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entering the political whirlwind gave ephemeral || origin from the choice of the government, nor from proof of liberty, and have shewn their incapacity of that of the people, but in such wise that it may enliving under the mild dominion of the law, by re-l joy complete indepence, neither fearing nor hoping turning after a short blaze to their original bondage. any thing from either of those sources of authority:
Legislators!—This is the proper time for repeat. An hereditary senate as a part of the people would ing what the eloquent Volney says in his dedication participate in its interests, in its opinions, and in its to the ruins of Palmyra.-" To the growing people | spirit, and for that reason it is not presumed, that “ of the Spanish Indies—to the generous chiefs who an hereditary senate will separate from the interests “ conduct them to liberty—may the errors and mis- of the people, and forget its legislative duties. The “ fortunes of the old world, teach wisdom and hap-senators in Rome, and the peers in Britain, have
piness to the new."- May they never lose them. proved themselves the firmest pillars in the glorious
Rome and Great Britain are the nations wisich | man; from their earliest infancy they will be ac-
tors. I will say further, that it is for the public inin nothing bowever, would we change our funda- terest, that it is for the National honour, and that it mental laws, were we to adopt a legislative power is due from the gratitude of Venezuela, to preserve similar to that of the British parliament. We have in honor to the latest posterity, a race of virtuous, divided, as the Americans have done, the national | prudent, and valiant men, who overcoming every representation into two houses, that of the repre- l obstacle have established the Republic at the ex. sentatives and the senate. The first is wisely com. Il pence of the most hieroic sacrifices; and, if the Peo. posed, it enjoys all the privileges fitted for it, and is ple of Venezuela do not applaud and rejoice at the not susceptible of essential change, as the constitu- elevation of its benefactors, they are unworthy to tion has endowed it with the origin, form, and pow-l be free, and never will be so. ers, required by the will of the people for being An hereditary Senate; I say again, will be the fun. lawfully and competently represented.
damental basis of the Legislative Power, and conseIf the senate in place of being elective were he- quently the basis of the whole government. It will reditary, it would in my conception be the basis, || act equally as a counterpoise to the Government. the bond, and the soul of the republic, and in pool and the People, and will be an intermediate litical storms it would possess the functions of go- | authority to deaden the arrows which those perpevernment, and would resist popular commotions. I tual rivals are constantly shooting at each other. Attached to the government by the powerful ex. In all contests the interpositions of a third per. citement of its own preservation, it would ever op. son becomes the means of reconciliation, and ihus pose the attempts the people might make against will the Senate of Venezuela be the cement of the The jurisdiction and authority of their magistrates. delicate edifice so liable to violent concussions. It It must be confessed, that most men are ignorant of will be the means of calming the f:iry and maintheir true interests, and are continually attacking taining the harmony betwist the Members and the them in the hands of those to whom they are com- | Head of this political body. Nothing can corrupt a mitted-the individual contends against the general || Legislative body invested with the highest honor's; mass, and the general mass against authority, and it dependent on itself alone, without fearing any thing is therefore necessary that a neutral body should from the people or expecting any thing from Goexist in all governments to protect the injured, andvernment whose only object is to repress every disarm the offender. This neutral body, in order tendency to evil, and to enco ge every attempt that it may be such, cught neither to derive its' at good, and which is deeply interested in this ex
istence of a society with which it shares adversity || as a weak Executive, and if it has been deemed ne. and prosperity.
cessary to encow it with so many attributes in a It has been most justy remarked, that the Bri-l monarchy, how infinitely more indispensible would tish House of Peers is invaluable to the nation, as it be in a republic. Let us fix our attention to this forming a bulwark to the Liberties of the People; Il difference, and we shall find that the equilibrium and I dare add, that the Senate of Venezuela will of power ought to be distributed in two ways. In a not only be a bulwark to Liberty, but a help to ren Republic the Executive ought to be the strongest, der the Republic perpetual.
because every thing conspires against it; and on The Executive power in Great Britian is invest-the other hand, in a monarchy the Legislative ought ed with all the Sovereign Authority fitted to it, but to be the most powerful, as every thing unites in it is also circumscribed by a triple line of ditches, favor of the Sovereign. The veneration, which barriers, and pallisades. The Sovereign is indeed || people bear for a regal magistracy, is a proof of its the head of the Governnient, but his ministers and influence in augmenting the superstitious respect officers depend more on the laws than on his autho- l paid to that species of authority; The splendor of rity, because they are personally responsible, and the throne, crown and purple, the formidabe sup from that responsibility not even royal authority || port given by the nobility, the immense riches ac. can exempt them. He is commander in chief of quired by generations of the same dynasty, and the tie army and navy, he makes peace and declares | fraternal protection afforded by kings to each other, war, but it is the parliament alone which votes an• are considerable advantages militating in favor of mually the supplies. For neutralizing his power, royal authority, and render it almost unlimited, the person of the King is inviolable and sacred; || Those very advantages are a reason why a Pepubwhilst bis head is left free, his hands are bound | lican Magistrate should be endowed with greater The Sovereign of Britain bao thun turumdadie ri. power win that possessed by a constitutional prince, vals, the Cabinet which is responsible to the people and to Parliament; the House of Peers, which in the midst of society, entrusted with the duty of
A republican magistrate is an insulated individual protects the interests of the People, as representing || curbing the impetus of the people towards licen. the nobility of which it is composed; and the Housetiousness, and the propensity of judges and adminof Commons, the organ of the Britis. public; asistrators to an abuse of the laws. Such a one, with the judges are moreover responsible for the due regard to the legislative body, the senale, and the fulfilment of the laws, they adhere strictly to them, people, is a single individual resisting the combined and the administrators of the public money being attack of the opinions, the interests, and the pasaccountable not only for their own violation of duty | sions of society, which, according to what Carnot but even for what the government may do, gliard says, is constanly striving betwixt the desire of go. against misapplication.
verning and that of not being subject to any autho. The more the nature of the Executive Power in rity. He is in short one atlas opposed to a multiBritain is examined, the more will you be inclined tude of others. The only corrective to such weak: to think it the most perfect model for either a
ness is a vigorous and suitable resistance to the opmonarchy an aristocracy, or a democracy. In Vel position made to the executive power by the legisnezuela let the executive power be exercised by a lative body and people of a republic. If the ExecuPresident, appointed by the people or their repre- || Live do not possess the means of exercising all the sentatives, and we shall then have taken a long authority properly placed at its disposal, it becomes stride towards national felicity.
null, and the government expires, leaving anarchy, Whoever the citizen may be that may fill that si usurpation, and tyranny as its heirs and successors. tuation, he will be supported by the Constitution; Let the whole system of government, therefore, authorised to do good, lie cannot do evil, for sub-be strengthened, and the equilibrium established mitting to the laws his ministers will cooperate in such a manner, that it cannot be overturned, or with him, and should be on the contrary attempt to its refinement become a cause of decay. As no infringe ibem, his own ministers will leave him in- || form of government is so weak as a democracy, its sulated in the midst of the republic, and will even constitution ought to be as solid as possible, and its impeach him to the Senate. The ministers being institutions conducive to stability. "If such be not responsible for such offences as may be committed the case, we may reckon on having only a govern. are the persons that govern, and it is not the least || ment on trial, and not a permanent system; and, on advantage of the system, that those more immc-having a wavering, tumultuous, and anarchical comdiately exercising ihe functions of the Esecutivelmunity, and not a social estabishment in which bapPower, take an interesting and active part in the piness, peace and justice reign. dcliberations of the government and consider their duties as personal.
Legislators !--Let us not be presumptuous, but It may happen ihat the President may not be a
moderate in our pretensions. It is by no means man of great talents or virtues, and notwithstand likely that we can do what has never yet been acing the want of those essential qualities he may still complished by any of the human race, what the perform the duties of his situation in a satisfactory greatest and wisest nations bave never effected. manner, because in such case the ministry duing Undefined liberty, and absolute democracy are the every thing itself, bears the burthen of the State. Il fucks on which republican hopes and expectations Llowever exorbitant the authority of Executive lave been wrecked. Power in Great Britain may appeas, it would not Take a view of the republics of antiquity, of perhaps be too great in the republic of Venezuela; those of modern times, and of those rising into exhere the congress has bound both the hands and listence, and you will find, that almost all have been heads of the magistrates, and has assumed a portion frustrated in their attempts. The men who aim at of the Executive functions, contrary to the maxim of legitimate institutions and social perfection, are un. Montesquieu, who says, that a representative body doubtedly deserving of every praise; but, who can ought not to take upon itself any ictive principle; say that mankind possess complete wisdom, or that it ought to make laws and see those cxecuted which they practise all the virtues which the union of it does make. Nothing is so dangerous to 2 people" power and justice imperatively demand? Angels,
and not men, can only exist free, peaceable, and laws, because they are bad, and the source of evil, happy, in the exercise of sovereign power. and as little could they respect their magistrates, as
Whilst the people of Venezuela exercise the the old ones were wicked, and the new ones are rights they lawfully enjoy-let us moderate the ex. hardly known in the career they have commenced. cessive pretensions which an incompetent form of If a sacred respect does not exist for country, laws, government might suggest--and let us give up that and constituted authorities, society is a state of confederal system which does not suit us—let us clear fusion, an abyss, and a conflict of man with man, and off the triumvirate executive power, and concenter of body with body. it in one President--and let us commit to him suffi- To sare our incipient republic from such a chaos, cient authority to enable him to resist the inconve- all our moral powers will be insufficient, unless we miences arising from our recent situation, froin the melt the whole people down into one mass; the le. state of warfare we have been suffering under, and gislation is a whole, and national feeling is a whole. from the kind of foreign and domestic enemies we Unity, unity, unity, ought to be our device. have had to deal with, and with whom we shall still The blood of our citizens is various, let us mix have to contend for a length of time. Let the le- it to make it one; our constitution has divided au.
gislative power resign the attributes belonging to thority, let us agree to unite it: our laws are the | the executive, and acquirc nevertheless fresh con- sad remains of all ancient and modern despotisms,
sistency, and fresh influence in the equilibrium of | let the monstrous structure be demolished, let it authority. Let the courts of justice be reformed | fall, and withdrawing frum its ruins, let us erect a by the permanency and independence of the judg: temple to justice, and under the auspices of its sa. es, by the establishment of juries, and of civil and cred influence, let us dictate a code of Venezuelan criminal codes, not dictated by antiquity nor by Il laws. Should we wish to consult records and moconquering kings, but by the voice of nature, by dels of legisiuuonar
Wongso, and the cry of justice, and by the genius of wisdom. North America, present us with admirable ones.
It is my anxious wish, that every part of the go- Popular education ought to be the first care of vernment and administration, should acquire that the Congress' paternal regard. Morals and know. degree of vigor, which can alone sustain a due equi- ledge are the cardinal points of a republic, and mo. librium not sinply amongst the members of the rals and knowledge are what we most want. goverument, but evení amongst the various ranks of
Let us take from Athens her Areopagus, and the which society is composed. It would not signify, | guardians of customs and laws; let us take from were the springs of political system to be relaxed, Rome her censors and domestic tribunals, and form. if that relaxation did not occasion the dissolution of ing a holy alliance of those moral institutions-let the social body, and the ruin of those associated. us renew on earth the idea of a people not content'T'he cries of the human race in the field of battleed with being free and powerful, but which desires and in tumultuous assemblies, appeal to Heaven also to be virtuous. against those inconsiderate and blind Legislators, Let us take from Sparta her austere establishwho have thought they could with impunity make ments, and form from those three springs a resertrials of chimerical institutions. All the nations on voir of virtue. earth have sought after liberty, some by arms, and Let us give our republic a fourth power with others by laws, passing alternately from anarchy to authority to preside over the infancy and hearts of despotism, or from despotism to anarchy, but very men
, good habits, and republican few have been satisfied with moderate attainments, morality. Let us constitute this Areopagus to watch or adopted constitutions conformable to their means, orer the educalion of youth and national instruction, nature, and circumstances.
to purify whatever may be corrupt in the Republic; Let us not attempt what is impossible, least by to impeach ingratitude, egotism, luke-warmness in endeavoring to rise too high in the regions of liber- the Country's cause, sloth and idleness—and to ty, we fall into the abyss of tyranny. From abso-pass judgment on the first germs of corruption and lute liberty there is always a descent to absolute || pernicious example. power, and the medium betwixt the two extremes We should correct manners with moral pain, the is supreme social liberty. Abstract ideas give rise same as the Law punishes crime with corporal
, not to the pernicious idea of unlimited liberty. Let us only what may offend, but what may ridicule; not 20 act, that the power of the people be restrained || only what may assault, but what may weaken, and within the limits pointed out by reason and interest; || not only what may violate the Constitution, but that the national will be curbed by a just authority; whatever may infringe on public decency, and that a civil and criminal legislation, analogous The jurisdiction of this really sacred tribunal to our constitution, govern imperatively the judicial ought to be effective in every thing regarding edu. power; in which case an equilibrium will exist, and cation and instruction, and only deliberative as to ihose differences and discords avoided which would pains and punishments; and thus its annals and reembarrass the concerns of state, as well as that cords, in which will be inscribed its acts and delibespecies of complication which shackles instead of rations, and the moral principles and actions of ci. uniting society.
tizens, will be the registers of virtue and vice. ReTo form a staple government, a national feeling gisters which the people will consult in their elec is required possessing an uniform inclination to- tions, the magistrate in their determinations, and wards two principal points, regulating public will, the judges in decisions. Such an institution, howand limiting public authority, the bounds of which | ever chimerical it may appear, is infinitely easier are difficult to be assigned, but it may be supposed to realise, than others of less utility to mankind es: that the best rule for our direction, is reciprocal re- || tablished by some ancient and modern legislators. striction and concentration, so that there may be Legislators!--By the project of the constitution, the least friction possible betwixt legitimate will which I respectfully submit to your consideration, and legitimate power.
you will discover the feeling by which it was dicLove of country, laws, and magistrates, ought to | tated. be the ruling passion in the breast of every repub. In proposing the division of our citizens into at: lican Venezuelans love their country but not its live and passive, I have endeavoured to excite Na. tional prosperity by industry's two great springs || moment of time equally precious and pressing, and : labour and knowledge Stimulated by those two the Secretaries of Stale will therefore give an ac. powerful causes, the greatest difficulties may be count to the Congress of their various departments, overcome, and men made respectable and happy. and exhibit at the same time those documents and
In imposing equitable and prudent restrictions on records necessary to illustrate every thing, and to the primary and electoral assemblies, the first bar- | make you thoroughly acquainted with the real and rier is opposed to popular licentiousness, and there. | actual state of the Republic. by those injurious and tumultuous meetings, avoid. I will not notice the most momentous acts of my ed, which at all times have given rise to prejudicial command, although they concern most of my coun. consequences in the election, and which have of trymen, and will call your attention only to the last course been entailed on the Magistrates and the memorable revolution. Horrid, atrocious, and imgovernment, as the primordial act is generative of pious slavery, covered with her sable mantle the either the liberty or slavery of a people.
land of Venezuela, and our atmosphere lowered By increasing in the balance of power the weight with the dark gloomy clouds of the tempest, threatof the Congress, by the number of Legislators andening a fiery deluge. I implored the protection of the nature of the Senate, a fixed basis is bestowed the God of nature, and at his Almighty word, the on this primary body of the Nation, and it is invest- || storm was dispelled. The day-star of liberty rose, ed witla great importance for the exercise of its || slavery broke her chains, and Venezuela was sursovereign functions.
rounded with new and with grateful sons, who In separating distinctly the Executive from the turned the instruments of her thralldom & bondage, Legislative power, it is not intended to sow division into arms of freedom. Yes! those who were formerbetwixt those Supreme authorities, but to unitely slaves, are now free, those who wero formerly the thom srish "hose handle of honovoy * datuit proceea encules'or our country, are now its defenders. from independence.
I leave to your sovereign authority the reform or, In investing the Executive with a power and repeal of all my ordnances, statutes, and decrees, but authority much exceeding what it hitherto possess.||! inplore you to contirm the complete emancipaed, it is by no means intended to enable a despot lotion of the slaves, as I would beg my life, or the sala tyrannise over the Republic, but to prevent delibe. vation of the republic. rative despotism becoming the immediate cause of To exhibit the military history of Venezuela, a round of despotic changes, in which anarchy would be to bring to our recollection the history of would be alternately replaced by oligarchy and mo- republican heroism amongst the ancients; it would narchy.
shew that Venezuela had made ás brilliant sacrifices In soliciting the independence of judges, the es- on the sacred altar of liberty. The noble hearts of tablislıment of Juries, and a new code, the security | our generous warriors, have been filled with those of civil liberty is requested, the most estimable, sublime and honorable feelings, which have ever the most equitable, the most necessary, and in one been attributed to the benefactors of the human word the only Liberty, as without it, all others are race. Not fighting for power or fortune, nor even a nullity. An amendment is asked of the lamenta- ll glory, but for liberty alone; the title of Liberator of ble abuises in our judicature, and which derive their the itepublic bas been their highest recompense, origin from the filthy sink of Spanish legislation, having, in forming an association of those gallant collected in various ages, and from varions sources, heroes, instituted the order of Liberators of Vene. equally from the productions of fully, and of talent, zuela.-Legislators! To you it belongs to confer ho. equally the fruit of good sense, and of extravagance, || nors and decorations, and it is your duty to exercise and equally the memorial of genius and of caprice. that act of national gratitude. That judicial Encyclopædia, that monster with ten Men who have given up all the benefits and ad. thousand heads, which has hitherto been a rod of vantages they formerly enjoyed as a proof of their punishment to Spanish nations, is the fiercest cala- | virtue and disinterestednessmen who hrve undermity the anger of Ileaven ever permitted that un- gone every thing horrible in a most inhuman war, fortunate empire to be afflicted with.
suffering the most painful privations and the cruelMeditating on the most efficient mode of rege. lest anguishốinen so deserving of their country, nerating the character and habits, which tyranny merit the attention of government; and I have there. and war have given us, I have dared to suggest a fore g ven directions to recompense them out of moral power, drawn from the remote ages of anti- the national property. quity, and those obsolete law's, which for some i If I have acquired any portion of merit in the time maintained public virtue amongst the Greeks cyes of my countryment
, i entreat you, Representaand Romans, and although it may be considered a tives, to vouchsafe my petition as the reward of my mere whim of fancy, it is possible, and I faiter my. I feeble services, and let the Congress order a distri. self, that you will not altogether overlook an idea, bution of the national property, cooformable to the which wlien meliorated by experience and know. | ordinance I passed in the name of the Republic, in ledge, may prove of the greatest efficacy.
favor of the military sons of Venezuela. 'L'errified at the disunion which bas hitherto ex- After our having in a succession of victories de. isted, and must exist amongst us from the subtle stroyed the Spanish armies, the court of Madrid in spirit characterising the federative system, I have despair, vainly endeavoured to take by surprise the been induced to solicit you to adopt the concentra- l feelings of those magnanimous sovereigns, who had tion and union of all the states of Venezuela into just extirpated usurpation and tyranny in Europe, one Republic, one and indivisible. A measure in and who ought to protect the legitimacy and justice my opinion, urgent, vital, and saving, and of such a of the cause of America. Spain unable to reduce nature that without it, the fruit of cur regeneration us to subinission by dint of arms, had recourse to would be destruction.
her insidious policy, and tried every perfidious art, It is iny duty, Legislators, to present to you a just || Ferdinand hunbled himself so far as to confess, that and faithful picture of my political, civil, and mili- without the assistance of foreign aid, he could not tary administration, but to do so would tire your force us back under his ignominious yoke; a yoke valuable attention too much, and rob you at this which no mortal power can oblige us to subinit to.
Venezuela convinced that she is in passession of || much her height of knowledge transcends her exsufficient strength to repel her oppressors, has de cessive wealth.—Yes! I see her seated on the throne clared through the organ of government, her fixed of freedom, wielding the sceptre of justice, and and final determination to fight to annihilation in crowned with glory, shew the old world the majesty defence of her political life, not only against Spain, of the rew. but even against the universe, should ihe universe be so degraged as to assume the party of a destruc
FOREIGN. tive government, whose only objects are an exterminating sword, and the shrieks of the inquisitiona government that desires not fertile regions, but
George Dorlen, Esq. has been chosen governor, deserts-no cities, but ruins—not subjects, but sepulchres. The declaration of the republic of Vene. Band of England.
and Churles Pole, Esq. deputy-governor of the zuela is the most glorious, the most heroic, and the The Bank restriction bill for the Bank of Ire. most dignified act of a free people; and it is with land, went through all its stages in the House of peculiar satisfaction, I have the honor of laying it Lords on the 7th of April, and received the Royal before congress, sanctiuned as it is by the unanimous assent. approbation of the free people of the land.
The expence for the last three years, for the Since the second epoch of the republic, our 2r- | transportation of convicts to New South Wales and mies wanted the necessaries of war; they were constantly void of arms and ammunition, and were at
its dependencies, and the establishments there, was all times badly equipped; but at present the brave
216,2911. 83. 71-21. defenders of independence are not only arored with justice, but with power, and our troops may rank
178,930 19 41.4 with the choicest in Europe, now that they possess The whole expence for the last year, nut yet known. equal means of destruction
The Liverpool Mercury says, that the Duke of For these important advan'ages, we are indebted Wellington refused to present to the House of to the unbounded liberality of some generous for. Lords the Anti-Catholic peçation of the corporation eigners, who, hearing the groans of suffering hu- l of Dublin. manity, and seeing the cause of freedom, reason, and In a late publication by Capt. Ross, commander justice, ready to sink, could not remain quiet but of the Discovery Ships, it is siated, that when the few to our succour with their munificent aid and ships were in lat. 76, 12, in certaiin states of the protection, and furnished the republic with every | sun, objects at the distance of 150 miles were disthing needful to cause their philanthropical princi. | tinctly visible. ples to triumph. Those friends of mankind are the A Liverpool paper of the 17th of April states, guardian geniuses of America, and to them we owe that gloomy accounts were received by the last a debt of eternal gratitude, as well as a religious ful- | mail from the manufacturing districts. “At Leifilment of the several obligations contracted with cester, for the last ten days, 5000 persons are rethem. The national debt, Legislators, is the depo. || presented as being out of employ." sit of the good faith, the honor and the gratitude of The Star, of April 12, says, “ the health of our Venezuela: respect it as the holy ark which enclo- || aged king has undergone a change for the worse, ses not only the rights of our benefactors, but the within these few days.” glory of our fidelity. Let us perishi rather than fail
Admiral Griffith sailed from Portsmouth on the in any the smallest point in the completion of those engagements, which have been the salvation of our
9th April, for the Halifax station. country, and of the lives of her sons.
Jerome Bonaparte bas obtained leave to reside The union of New Grenada and Venezuela in one
at Vienna. great state, has uniformly been the ardent wish of Lieutenant Thomas Hasker and Ensign Edward the people and governments of these republics. Ring, of the 55th Regt. have been erased from the The fortune of war has effected this junction so
Army list, for sending a challenge to Lieut. Col. much desired by every American, and in fact we are
Frederick, commander of that regiment. incorporated. These sister-nations have entrusted The Archbishop of Jerusalem, was to leave Engto you their interests, rights and destinies. In con- land on the 19th of April. He had collected for templating the union of this immense district, my || the object of his mission 4301. sterling. mind rises with delight to the stupendous height The Sheerness bank has stopped payment. A necessary for viewing properly so wonderful a pic-London paper says, many persons will suffer; it beture.
ing the only bank in that part of the country. Flying from present and approaching times, my There is a prospect of an abundant harvest in imagination plunges into future ages in which I ob. || England, the wheat in particular was never known serve with admiration and amazement, the prosperi- || to be so luxuriant. ty, the splendour, and the animation, which this vast
The Russian government is fitting out two experegion will have acquired;—my ideas are wafted on, | ditions for scientific researches in remote seas. and I see my beloved native land in the center of Fach is to consist of two ships; one of them is de the universe expanding herself on her extensive || signed to make discoveries towards the North Pole. coasts between those oceans, which nature has sepa. rated, and wiich our country will have united with
Prince Leopold is about to reside at Vienna. large and capacious canals. I see her the bond, the
Several Swiss families, Anabaptists, amounting to center, and the emporium of the human race; I see about sixty persons, are to embark immediately at her transmitting to earth's remotest bounds, those || Havre for America. treasures contained in her mountains of gold and Two Budhish, or Cingalese Priests, named Dher. silver; I see her distributing by her salutiferous ma Rama, and Munhi Rat Hana, who were brought plants, health and life to the afticted of the old world; to England by Sir Alexander Johnston, bave been I see her imparting to the sages of other regions placed by the Wesleyan Missionary Committee, unher inestimable secrets, ignorant until then, bowder the care and tuition of the Rev. Dr. Aslam Clark