Page images

ing scenes which he had to encounter in that the mode of issuing the game; and also to report quarter.

a system for the establishment of a commissariat To the other good qualities of Mr. Adams, may lowing Report:

for the army,” I have the honor to submit the fol. be added a partiality for learning, a respect for In order to form a correct opinion on a subject the productions of genius, and a disposition to en-involving so many particulars as the expense of courage merit of every description. With his

our military establishment, it will be necessary to

consider it under distinct and proper heads. To discriminating mind, his surprising and systematic ascertain, then, " whether any, and if any what, industry, his considerate observation of men and reductions may be made in the expenses of our things, his stores of knowledge, his regular and military establishment,” I propose to consider its moral habits; he must have been, in any rank of number, organization, pay, and emoluments, and

administration. To the one or the other of these life, among any class of citizens, a distinguished heads all of its expenses may be traced; and, if personage. He is a man who will not proceed they are greater than what they ought to be, we without understanding bis subjeet. He sees eve.

must search for the cause in the improper extent ry thing; he examines every thing: he is, intel. officers in proportion to the men—the extrava.

of the establishment--the excessive number of lectually, every where present in the multiplicity gance of the pay or emoluments, or the want of of transactions confided to his superintendence. proper responsibility and economy in its admini. lfsome scribblers, conceiving themselves the levers || stration. which raise or depress, at pleasure, the opinions has been stated, the first question which offers

Pursuing the subject in the order in which it of the people to any point of political elevation, itself for consideration is, whether our military have scurrilously assailed him, and endeavored to | establishment can be reduced “with safety to paint for him a foul and false reputation, their the public service," or can its expenditures be,

with propriety, reduced, by reducing the army dark and unnatural sketches have faded away itself?' it is obvious that, viewed in the abstrací. before the light of his genius, as the mists of few questions present so wide a field for observa. the valley disappear beneath the influence of the tion, or are so well calculated to produce a great sun. These scribbling defamers, consistent in diversity of sentiment, as the one now proposed.

Considered as an original question, it would innothing but calumny, in attacking him betray the volve in its discussion the political institutions of anomaly of their own mental organization: They | the country, its geographical position and characdecry the doctrine of hereditary succession, and ter, the number anıl distance of our posts, and yet they would make Mr. Adams the legitimatecipal European powers. It is conceived, however,

our relations with the Indian tribes, and the prininheritor of the blemishes thrown upon his fa-| that a satisfactory view of it may be taken withther's administration!

out discussing topics so extensive and indefinite. In fine, hy whomsoever John Quincy Adams The military establishments of 1802 and 1808, is intimately known, he will be respected. His have been admitted, almost universally, to be

sufficiently small. The latter, it is true, receive character does not develop itself at once. His ed an enlargement from the uneertain state of mind is like some of those statues and pictures our foreign relations at that time; but the former of the masters of antiquity, which require much

was established at a period of profound quiet, steady contemplation before all their beauties (the commencement of Mr. Jefferson's adminis:

tration,) and was professedly reduced, with a can be perceived; but they grow upon the eye of || view to economy, to the smallest number then an attentive observer daily; until, identifying eve. I supposed to be consistent with the public safety. ry excellency, assent is yielded to the superiority || Assuming these as a standard, and comparing the of those faculties which, at all times, and in every present establishment, (taking into the coinpari

son the increase of our country,) with them, a sasituation, have fixed the attention and won the tisfactory opinion may be formed on a subject esteem of eminent and enlightened men.

which otherwise might admit so great a diversity of opinion.

Our military peace establishment is limited, by MILITARY AFFAIRS.

the act of 1815, passed at the termination of the Report of the Secretary of War, upon the sub-late war, to 10,000 men. The corps of engineers

ject of the reduction of the expenses of the land ordnance, by that and a subsequent act, were Military Peace Establishment, of the United retained as they then existed; and the President States; on a change in the ration established by || was directed to constitute the establishment of law; and of a system for the establishment of a such portions of artillery, infantry, and rifiemen, Commissariat for the Army.

as he might judge proper. The general order of Department of War, Dec. 11, 1818. the 17th May, 1815, fixes the artillery at,3,200, In compliance with a resolution of the House | the light artillery at 660, the infantry 5,440, and of Representatives, passed the 17th April last, di- | the rifle 660, privates and matrusses. Document A recting "the Secretary of War to report, at an exhibits a statement of the military establisliment, early period of the next session of Congress, whe. | including the general staff, as at present organizther any, and if any what, reduction may be made ed; and B exhibits a similar view of those of 1802 in the military peace establishment of the United and 1808: by a reference to which it will appear, States, with safety to the public service; and whe- that our military establishments, at the respective ther any, and it avy what, change ought to be periods, taken in the order of their dates, present made in the ration established by law, and in "an aggregate of 5,323, 9,996, and 12,656. li is

obvious, that the establishment of 1808, compared || But the danger, it may be said, is not so much with the then wealth and population of the coun- from its numbers, as a spirit hostile to liberty, by try, the number and extent of military posts, is which it is supposed all regular armies are actuatlarger in proportion than the present; but the ed. This observation is probably true, when apunsettled state of our relations with France and plied to standing armies collected into large and England, at that period, renders the comparison powerful masses; but, dispersed as ours is, over not entirely just. Passing, then, that of 1808, let so vast a surface, the danger, I conceive, is of an its compare the establishinent of 1802 with the opposite character, that both officers and soldiers present. To form a correct comparison, it will will lose their military habits and feelings by slidbe necessary to compare the capacity and neces- ing gradually into those purely civil. sities of the country then, with those of the pre- I proceed next to consider whether any reduc. sent time. Since that period our population has tion can be made with propriety by changing the nearly doubled, and our wealth more than doubled. || organization, or by reducing the number, of offi. We have added Louisiana to our possessions, and cers of the line, or the staff, in proportion to the with it a great extent of frontier, both maritime men. It is obvious that, as the officers are much and inland. With the extension of our frontier | more expensive in proportion to their numbers and the increase of our commercial cities, our mi-than the soldiers, that the pay of the army, in re litary posts and fortifications have been greatly | lation to its aggregate numbers, must be increased multiplied. Document marked C exhibits the or diminished, in the increase or the diminution number and positions of posts in the year 1802, of the former. It is impossible to fix any absolute and document D those of the present time; by, al proportion between officers and men which will reference to which, it will be seen that, at the suit every country and every service; and the or. former period, we had but 27 posts, the most re. ganization of different countries, and of different urole of which was, to the north, at Mackinaw, l periods in the same country, lias, accordingly, vaand to the south, at Fort Stoddert, on Mobile ri- ried considerably. Our present organization, of ver; but now we liave 73, which ocupy a line of which document marked A contains an exhibit, is frontier proportionally extended. On the Lakes, probably as well, or better, adapted to the nature the Mississippi, Missouri, Arkansaw, and Red ri-ll of our country and service than any other, as it ver, our posts are now, or will be shortly, extend: seems to be ihe result of experience; for, by a ed, for the protection of our trade and the pre-reference to document marked B it will be seen, servation of the peace of the frontiers, to Green that it is nearly similar, with the exception of the Bay, the mouths of the St. Peters, and the Yellow general staff, in which the present is more extenStone River, Bellepoint, and Naichitoches. Do- sive, to the organization of the military establishcument marked E exhibits a statement of the es. ments of 1802 and 1808. It is believed that the tent of the line of our frontier, inland and mari- | proportion of officers of the line to the men will time, with the distance of soine of the more re. ll require no farther observations. mote posts from the seat of government, drawn T'he staff, as organized by the act of the last up by Major Long, of the topographical engineers, session, combines simplicity with efficiency; and from the most approved maps.

is considered to be superior to that of the periods If, then, the military establishınant of 1802 be to which I have reference. In estimating the ex. assumed to be as small as was then consistent with | penses of the army, and particularly that of the the safety of the country, our present establish- siaff, the two most expensive branches of it, the meat, when we take into comparison the prodi-engineer and ordnance departments, ought not gious increase of wealth, population, extent of || fairly to be included. Their duties are connected territory, number and distance of military posts, with the permanent preparation and defence of cannot be pronounced extravagant; but, on the the country, and have so little reference to the contrary, after a fair and full comparison, that of existing establishment, that, if the army were rethe former period must, în proportion to the ne: duced to a single regiment, no reduction could cessities and capacity of the country, be admitted safely be made in either of them. To form a corto be quite as large as the present; and, on the rect estimate of the duties of the other branches assumption that the establishment of 1802 was as of the staff, and consequently the number of offi. small as the public safety would then admit, a re. cers required, we must take into consideration duction of the expense of our present establish not only the number of troops, but, what is equalment cannot be made, with safety to the publicly essential, the number of posts and extent of service, by reducing the army. In coming to this country which they occupy: Were our inilitary conclusion I have not overlooked the maxim, tbat establishment reduced one half, it is obvious, that, a large standing army is dangerous to the liberty | if the same posts continued to be ocoupied which of the country, and that our ultimate reliance for now are, the same number of osticers, in the quar. defence ought to be on the militia. Its st zea- || termaster's, commissary's, paymaster's, meclical, lous advocate must, however, acknowledge that a | and adjutant and inspector general's, departments, standing army, to a limited extent, is necessary; || would be required: and no good reason can be assigned why any To compare then, as is sometimes done, our should exist, but what will equally prove that the staff with those of European armies asssembled in present is not too large. To consider the present || large bodies, is manifestly unfair. The act of the army as dangerous to our liberty, partakes, it is last session, it is believed, has made all the reducconceived, more of timidity than wisdom. Not totion which ought to be attempted. It has renderinsist on the character of the officers, who, as alled the stait efficient without making it expensive, body, are high-rninded and honorable men, at- Such a staff is not only indispensable to the effi. tached to the principles of freedom by education ciency of the army, but is also necessary to a proand reflection, what well founded apprehension || per economy in its disbursements; and sbould an can there be from an establishment distributed on attempt be made at retrenchment, by reducing $o extended a frontier, with many thousand miles the present number, it would, in its consequences, intervening between the extreme points occupied?" probably prove wasteful and extravagant.

In fact, no part of our military organization re- j tionary war, and in 1802, 1815, and 1818. By a quires more attention in peace than the general reference to those documents it will be seen, thaty staff. It is, in every service, invariably the last in under most of the heads, the variation of the difattaining perfection; and, if neglected in peace, || ferent periods has been very small, and that, on when there is leisure, it will be impossible, in the a comparison of the whole, the pay of an officer midst of the hurry and bustle of war, to bring it is not near equal now, if allowance is made for to perfection. It is in peace that it should re- the depreciation of money, to what it was during ceive a perfect organization, and that the officers the revolution. I will abstain from further re. should be trained to method and punctuality, so marks, as it must be obvious, from these state that at the commencement of a war, instead of ments, that the expense of our military establishcreating anew, nothing more should be necessary ment cannot be materially reduced without injury than to give to it the necessary enlargement. In to the public service, by reducing the pay and this country, particularly, the staff cannot be ne- emoluments of the officers and soldiers. glected with impunity. As difficult as its opera. It only remains to consider, in relation to this tions are in actual service every where, it has here | part of the resolution of the House, whether the to encounter great and peculiar impediments, I expense of our military establishment can be ra. from the extent of the country, the badness, and duced by a proper attention to its administration, frequently the want of toads, and the sudden and or by a more rigid enforcement of responsibility unespected calls which are often made on the mi- and economy. Our military establishment is litia.' If it could be shown that the staff, in its doubtless susceptible of great improvement in its present extent, was not necessary in peace, il administration. The field is extensive, and the would, with the view taken, be unwise to lop off | attention of the government has not heretofore any of its branches which would be necessary in | been so strongly directed towards it, as its im. actual service. With a defective staff we must portance deserves. Here all savings are real carry on our military operations under great dis- gain, not only in a monied, but a moral and politiadvantages, and be exposed, particularly at the cal point of view. An incilicient administration, coinmencement of a war, to great losses, embar-without economy or responsibility, not only ex: rassments, and disasters.

hausts the public resources, but strongly tenis As intiinately connected with this part of the to conta ninate the moral and political principles subject, it is proper to observe, that so many and of the officers who are charged with the disa such distant small posis as our service requires, bursements of the army. To introduee, however, not only arld to the expense of the army, by ren. a high state of economy and responsibility in the dering a inore numerous staff necessary, but in management of a subject so extensive and comcrease the price of almost every article of supply, plicated as our military establishment, is a task of and the difficulty of enforcing a proper responsi

: greit difficulty, and requires not only a perfect bility and economy. To an army ihus situated, organization of the department charged with it, the espenses and losses resulting from transporta- but a continued energetic and jndicious enforcea tion alone constitute a considerable sum. Under ment of the laws and regulations established for the best management our army must be more ex- its government. The organization is the proper pensive, even were our supplies equally cheap, I sphere of legislation, as the application of the than European armies collecteil in large bodies, i laws and regulations is that of administration. in the midst of populous and wealthy communi. The former has done all, or nearly all, that can be ties. These observations are not made to justify done. It is believed that the organization of tho an improper management, or to divert the atton- War Department, as well as the general staff of tion of the house from so important a subject as the army, is not susceptible of much improvethe expense of our military establishinient. They, ment. The act of the last session regulating the in fact, ought to have an opposite effect; for, just stafi' has not only made important savings in the in the same proportion that it is liable to be ex'expenses of the army, but has given both to the pensive, ought the attention and effort of the go- department and the staff a much more efficient vernment :o be roused to confine its expenses organization than they ever before had. Every within the most moderate limits which may be department of the ariny charged with disbursepracticable.

ments, has now a proper head, who, under the The next question which presents itself for con-laws and regulations, is responsible for its adminsideration is, can the expenses of our military es. istration. The call of the department is vous tablishment be reduced, ithout injury to the j freed from detul, and has leisure to inspect and public service, by reducing the pay and einolu- control the whole of the disbursements. Much ments of the officers and soldiers? There is no time and reflection will be required to bring the class in the community whose compensation bas system into complete operation, and to derive advanced less, since the termination of the war of from it all the advantages which ought to be ex. the revolution, than that of the oicers and sol. pected The extent of the saving which may re* diers of our army. While money bas depreciated sult from it can only be ascei tained by time and more rapidly than at any other period, arid the experience; but, wiih an attentive and vigorous price of all of the necessaries of lite bias advanced ladimmistration, it doubtless will be considérable. proportionably, their compensation has remained in War, it will be nich m're «fficult to enforce nearly stationary. The effecis are severely felt Reconomy and responsibility; but with a systein by the subaltern officers. It reqnires the most well organized, and with officers trained to merigid economy for them to subsisi on their pav and thod and punctuality, much of the use and emoluments. Documents marked F and G exis-frauds, which would otherwise take place in vidi, bit the pay and subsistence during the revolution, will be prevented. In peace there own be no ili and as

at present established; and document superable difficuliy in attaining a high degree of marked H1 exhibits the allowance of clothing, fuel, responsibility and economy. The more moned forage, transportatio::, quarters, waiters, Siation-responsibility, or that of purchases and disburseery, and straw, at the termination of the revolu- ments, will be casily enforced. The public now

sustains much greater losses in the waste and im- / wars, from this cause, were probably much greater proper use of public property than in its monied than from the sword. However well qualified for transactions. In our military establishment, res- war in other respects, in the mere capacity of ponsibility in the latter is well checked, and not bearing privations we are inferior to most nations. badly enforced. The accounts are rendered with | An American would starve on what a Tartar would considerable punctuality, and are promptly set- live on with comfort. In fact, barbarous and optled; and even neglect or misapplication of public || pressed nations have, in this particular, a striking funds, by the disbursing officers, are not often ac. advantage, which, however, ought to be much companied with ultimate losses, as they are under more than compensated by the skill and resources bonds for the faithful discharge of their duties of a free and civilized people. If, however, such Accountability, as it regards the public property, || a people want the skill and spirit to direct its reis much more difficult, and bas heretofore been sources to its defence, the very wealth, by which much less complete. Returns of property in ma- it ought to defend itself, becomes the motive for ny cases, particularly in the medical department, invasion and conquest. Besides, there is some. have rarely been required; and even where they thing shocking to the feelings, that, in a country have been, they liave not been made with punc- of plenty beyond all others, in a country which tuality. It cannot be doubted but what the pub- ordinarily, is so careful of the happiness and life lic has sustained very considerable damage from of the meanest of its citizens, its brave defenders, this want of accountability. Every article of pub- who are not only ready, but anxious, to expose lic property, even the smallest, ought, if possible, their lives for the safety and glory of their counto be in charge of some person, who should be try, should, through a defective system of supply, responsible for it. It will be difficult to attain be permitted almost to starve, or to perish by the this degree of perfection; but it is hoped, by poison of unwholesome food, as has frequently making each of the subordinate departments of been the case. If it could be supposed that these the War Department liable for the property in its considerations, are not sufficient to excite the most charge, a very considerable improvement and re- anxious care on this subject, we ought to rememduction of expenses will be made.

ber that nothing adds more to the expense of miOn the quality of the ration, and the system of litary operations, or exposes more to its disasters, supplying and issuing it, which I propose next to than the sickness and mortality which result from consider, the health, comfort, and efficiency, of defective or unwholesome supplies. Impressed the army mainly depend. Too much care cannot with this view of the subject, considerable he bestowed on these important subjects; for, let changes have been made in the ration, under the the military system be ever so perfect in other authority of the Sth section of the act regulating particulars, any considerable deficiency in these the staff of the army, passed at the last session of must, in all great military operations, expose an Congress. The vegetable part of the ration has army to the greatest disasters. All human efforts been much increased. Twice a week, a half al. must, of necessity, be limited by the means of lowance of meat, with a suitable quantity of peas sustenance. Food sustains the immense machinery or beans, is directed to be issued. "Fresh meat has. of war, and gives the impulse to all its operations; also been substituted, twice a week, for salted. and if this essential be withdrawn, even for a few to the southern division, bacon and kiln dried Ina days, the whole must cease to act. No absolute dian corn meal have been, to a certain extent, standard can be fixed, as it regards either the substituted for pork and wheat flour In addition, quantity or quality of the ration. These must orders have been given, at all the permanent vary, according to the habits and products of dif- | posts, where it can be done, to cultivate a suffi. ferent countries. The great objects are, first and cient supply of ordinary garden vegetables for the mainly, to sustain tire health and spirit of the use of the troops; and, at the posts remote from troops; and the next, to do it with the least pos- | the settled parts of the country, the order is exsible expense. The system which effects these tended to the cultivation of corn, and to the sup: in the greatest degree, is the most perfect. The ply of the meat part of the ration, both to avoid ration, as established by the act of the 16th March, the expense of distant and expensive transporta. 1802, experience proves to be ample in quantity, tion, and to secure, at all times, a supply within but not of the quality besi calculated to secure the posts themselves either health or economy. It consists of eighteen In addition to these changes, I am of opinion ouinces of bread, or flour, one pound and a quar- the spirit part of the ration, as a regular issue, ter of beef, or three-quarters of a pound of pork, ought to be dispensed with; and such appears to one gill of rum, brandy, or whiskey, and at the be the opinion of most of the officers of the army. rate of two quarts of salt, four quarts of vinegar, It both produces and perpetuates habits of inten. four pounds of soap, and one pound and a half ofperance, destructive alike to the health and mocandes, to every hundred rations,

ral and physical energy of the soldiers.

The spiThe objections to it in relation to the health of rit ought to be placed in depot, and be issued oca. the army, are fully stated in a report of the Sur casionally, lider the direction of the commander. geon General to the War Department, (marked 1) Thus used, its noxious effects would be avoided, which I would respecifily annex as a part of this and the troops, when great efforts were necessareport. Under this view of the subject more ly, would, hy a judicious use, derive important need not be added, except to urge its importance, benefits from it. Molasses, beer and cider, acboth on the score of hunanity and policy. cording to circumstances, might be used as sub

Our people, even the porest, being accustom- | stitutes. The substitution of bacon and kiln-dried ed to a plentiful mode of living require, to pre- corn meal, in the southern division, will have, it serve their culth, a continuation, in a considera 15 believeil, valuable effects. They are both much ble degree, of the same habits of life in a camp;! more congenial to the habits of the people in that and a sucken and great departure from it subject. ll section of our country. Corn meal has another, them, as is proved by experience, to great mor- and, in my opinion, great and almost decisive ad. iality. Our losses in the late and revolutionary li vantage; it requires so little art to prepare it for use. It is not easy to make good bread of wheat || By a judicious collection of provisions at proper flour, while it is almost impossible to make bad of depots, combined with an active and energetic that of Indian corn. Besides, wheat is much more system of transportation, it would be seldom neliable to be damaged than the Indian corn, for the cessary to resort to any other mode of purchasing. latter is better protected against disease and the to provide, however, for contingencies, the pureffects of bad seasons in time of harvest than any chasing department ought to be efficiently orother grain; and, when injured, the good is easily ganized, and a branch of it, as already stated, atseparated from the bad. Experience proves it to tached to each army and military department. As. be not less nutricious than wheat or any other it is the means to be resorted to in cases of negrain. Parched corn constitutes the principal cessity, it ought to possess those high and discre. food of an Indian warrior; and such are its nutritionary powers which do not admit of exact concious qualities, that they can support long and trol. It is in its nature liable to many abuses, and, fatigiring marches on it alone.

to prevent them from being great, more efficient I next proceed to consider the system of sup-regulations and checks are required than in any plying the army with provisions, or the establish: other branch of the general staff. ment of a commissariat, and as they are connected The defects of the mere contract system are in their nature, I propose to consider that part | so universally acknowledged by those who have of the resolution in relation to a commissariat, and experienced its operation in the late war, that it the mode of issuing the rations, at the same time. I cannot be necessary to make many observations

The system established, at the last session, will, in relation to it. Nothing can appear more ab. in time of peace, be adequate to the cheap and surd, than that the success of the most important certain supply of the army. The act provides for military relations, on which the very fate of the the appointment of a commissary general, and as country may depend, should ultimately rest on many assistants as the service may require, and men, who are subject to no military responsibility, authorizes the President to assign to them their and on whom there is no other bold than the pe. duties in purchasing and issuing rations. It also nalty of a bond. When we add to this observadirects that the ordinary supplies of the army tion that it is often the interest of a contractor to should be purchased on contracts to be made by fail, at the most critical juncture, when the means the commissary general, and to be delivered, on of supply become the most expensive, it seems inspection, in the bulk, at such places as shall be strange that the system should have been constipulated in the coniract. Document marked 3 tinued for a single campaign. It may be said, contains the rules and regulations which have that, when the contractor fails, the commander been established by order of the President, and has a right to purchase at his risk, by which the presents the operation of the system in detail. It | disasters, which naturally result from a failure, is believed that it is as well guarded against fraud, may be avoided. The observation is more spe as any other department of our military supplies; cious than solid. If on failure of the contractor and, judging from the contracts already formed there exísted a well organized system for purunder it, will, when improved by experience, pro- chasing the supplies, there would be some truth bably make a very considerable saving. It would || in it: but, without such a system, without depots improve the system, to authorize the appointment of provisions, and with the funds intended for the of two deputy commissaries, one for each division, supply of the army, perhaps, in the hands of the with the pay, rank, and emoluments, of major of contractor, his failure must generally be fatal to a infantry, to be taken from the line or froni citi. | campaign. It is believed that a well organized zens, and so to amend the act of the last session, | commissariat, whose ordinary supplies are obas to authorize the President to appoint the assis- tained by contract founded on public notice, pos. tant commissaries, either from the line, or citizens.sesses (besides those peculiar to itself) all the ad. When the assistant commissary is not taken from vantages fairly attributable to the system of issuthe line, to make his pay equal to that of a subal. ing rations by contract. It is equally guarded tern appointed from the line, it ought to be $50|| against fraud, and its purchases can be made on per month, with two rations a day. It should be terms more advantageous. A considerable objec.; the duty of the deputy commissaries to perform tion to the system of issuing the ration by consuch service as the commissary general might pre-tract, is, that the merchants and capitalists are : scribe, and particularly to inspect the principal deterred from bidding, by the hazard of issuing slepots, and, in cases of necessity, to make the the ration; and thus the sphere of competition is necessary purchases. When a suitable subaltern | contracted, and the contracts for supplying the cannot be had, or when his services are necessary || army often thrown into the hands of adventurers. in the line, the power proposed to be vested in this objection is avoided under the present sys. the President, to select from citizens, would be stem, by which the ration will he cheaply supimportant. It is not believed that any other al- || plied, and the danger of failure almost wholly reteration would be necessary in peace; but the moved. system would require great enlargement in war, All which is respectfully submitted. to render it sufficiently energetic to meet the

J. C. CALHOUN. many vicissitudes incidental to the operations of into two divisions, one for purchasing and the Manufactures, Commerce, and Navigation.

the | other for issuing of rations, with as many deputy A letter from Copenhagen states" It is posicommissaries of purchases and issues, as there | tively known that the Swedish government has may be armies and military districts, to whom renewed the orders already given to the governor ought to be added a suitable number of assistants. | of the Island of St. Bartholomew not to permit; The basis of the system ought, in war, to be the privateers of governments not acknowledged, to saine as is now established. The ordinary sup sell their captures in that island. It is even asplies ought to be by contract on public proposals. "serted, that as these proceedings have been con


« PreviousContinue »