« PreviousContinue »
This produced from Lord Cochrane a third letter, || knew the respect he owed to himseif, ever make a wherein he says, that my first letter, in which I sta- || disturbance upon such a matter. Equally absurd is ted that my visit to him was in my capacity of an of- it to suppose that a government has a right to order ficer of the United States, and was intended as an a foreign man of war out of port for omitting to evidence of respect to the officer commanding the salute. naval forces of Chili, had induced him to conceive Lord Cochrane speaks of the practice of all other there could be no intention of disrespect to the fag services with which he has had communication, and of Chili, in the omission of a salute, and the more says lie is not acquainted with the regulations of the so, as the very next sentence in that letter very can. government of the United States—but the very cir. didly stated ibat I was aware it was usual on the cuinstance, that a government has a right to reguarrival of a vessel of war at a foreign port, to salute | late its own mode of answering salutes, makes it publicly, and that it was my knowledge of this cir. | manifest that it cannot be obligatory upon a man of cumstance that had induced me upon arriving at war to salute that it must be optional with her to the port in January last, to acquaint ihe Governor 1 salute or not, as she sees fit. would pay the customary salute if an equal number I considered the letter of Lord Cochrane, as so of guns would be returned-he desires me to judge vulgar and indecorus, that I could not answer it to then his astonishment on receiving my written de l him--and, therefore, I wrote to the Supreme Direcclaration, that my letter was intended to decline sa- tor, to acquaint him, that, upon my arrival, I had luting altogether, and that therefore it was not visited the Governor and the officer commanding necessary to enquire whether a salute from the ship | the naval forces, and that both visits were intended under my command should be answered by an equal as testimonies of respect towards the public func. or less number of guns. This he say's is a publictionaries of Chili; that, on the following day, the matter. But he desires me to judge of his private Governor had visited me on board, and I recognized sentiments, wiren he finds me add that a salute from | in his frank deportment and prompt return of my a national vessel, upon arriving at a foreign port, is visit, a disposition corresponding with that which I a matter of courtesy only--that it is entirely option had uniformly manifested in my several visits to the al-that it is sometimes practised--it is oftentimes port-that, with respect to the conduct of Lord omitted he says it is incontestable; that in no port Cochrane towards me, I felt a delicacy in comment-1 of a civilized nation, are an equal number of guns | ing upon it to him--and, with respect to my own returned by the power who may be saluted--that as conduct towards Lord Cochrane, i did not deem it to the incident noticed in his leiter, he has not erre necessary or proper to discuss it that these were in fact, though he may have committed a mistake | matters for communication with my own governin ijcidental trifles that he plainly perceives the ment; and that the object of my letter, was to assure awkward circumstances in which I am placed--that him, that upon my arrival, my conduct had been I myself could not regret them more than he did respectful towards the officers with whom I had that it would deprive bim of what, previous to re- communicated, and that I trusted he would not reaceiving my last letter, he should have deemed a dily be persuaded to believe I had been wanting, in pleasure, namely, of paying bis respects to me, these respects, towards the officers of the govern. which now. consistently he could noi do, without ment of Chili. such an explanation as shall reconcile the seeming
The commanding officer of the naval forees had contradiction of my public letters. As to Lord Cochrane's private sentiments, I had ficial visit, and had endeavored to dragoon me into
now informed me that, he would not return my of as little to do with them as I had to do with his pri- saluting. It was therefore, proper, as the fag had vate character--with respect to the mode of all civil.
not been treated with proper respect, that I should ized nations of returning a salute, it was not the question between us, sice, from the first, I declin, sable. This consideration, and this alone, deter.
not remain in Valparaiso longer than was indispened saluting at all--and his regret at the awkward || mined me to relinquish my intended journey to St. circumstances in which he perceives so plainly I am Jago, to take on board the supplies necessary for placed, is as ridiculous as it is vulgar.
the continuance of my voyage, and to sail without Lord Cochrane affects to think he has convicted delay. Being ready to sail on the 30th of Decemme of contradiction. It will, I think, be perceived ber, ane about to get under weigh, I received a let. he has not done so. I repeat that it is usual to sa- ter from Lord Cochrane, saying, that in consequence lute, but as a matter of courtesy--that it is entirely of Use friendly disposition I bad professed towards optional with the man of war. Since there is no
the government of Chili, and the ties of amity power in a government to compel a foreign man of which he trusted would long subsist between the war to salute that a salute is sometimes practised, United States and that state; he had to request of that it is oftentimes omitted. The opinion advanced me, as the officer commanding a ship of war in the by Lord Cochrane, that it is an insult to the flag of || port, that I would abstain from proceeding to sea the port for a foreign man of war to omit to salute, l until the squadron which was under sailing orders is perfectly absurd-nor would any officer, conscious should have weighed. I answered that to enable te himself merited any respect from others, or wbo me to say, whether it would be in my power to
comply with his request, I desired he would inform tar.--But on my return again to the Rock, Admirall me at what-hour the squadron would actually sail. Sir James Saunarez sent on board the Essex, and | He replied that part of the squadron would weigh offered the customary civilities. I then waited on immediately, and the remainder as soon as practi. hin, and a friendly intercourse followed--but no cable; not being later than the next evening before salute was given by the Essex to his fag, nor is dark. I wrote to him, that although it was importhere the least shadow of truth in my being requi- tant to me to proceed to sea without delay, and I red to salute any Admiral's flag at Gibraltar, or on was anxious to have sailed that morning, yet, from non-compliance thereof to leave the port. Such a the desire I felt to meet the wishes of the governdemand i should have considered absurd in the ex- ment of Chili, as far as was in my power, I had treme."
concluded to remain in port that day, but that it
would be my indispensable duty to sail the next || seen that I rather waived than insisted on rigid rules day, and proceed upon my further destination; that of ceremony. My own opinion of the usage on I hoped the delay of a day would be sufficient; and such occasions, founded on more than nineteen indeed, as my destination was round Cape Horn, || years experience in the navy is this : on anchoring my sailing would not, I should think, in any manner in the foreign port where there are men of war, affect the views of the squadron. It should be re the man of war of the port sends an officer on marked that just as I received Lord Cochrane's first board with a message of civility, and offers of assisletter, requesting me to remain in port, the frigate | tance, &c. The commander of the foreign ship San Martín slipt her cable, and stood out in the of. || then makes a visit, which is returned by the comfing; the Chacabuco sloop of war, also stood out.-- mander of the man of war of the port-and an in'Tue San Martin anchored several miles out the tercourse is thus opened, which is improved or not, Chacabuco returned at night, and anchored so close according to the disposition of the parties. Alto us, that I expected the two ships would get foul though this is the most usual course, yet it is not alIn the morning the Chacabuco again got under ways pursued, either from inadvertence, froin an weigh to stand out; and the San Martin was also un- | opinion that these matters are in themselves of der weigh These manæuvres, and the character small importance, or from a difference of sentiment of Lord Cochrane, induced me to believe, that there as to its propriety. Sometimes a man of war, upon was a design to intimidate us from sailing, or to at- her arrival, sends in the first instance to the man of tack us, if we attempted to go to sea. I did not war of the port an offer to salute; on condition of choose to be driven from my purpose by either of receiving gun fur gun; but this course is not frethese intentions. In the morning, therefore, at 10 || quent, nor is it, in my opinion, the most correct, o'clock, having cleared ship for action, I wciglitat i thougti 10 is not in any way exceptionable. and stood out to sea, passing near the San Martin Up to the date of my sailing from the United and the Chacabuco. They offered no molestation, States, you know, we never had any regulations but soon after returned into port.
about salutes in the nasy. But to confirm my opiThe conduct of these ships satished me, that nion on this subject I can state, that immediately Lord Cochrane had no intention to endeavor to de- on my arrival at Rio Janeiro, an officer came un tain me by force. I had informed him the preced. || board with the compliments of the Portuguese ading day of my determination to sail and did sail | miral and the offer of any assistance I might want. accordingly. 'Yet his own frigate, the Maria Isa. || When beating into Calloa, the Spanish commodore bella, made no movements, nor did the frigate Lau. sent his first lieutenant on board before I had an.. taro, although I got under weigh from within 100 chored, with compliments of congratulation on my yards of both, under a light breeze. In fact the arrival and offers of assistance. In this deportment publication in the Gazette seems conclusive on that I recognised the character of officers and of gensubject. It states that as the sudden departure of tlemen. To both of them I paid a visit the day the Ontaria from Valparaiso had excited various ru- | following, and my visit was in due course returned. mors, the literal correspondence between the Ad. To neither of them did I pay the compliment of miral and Captain Biddle is published for the satis. firing a salute, though at both places I saluted the faction of all. The rumors there were probably as forts, previously ascertaining it would be returned absurd as they have been here--and to put an end gun for gun. Upon my arrival at Valparaiso, Lord to them, it is published, that difficulties had occur | Cochrane neither visited me himselt, nor did he red between Lord Cochrane and myself about a sa. ) send on board any message of civility. Althougla lute; and that afterwards Lord Cochrane had request-|! was not unmindful that the advances towards an ed me to remain in port, which I had declined do- l intercourse between us should most properly come ing, and had sailed. 'My own belief is, that the ob- from him, yet I waved this consideration as not beject of his movemects was to overawe us by the ling very important, and I paid a visit to Lord Cochforce of his squadron, and induce us to remain from rane. Did he return my visit? No; but in two hours the fear of being attacked.
after, I received his leiter reminding me of a part In thus leaving Valparaiso, I violated no duty of my duty, which he thought I had been long whatever to the government of Chili. Lord Coch- enough in the the navy to know, and insinuating, rane bad no right to detain an American man of that it I did not fire a salute, he would turn me out var until his ships could be ready for sea. In point of the port. Had Lord Cochrane returned my vi. of fact they did not sail until two weeks after my sit, and in the manner of a gentleman requested of departure. Was I bound to delay executing the or. me to salute, he might perhaps bave obtained by ders of my government, by wasting that much time civility what he certainly could not have extorted, at Valparaiso ? My destination too was in a course for I trust I shall ever continue so much like your. directly opposite to that of his squadron.. How then self and the rest of my brother officers, as not to be could my sailing in any way interfere with the pro-dragooned by Lord Cochrane or by any other lord, jects of his squadron? An instance much stronger or by any other man, into a conduct which might than this, has occurred in the previous December | bring down reproach upon our flag. In fact, had I at Lima. Just as the Spanish expedition was about|been undecided about saluting, the very letter of saling against Chili, an English frigate was on the Lord Cochrane, calling upon me in such a style for point of leaving Lima for the same place. The go a salute, would have determined me to refuse it. vernment of Lima requested her commander to de. It has been suggested, as a motive of Lord Cochfer his sailing. This be refused, because he had | rane's conduct, that there were on board the Onta. not been treated with proper respect in the port:-|| rio, passengers attached to the royal cause, and al. Yet, although the frigate would obviously carry, and || so a million of dollars. The whole sum on board did actually carry to Chili the first intelligence of || was two hundred and one thousand dollars receiv. the expedition preparing against it, yet the govern. | ed at Lima, of which S15,000 were for Archibald ment of Lima made no effort to detain her by Gracie and Sons, of N. York-$15,000 for Mr. As. force.
tor of N. York-$11,000 for Mr. Ellery, of Boston-With regard to personal civility, so far from re. and the remainder was shipped by individuals in pelling advances from Lord Cochrone, it will bel Lima, and consigned to individuals in Rio Janciro.
This circumstance could have furnished no calise of || sweet bread and butter, and bread inade of Indian complaint, as it is customary for our ships of war, corn and rye, similar to our brown bome-made. as well as those of other nations, to do so. It is Tea was brought from the kitchen, and handed sanctioned by our laws, and no doubt is entertain-round by a neat white servant girl. ed of its propriety. During my cruise in the Pacific,
The establishment of this political patriarch contwo English men of war touched at Valparaiso, ha- sists of a house, two stories high, containing, I be. ving specie on board, which they were conveying | lieve, eight roonis; of two men and three maid serfrom Lima to Rio Janeiro, nor was any dissatisfac- | vants; three horses and a plain carriage. Jlow tion erer expressed on that account.
great is the contrast between this individual, a man With regard to the passengers attached to the 1 of knowledge and informatian--without pomp, paroyal cause, they were two merchants, one lady, || rade, or vitious and expensive establishments, as and one officer. "To these two last, I had consented compared with the costly trappings, the depraved to give a passage, at the earnest solicitation of the character, and the profligate expenditure of vice king of Peru. I did so, because the vice king House, and -! What a lesson in this does lial yielded to my earnest solicitation for the re- America teach! There are now in this land, no less Jease of two American ships, the Beaver and the than three Cincinnati! Canton, and because he had, as a personal favour to myself, restored to liberty many of our unfortu
Description of the Burning Spring:- This may
be nate countrymen, whom I found in the prisons of considered a very great natural curiosity. It is si. Lima, for having been taken in arms against the tuated about 68 miles above the junction of the royalists. Not to have granted so slight a request, Kenawha county, Virginia, on the land of Lawrence in return for such signai'ravours to my fellow citi- || Washington. The water is contained in a hole in zens, I should have deemed a total want of feeling the earth, about three feet deep, and nine feet in and generosity--nor could I ever have anticipated, circumference. The water is always muddy, and that whilst I was subjecting myself to the inconve- an air rushes out of it, which creates large bubbles nience of having strangers on board my ship, as a on the surface, and if a blaze of fire is applied to it, return for benefits conferred on my countrymen, I takes fire with great rapidity, and burns at some was laying the foundation of reproaches against me, times until all the water is consumed-but this does
The circumstances of having a Spanish officer on not affect the burning. It frequently continues seboard my ship, and the special reasons which in: veral weeks. This water is very cold—but it is put duced me to receive him, are state in my detailed in agitation like the boiling of a pot, by the air that report of the cruise to the Secretary of the Navy, rushes out of it, and it emits a strong sulphuric made immediately on my arrival in the U. States. smell-News Letter.
In maintaining the intercourse which my duty required with the conflicung parties in South Ame
SOUTH AMERICA. rica, it was difficult to avoid exciting the jealousy of one or both of them. Knowing the popular sen.
GEN. BOLIVAR'S SPEECH timent of this country, and seeing many of our ci-| 7 the Congress of Venezuela, assembled at Angostura, üzen's actually enged in hostilities against them, the
delivered on the 15th day of February, 1819, and Royalists were particularly disposed to consider us
9th year of its independence. as inimical to them. A conduct at once respectful and conciliatory towards them was due to the neu
Many ancient and modern nations have shaken off trality of our government, and was no less essential oppression, but few of them have known how to to enable myself to act with effect in procuring the enjoy a few precious moments of freedom : very the release of property and persons of my fellow ci
soon have they returned to their former political tizens in the power of the royal government. To vices, for the people more frequently than the gothis conduct love the success which attended my mission renders them insensible to the charms of
vernment bring on the tyranny. The liabit of subendeavours to serves my country. Very sincerely, your friend and obed't serv't.
honor and national prosperity, and leads them to I. BIDDLE.
regard with insensibility the glory of being free' uncler the protection of laws dictated by their own will
. T'he history of the world proclaims this Extract from a “Narrative of a journey of 5000 dreadful truth.
miles through the Eastern and Western States of Democracy, in my opinion, is alone susceptible of America,” in 1817. By Henry B. Fearon, an En- | coinplete liberty; but, what democratical governglishman.
ment ever united at the same time, power, prospe. PRESIDENT ADAMS.
rity, and permanency? and, on, the contrary, have The ex-president is a handsome old gentleman of we not seen aristocracy and monarchy establish eighty-four; his lady is seventy-six; she has ihe re- great and powerful empires for ages and ages? putation of superior talents, and great literary ac- What government is more ancient than that of Chi.. quirements. I was riot perfectly a stranger liere, as na? What republic has extended in duration those a few days previous to this I had received the ho of Sparta and Venice? Did not the Roman empire nour of a hospitable reception at their mansion. I conquer the world? Did not monarchy exist in Upon the present occasion the minister (the day i France for fourtcen centuries? What state is more being Sunday) wis of the clinner party.
powerful than Great Britain? The governments, As the table of a " late king" may amuse some of however of those nations, were either aristocratical you, take the following particulars:--first course, a or monarchical. pudding made of Indian corn, molasses and butter; Notwiths:anding such painful reflections, my second, veal, bacon, neck of mutton, potatoes, cab mind is filled with joy at the great progress made bage, carots, and Indian beans; Mader:a wine, of|by our republic in its glorious career--loving what which each drank two glass We sat down is use animated by what is just, and aspiring 10 dinner at one o'clock; al two, nearly all went a se. what is perfect. Venezucia, on separating from cond time to church. For tca, Ireland round caks, Spain, recorered her independence and liberty, her equality and her national sovereignty, constitut- | But we go further, and subdivide it by committing ing herself into a democratical republic, she pro-l it to a collective body, and are consequently subject scribed monarchy, distinctions, nobility, charters, to the inconvenience of making the existence of and privileges: she declared the rights of man, the the government periodical, of suspending and of liberty of acting, thinking, speaking, and writing. || dissolving it whenever the members separate. Our Those facts so eminently liberal cannot be sufficient. | triumvirate is void, as one may say, of unity, dura. ly admired for the purity which gave them birth.- tion, and personal responsibility; it is at times destiThe first Congress of Venezuela fixed in indelible tute of action, it is without perpetual life, real unicharacters in the annals of our legislation, the ma- || formity and immediate responsibility; and a govern. jesty of the people as properly expressed in the mene, which does not possess continuance, may be social act as the fitest to form the happiness of the nominated a nullity. Although the powers of the nation. Every feeling of my mind is required to President of the United States are limited by excesappreciate duly the supereminent good contained || sive restrictions, he exercises by liimself alone all in that immortal code of our rights and laws. But the functions of authority granted him by the conat the same time how shall I express myself? Shall stitution, and there can be no doubt that his adminI dare to profane with my censure the sacred tables || istration must be more uniform, constant, and truly of our laws? There are sentiments which cannot || proper, than that of a power divided amongst vari, remain quiet in the breast of a man that loves his ous individuals, the composition of which cannot country, and which however attempted to be con-| but be monstrous. cealed, agitate by their violence, and which an im- The judicial power of Venezuela is similar to perious force obliges him to disclose. It grieves that in America, indefinite in duration, temporary me to think, that tit gurornment of Vonandan dr potel, and it aning all ab quires reform; and although many illustrious citizens | dence necessary. think as I do, all do not possess sufficient boldness The first congress, in its Federal Constitution, to state publicly their opinion in favor of the adop- consulted rather the spirit of the different provine tion of new principles, and this consideration has ces, than the solid idea of establishing an indivisi. led me to be the first in introducing a subject ofble and concentrated republic. There
sat the greatest importance-although, in doing so, our legislators under the influence of provinthere is an excessive audacity, in pretending to give | cials, carried away with the dazzling appearance of advice to the counsellors of the nation.
the happiness of North America, thinking that the The more I admire the excellency of the Fede. I blessings she enjoyed were owing exclusively to ral Constitution of Venezuela, the more am I con. the form of government, and not to the character of vinced of the impossibility of applying it to our si-l the people. And in fact, the example of the U. tuation; and according to my way of thinking, it is states, with its progressive prosperity, was too flata miracle that its model in North America has ex. tering not to have been followed. Who could reisted with so much prosperity, and not been thrown sist the glorious attraction of the full and absolute into confusion on the first appearance of danger or enjoyment of sovereignty, independence and liberembarrassment. Notwithstanding which, that peo- llty? Who could resist the admiration and esteern ple is a singular example of political virtue, and mo- inspired by an intelligent government, which unites ral rectitude. Liberty has been its cradle, it has | at the sane moment public and private riglats, grown up in liberty, and is maintained by pure li- which forn.3 by general consent the supreme law of berty. I will add, that that people is unique in the individuals ? Who can resist the dominion of a behistory of the human race, and repeat that it is a neficent government, which, with an able, active, prodigy, that a system so weak and complicated as and powerful hand, directs at all times and in all the Federal, should have existed under so difficult || cases, all its efforts towards that social perfection and delicate circumstances as those which have oc- which ought to be the end of all human institutions? curred. However, whatever the case may be as to However beautiful this magnificent federative sys. the government, I must say of the American people, tem might appear, and in fact be, Venezuela, could that the idea never entered my mind of assimilating | not enjoy it immediately on shaking off her chains; the situation and nature of two nations so distinct we were not prepared for so great a good; good us as the Anglo and Spanish American. Would it not well as evil, causes death when sudden and exces. be extremely difficult to apply to Spain the political, sive; our moral constitution did not yet possess the civil, and religious code of Great Britain? It would benefits of a government completely representative, be even more difficult to adopt in Venezuela the land which is so sublime when it can be adopted by laws of N. America. Does not the Spirit of Law a republic of Saints. say, that laws ought to be suited to the people ma. Representatives of the People!-- You are convened king them, and that it is a very great chance, that || to confirm or repeal, whatever may appear to you those of one nation will suit another? That the proper to be preserved, reformed, or expunged in laws ought to bear relation to the physical state of our social compact. It is your duty to correct the the country, to its climate, to the quality of its soil, work of our first legislators, and I would say, that to its situation, to its extent, and to the manner of to you it belongs to cover a portion of the beauties life of its inhabitants; having reference to the del contained in our political code, for all hearts are not gree of liberty, the constitution can support, to the formed foradmiring every beauty, nor all eyes capa. religion of the people, to their inclinations, riches, ble of supporting the celestial blaze of perfection.number, commerce, customs and morals.
The Book of the Apostles, the Doctrine of Jesus, I now present the code, which, according to my the Divine writings, sent by a gracious Providence way of thinking, we ought to adopt.
to better mankind, so sublime, and so holy, would The constitution of Venezuela, although found. || kindle an ocean of flame at Constantinople, and the ed oa the most perfect principles, differed widely || whole of Asia, would fiercely burn, were the Books from that of America, in an essential point, and || of Peace to be imposed at once as the code of reli. without doubt, the most important. The Congress | gion, laws, add customs. of Venezuela like that of America, participates in Permit me to call the attention of the congress to some of the attributes of the executive Power. a matter which may be of vital importance : Bear în mind that our population is neither European nor to be that of Venezuela; its basis ought to be the American, but is rather a compound of African and sovereignty of the people, the division of power, American, than of European origin, because even civil liberty, the prohibition of slavery, and the abo. Spain herself is not strictly European, from her lition of monarchy and privileges. We want equal. African blood, institutions, and character. It is im-lity for recasting, as one may say, men, political possible to point out with propriety to what human | opinions, and public customs. Throwing our sight family we belong--the greater part of the Abori- over the vast field we have to examine, let us fix gines have been annihilated, the European has our attention on the dangers we ought to avoid, and mixed with the American and with the African, and let history guide us in our career. the latter bas mixed also with the Indian and the Athens presents us with the most brilliant exam. European. All children of the same mother, our ple of an absolute democracy, and at the same time fathers, various in origin and in blood, are stran. is a melancholy proof of the extreme weakness of gers, and differ all in figure and form from each that kind of government. The wisest legislator of other.
Greece did not see his republic last ten years, and All the citizens of Venezuela enjoy by the con.ll underwent the humiliation of acknowledging the stitution a political equality; and if that equality had insufficiency of an absolute democracy for govern7100 been a dogma in Athens, in France, and in Alling any kind of society, not even the most cultiva. inerica, we ought to confirm the principle, in orderted, moral, and limited, because it shines only with to correct the eifference which may apparently ex. flashes of liberty. Let us acknowledge then that ist. Legislators! my opinion is, that the fundamen. Solon has undeceived the world, and shewn how tal principle of our system, depends immediately difficult it is to govern men by simple laws.
Uni hoino alto pa Theopohliv un aparta, which appeared a chime. sedin Venezuela. That men are all born with equal rical invention, produced more real effects than the Tights to the benefit of society, has been sanctioned|| ingenious work of Solon, glory, virtue, morality, by almost all the sages of every age; as has also, and consequently national happiness, were the re. that all men are not born with equal capacities for sult of the legislature of Lycurgus. Although two the attainment of every rank, as all ought to prac. || kings in one state were like two monsters to derour tice virtue, and all do not so; all ought to be brave, it-Sparta suffered but little from that double royand all are not; all ought to possess talents, and all alty, and Athens enjoyed the most splendid lot do not. From this arises the real distinction obser- under an absolute sovereignty, free elections of ma. ved amongst individuals of the most liberally estab- gistrates frequently renewed, mild, wise, and politic lished society.
laws. Pisistratus, an usurper and a despot, did more If the principle of political equality be generally || good to Athens than her laws; and Pericles, altho' acknowledged, not less so is that of physical and an usurper likewise, was the most useful citizen. moral equality. It would be an illusion, an absurdi. The republic of Thebes existed only during the ty to suppose the contrary. Nature makes men lives of Pelopidas and Epaminondas, for it is men, equal in genius, temperament, strength and charac. || and not principles, that form governments. However ter. Laws correct that difference by placing the || wise codes, systems, and statutes may be, they individual in society, where education, industry, || have but little influence on socicty; it is virtuous, arts, sciences and virtues, give a fictitious equality || patriotic, and enlightened men that constitute re. properly called political and social. The union of publics. all classes in one state is eminently beneficial, and The Roman constitution was that which produced in which diversity is multiplied in proportion to the the greatest power and fortune to any people on propagation of the species. By it alone has dis- || earth; in it there was no exact distribution of power. cord been torn up by the roots, and many jealou. The consuls, the senate, and the people were sies, follies, and prejudies avoided.
legislators, magistrates, and judges, they all particiOur diversity of opinion requires a most powerful || pated in all those offices. The executive, consist. pulse, and a delicate manner for managing so hete-ling of two consuls had the same inconvenience as Jogeneous a body, as its comphicated composition that of Sparta, and yet notwithstanding its deformity, may be dislocated, divided, and dissolved by the the republic did not suster that mischievous discorslightest change.
dance, which might be supposed inseparable from a The most perfect system of government is that magistracy, consisting of two individuals endowed which produces the greatest degree of happiness, of equally with the powers of a monarch. A governsocial security, and political stability.
ment whose sole inctination was war and conquest, By the laws dictated by the first Congress, we did not appear likely to establish the happiness of have reason to hope, that felicity will be the portion the people. A government monstrous in itself, and of Venezuela; and, from you we may Hatter ourpurely warlike raised Rome to the highest pitch of selves, that security and stability will render that virtue and glory, and formed of the world a Roman felicity perpetual.
empire, proving to mankind the force of political To you it belongs to resolve the problem, in what | virtues, and the trivial influence of institutions. manner after having broken the fetters of our for Passing from ancient to modern times, we find mer oppressors, we may accomplish the wonderful England and France deserving, general attention, feat of preventing the remains of our grievous chains and giving impressive lessons, in every species of being turned into the arms of licentiousness. The government. The revolutions in those two great relics of Spanish Dominion will continue a long time states, like brilliant meteors, have filled the world before we can completely destroy them; our atmos- with so great a profusion of political light, that phere is impregnateự with the contagion of despot.every thinking being has learned what are the ism, and neither the name of war, nor the specific righis and duties of man; in what the excellency of of our salutary laws, have purified the air we breathe.l! governments consists, and in what their vices; all Our hands are indeed free, but our hearts are still know how to appreciate the intriosic value of the suffering from the effects of servitude. Man, in lo- theoretical speculations of modern philosophers and sing his liberty, says Homer, loses half his spirit. legislators. In short, this star in its brilliant course
A republican government has been, is, a.id cught inflamed even the apatlietic Spaniards, who also