this fort, conof his force, and embarked for England, with se structed by Nicholls, in violation both of the ter. veral of the wretched savages whom he was thus ritory and neutrality of Spain, was still no less delading to their fate--among whom was the obnoxious to his government than to the United Propbet Francis, or Hillis Hadjo—and left the States; but, that he had neither sufficient foice, fort, amply supplied with military stores and am- nor authority, without orders from the governor munition, to the Negro department of his allies. general of the Havanna, to destroy it. It was afIV. V.] It afterwards was known by the name of terwards, on the 27th July, 1816, destroyed by a Negro Fort. Colonel Hawkins immediately com- cannon shot from a gun vessel of the United municated to this government the correspondence states, which, in its passage up the river, was between him and Nicholis, here referred to, (co-fired upon from it. 'it was blown up, with an pies of which, marked No. 1 to 5, are herewith English flag still Aying as its standard, and iinmeenclosed,) upon which Mr. Monroe, then Secre- diately after the barbarous murder of a boat's X.] tary of State, addressed a letter, (copy mark. || crew, belonging to the nary of the United States, ed G,) to Mr. Baker, the British Charge d'Af | by the banditti left in it by Nicholls faires, at Washington, complaining of Nicholls's In the year 1817," Alexander Arbuthnott, of the conduct, and showing that his pretence that the Island of New Providence, a British subject, first 9th article of the treaty of Ghent, could have any | appeared, as an Indian trader in Spanish Florida; application to his Indians, was utterly destitute of and as the successor of colonel Nicholls, in the XI.] foundation. Copies of the same correspon- | employment of instigating the Seminole and outdence were transmitted to the Minister of the lawed Red Stick Indians to hostilities against the United States, then in England, with instructions | United States, by reviving the pretence that they to remonstrate with the British government || were entitled to all the lands which had been against these proceedings of Nicholls, and to show | ceded to the Creek Nation by the United States, how incompatible they were with the peace which in August, 1814. As a mere Indian trader, the had been concluded between the two nations. intrusion of this man, into a Spanish province, XII. a. b.] These remonstrances were accordingly was contrary to the policy observed by all the made, first in personal interview with earl Ba| European Powers in this hemisphere, and by none XIII. a. b.) thurst and lord Castlereagh, and after- more rigorously than by Spain, of excluding all wards in written notes, addressed successively to foreigners from intercourse with the Indians, them, (copies of which, together with extracts within their territories. It must be known to the from the despatches of the American Minister to Spanish government, whether Arbuthnott had a the Secretary of State, reporting what passed at | Spanish license for trading with the Inclians in those interviews, are enclosed.) Lord Bathurst, | Spanish Florida or not;f but they also know that in the most unequivocal manner, confirmed the Spain was bound by treaty, to restrain by force facts, and disavowed the misconduct of Nicholls; || all hostilities on the part of those Indians, against declared his disapprobation of the pretended the citizens of the United States, and it is for them treaty of Alliance, offensive and defensive, which to explain how, consistently vith those engage. he had made; assured the American Minister that || ments, Spain could, contrary to all the maximis of the British government had refused to ratify that her ordinary policy, grant such a license to a fotreaty, and would send back the Indians whom reign incendiary, whose principal, if not his only Nicholls had brought with him, with advice to | object, appears to have been, to stimulate those make their peace on such terms as tKey could ob-hostilities which Spain bad expressly stipulated by tain. Lord Castlercagh confirmed the assurance || force to restrain. In his infernal instigations he that the treaty would not be ratified; and if, at XLIX.) was but too successful. No sooner did he the same time that these assurances were given, || make his appearance among the Indians, accomcertain distinctions of public notoriety, were || panied by the prophet Hillis Hadjo, returned from shown to the Prophet Hillis Hadjo, and he was L.) his expedition to England, than the peaceful actually honored with a commission, as a British inhabitants on the borders of the United States, officer, it is to be presumed that these favors were visited with all the horrors of savage war; were granted him as rewards of past services, || the robbery of their property, and the barbarous and not as encouragement to expect any support || and indiscriminate murder of woman, infancy, and from Great Britain, in a continuance of savage | age. hostilities against the United States, all intention After the repeated expostulations, warnings and of giving any such support having been repeat offers of peace, through the summer and autumn edly and earnestly disavowed.

of 1817, on the part of the United States, bad been The Negro fort, however, abandoned by col. | LI. a.) answered only by renewed outrages, and Nicholls, remained on the Spanish territory, oc- LXI) after a detachment of forty men, under lieu. cupied by the banditti to whom he had left it, and held by them as a post, from whence to com

. It should have been said, in October, 1816.

+ By a letter from the Spanish governor of St. Angustine, mit depredations, outrages, and murders, and as

Jose Coppinger, (No. 67, of the documents which ve slali a receptacle for fugitive slaves and malefactors, hereafter publish, it appears that he had no sucis license. XIV.) to the great annoyance both of the United || dians, governor Coppinger describes Arbuthnott and lia States and of Spanish Florida. In April, 1816, "coadjutors, as persons with bad intentions."


tenant Scott, accompanied by seren women, had || strength and movement of the American army berapy Quylaid anel murdered by the Indians, oriers that the date of the departure of express had been were given to general l. ckson, and an adequate | noted by the Spanish Commissary, and ammuniforce was placed at bis elisposal, to terminate the tion, munitions of war, and all necessary supplies

It was ascertained that the Spanish force in furnished to the laclians. Florida wasina lequate for the protecrion even of The con luct of the governor of Pensacola was the Spanisl territory itself, against this mingled not less marked by a disposition of enmity to the liorle of lawless Indians and Negrocs; and, al- United States, and by an uiter disregard to the thorigh their deegstations were committed within 1 obligations of the treaty, by which he was bound the limits of the United States, they immediately to restrain, by force, the Indians from hostilities sought refuge within the Florida line, and there against them. When called upon to vindicate the onli were to be overtaken The necessity of territorial rights and authority of Spain, by the Crossing the line was indispensable; for it was destruction of the Negro fort, lis preciecessor had from beyond the line that the Indians mavie their declared it to be not less annoying and pernicious murderous incursio:is within that of the United

to the Spanish subjects in Florisla, than to the Statis.

Ii was there that they had their abode, United States, but bad pleaded his inability 10 and the territory belonged in fact to them, al subdue it. He himself, hal expressed bis apprethough within the borders of the Spanish jurisdic- l hensions that furt St. Marks would be forcibly tion. There it was that tie American comman taken by the savages, from its Spanish garrison; der met the principal resistance from them here I vet, ai the same time, he had refused the passage XL) it was, that were found the still bleeding up the Escambja river, unless upon tlor payment scalps of our citizens, freslily buichered by them; of excessive duties, 10 provisions destined as supthere it was that lie released the only woman, who plies for the American army, which, by the deten had been suffered to survive the massacre of the lion of th.:!n, was subjected to the most distress, party underlieutenant Scott. But it was not an- ling privations. He had permitted free ingress and ticipated by this government that thecoinmanding | egress at Pensacola, to the avowed savage eneofficers of Spain, in Florida, whose especial duty i mies of the United States. Supplies of ainmuni. it was, in confirmity to the solemn engagemenis tion, munitions of war, and provisions bacl been contracted by their nation, to restrain, by force, li received by them from thence. They had been those Indians from i ostilities against the United reccived and sheltered there, from the pursuit of States, wouli be found encouraging aiding, and the American forces, and suffered again to sally abetting them, and furnishing them with supplies, thence, to enter upon the American territory and for carrying on such hostilities. The vilicer in commit new murders. Finally, on the approach command, immediately before general Jackson, of general Jackson to Pensacola, the governor was, therefore, specially instructed to respect, as | XXXM.] sent him a letter, denouncing his entry far as possible, the Spanish authority, wherever it upon the territory of Florida, as a violent outrage was maintained, and copies of those orders were upon the rights of Spain, commanding him to also furnishes to general Jackson, upon his taking || depart and withdraw from the same, and threatthe command. In the course of his pursuit, as he lening, in case of his non-compliance, to employ approached St Marks, he was informed, direct | force to expel him. from the Governor of Pensacola, that a party of It became, therefore, in the opinion of general the hostile Indians bad threatened to seize that Jackson, indispensably necessary to take from the fort, and that lie apprehended the Spanish garri-LIV.) governor of Pensacola the means of carryson there was not in strength sufficient to defending his threat into execution. Before the forces it against thein This information was confirmed under his com pand, the savage enemies of his from other sources, and by the evidence produced country had disappeared. But he knew that the upon the trial of umbrister, it proved to have moment those forces should be disbanded, if shelbeen exactly true By all the laws of neutraliti tered by Spanish fortressts, if furnished with am. and of war, as well as of prudence and of humani. munitions and supplies by Spanish officers, and if ty, he was warranted in anticipating his enemy, aided and supported by the instigation of Spanish by the amicable, and that being refuser, by the encouragement, as he had every reason to expect forcible, occupation of the Fort. There will need | they would be, they would reappear, and fired, in no citations from printer treatises on international | addition to their ordinary ferociousness, with re. law, to prove the correctness of this principie. it venge for the chastisement they had so recently is engraved in adamant on the common sense of received, would again rush wiih the war hatchet mankind; no writer upon the laws of nations ever and scalping knife, into the borders of the United pretended to contradict it; none of any reputation States, and mark every foot-step with the blood or authority ever omitted to assert it.

of their defenceless citizens. So far as all the naXXXIV.) At fort St. Marks, Alexander Arbuth- ||ive resources of the savage extended, the war nott, the British Indian trader from beyond the was at an end, and general Jackson was about to seas, the firebrand, by whose torch this Negro In- restore to their families and their homes, the dian war against our borders had been rekindled, l brave volunteers who had followed his standard, was found an inmate of the commandant's family, and who had constituted the principal part of his and it was also found that, by the commancant force. This could be done with safety, leaving himself, councils of war had been permitted to be the regular portion of his troops to garrison bis held within it, by the savage chiefs and warriors: Il line of lorts, and two small detachments of volunthat the Spanish store bouses had been appropr.

teer cavalry, to scour the country round Pensaco. ated to their use; that it was an open market for ta, and sweep off the lurking remnant of savages, cattle, known to have been robbed by them frut!: who had been scattered and dispersed before him. citizens of the United tates, and which had beri This was sufficient to keep in check the remnant contracted for and purchased by the oficers of the banditti, against whom he had marched, so the arrison, That information had been ailorder

long as they stoukl be ciestitute of other aid and from this fort by Arbuott, to the enemy, of the support. It was, in his judgment, not sufficient,

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