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posed to pay specie. This substitution of any || proxy, or agent, for any others, the said judges of cquivalent whatever, for the specific things re- the elections, or any one of them, are bereby au. quired by the charter, was in itself a departure thorized and required to administer to the said fiom its provisions; but 21, the notes and checks person, so offering to vote, the following oath or thus received were not, in all cases equivalent to affirmation, viz: coin, because there was not specie to meet them 1, do solemnly swear, (or affirm, as the in the bank; 3d, that notes of individuals were dis- || case may be,) that I have no interest, directly or counted and taken in lieu of the coin part of indirectly, in the shares upon which I shall vote the 20 instalment, by virtue of a resolution for at this election, as attorney for others; that those that purpose, passed before that instalment be. shares are, to the best of my knowledge and be. came die; 4th, that the notes of individuals were lief, truly and in good faith, owned by the persons taken in marwy instances and to large amounts in in whose names they now stand, and that, in lieu of the whole of the 22 and 34 instalments, voting at this election, I shall not in any manner which notes are yet unpaid.

violate the first fundaniental article of the “ act III. In paying dividends to stockholders who to incorporate the subscribers to the Bank of the had not completed their instalments, the provi- United States.”. And the said judges of elections, sions of the charter in that respect were violated. or any one of them, shall be authorized and em

IV. By the judges of the first and second elec- powered, in their discretion, or at the instance of tion allowing many persons to give more than any stockholder of the bank, to administer the thirty votes each, under the pretence of their be-said oath or affirmation, to any person offering to ing attorneys for persons in whose names shares vote at any such election. And if any person then stood, when tho:e judges, the directors and shall wilfully and absolutely swear or affirm falseofficers of the bank, perfectly well knew that ly, in taking the said oath or affirmation, such those shares really belonged to the persons offer- person, so offending, shall

, upon due conviction ing to vote upon them as attorneys. The facts thereof, be subject to the pains and penalties in respect of this violation are in possession of the wbich are by law prescribed for the punishment house, and establish it beyond the reach of doubt.

of wilful and corrupt perjury. The committe are ot' opinion that no other in

Sect. 2. And be it further enacted, That if the stance of a violation of the charter has been estar judges of any election of directors, to be held as blished. In closing this report of a most laborio aforesaid, shall permit any person to give more ous investigation, the committee observe, that than thirty votes in the whole, at any such elecwhatever difference of opinion can exist among || aforesaid oath or affirmation, such of the said

tion, without the said person's having taken the them as to the results and inferences to be drawn from the facts stated, they unanimously concur in judges as shall consent thereto shall severally be giving to the preceding statengents of facts and ab- conviction thereof, shall be subject to a fine, not

deemed guilty of a misdemeanour, and, on due stracts of documents, their sanction. They have exceeding —, or to imprisonment not exceedjot recommended the adoption of any measures to correct the many evils and mischiet they have which such conviction shall be had.

at the discretion of the ccurt before

iug. depicted, excepting that of the bill before mentioned, bccause, by the provisions of the charter, the Secretary of the Treasury has full power to|| Manufactures, Commerce, and Navigation. apply a prompt and adequate remedy, whenever From the Baltimore Federal Gazette of the 20 Januthe situation of the bank shall require it. And if, after the stockholders have become acquaint

The new custom house, for the use of the Unit. ed with the mismanagement of the institution, || ed States, in this city, is now finished; and, we they shall adopt no mea:s io prevent its continu- || learn, will be occupied for that purpose next ance, or the directors themselves shall persist in week. This beautiful and convenient building, a course of conduct requiring correction, the which reflects great credit on the architect aud committee cannot entertain a doubt that the salu. mechanics who designed and erected it, forms the tary power loxiged in the Treasury Department south wing of the New Exchange, now building will be exerted, as occasion may require, and under the direction of the Exchange Company in with reference to the best interest of the United this city. States.

Private letters from Manchester, (England) It is clue to the officers of the bank at Philadel. | speak of the increased spirit of activity in the phia to state, that every facility in their power Cotton Manufactories, occasioned by the great was rendered in explaining the books, and assist. demand for goods from South America. ing the researches of the committee.

A commercial house in Baltimore has received a The following is the bill, which accompanied the letter from Bremen, under date of the 21st of Oct.

report inade by the committec on the Bank of || which says—"The Dutch market languishes in the United States, presented to the House of some measure, under the influence of a heavy duRepresentatives:

ty having been laid on the consumption of tobacBe it enacted by the Senate and ilouse of Repre. || co, in the Prussian Provinces on the Rhine. This sentatives of the United States of Aincrica in Con- | measure, our friends in Holland inform us by the sress assembleil

, That, in all elections of directors last mail, confines them to the supply of their of the Bank of the Cnited States, hereafter to be

own country for sales of the articles." held, under and by virtue of the “ act to incorporate the subscribers to the Bank of the United Accounts from New Orleans, of the 28th ult, re. States," whenever any person shall offer to the presents the Mississippi as lower than it had heen judges of such election more than thirty votes in for 18 or 20 years, and business, in consequence the whole, including those offered in his own of the impracticability of getting produce to mar. right, and hose offered by him, as attorney, "ket, as completely at a stand. city is repre

ary, 1819.

6, nays 32.

IND: WHEAT.

sented as very healthy, and full of strangers.- || of any of the contingencies in the constitution, Store rent, it is said, is much higher there than || hy which the election devolves on the flouse of in New-York; and in proof of this fact it is added, | Representatives, the choice of President shall be that a store, which, in Front or South-street, made by a plurality or votes, and not by states. woull bring an annual rent of seven or eight hrini After debate, the question on this motion was drell dollars, would rent on the Levee, for three (lecided in the negative, by yeas and nays-yeas thousand.

Mr. Forsyth moved to add a proviso to the a.

mendment; but, after discussion of some length, AGRICULTURE.

A motion was made, by Mr, Otis, to recommit

the resolution, on the ground that the discussion From the Albany Argus, of the 29th of Dec. 1818.had shown that the phraseology of the resolution

We saw in the market last week two loals of ought to be altered, which could be o::ly done by wheat of a kind new to us, which, from peculiar

a select committee. properties which it possesses, promises to be a

This motion prevaileil, and the subject was re. raluable acquisition to our conntry. The owner

ferred to the committee who reported the resosad the seed was first obtained from Philadelphia,

lation and had been partially cultivated in Oneida coun

Mr. Goldsborough, from the committee on the ty for iwo or three years. The kernel is ve.

subject, reported a bill respecting the erection of ry large, the head rather short, and bearded.

an equestrian statue in honor of the memory of When well filled it weighs 69 to 70 lbs per bush: general Washington. el. The sample we saw, which was rather shrunk, |bronze of general Washington be erected in the

This bill provides that an equestrian statue of weighed about 65 lbs. per bushel.

The peculiar properties of this wheat, which centre of the Capitol Square, to be executed by is a spring grain, are-

the best artist that can be procured, under the 1. It is m'ich more hardly than common grain. / superintendence of the President of the United The straw is small, strong and almost solid, which passed on the 7th day of August, 1783; ani it

States, conformably to the resolution of Congress, prezents its lodging 2. On account, it is presumedl, of this quality in

further proposes that

dollars be appropri. the straw, it is never injured by the fly or insect. ated for detraying the expenses thereof.

The bill was read. It has yiekled a large crop by the side of common wheat, that has nearly been destroyed by the fly.

Monday, January 18. 3. It has never been known to be affected by ture of North Carolina for improving the naviga

Mr. Macon presenteil two acts of the legislasmut.

The owner informed us, that notwithstanding tion of certain rivers, to which the assent of Con. the unfavorableness of the season, he obtained 33 gress is asked; which were read. bushels per acre.

The bill to provide for the more convenient or. ganization of the courts of the United States, was read a third time, passed, and sent to the House

of Representatives for concurrence. Congress of the United States.

The Senate resumed the consiileration of the

motion macle on the 11th, for information relative Friday, January 15. to the business depending in the courts of the The engrossed resolution to amend the consti- nited States, and agreel thereto, after some atution so as to provide an unifor:n mode of elec.mendment. tion of electors of President and Vice President

Tuesday, January 19. and of Representatives to Congress, was read a The report of the committee of pensions, un: third time.

favorable to the extension of the pension act of Mr. King moved to recommit the engrossed last session, so as to provide for placing the warresolution for the purpose of making some verbal rant oflicers in the naval service on the same footalterations.

ing, as to the amount of pension, as other officers Mr. Forsyth agreed to the recommitment, but in service, was taken up and agreed to. proposed to amend the motion so as to recommit The report of the committee on the public with instructions to the committee, according to lands, unfavorable to the petition of Alexander a resolution in the following words:

M'Comh; also the reports unfavorable to the peResolverl, That the resulution be recommitted tition of Daniel Merrill, and John Haslett, were to the committee who reported it, with instruc- severally considered and agreed to. tions so to amend it, that the districts into which

Wednesday, January 20. the several states are to be divided shall consist Onotion of Mr. Ruggles, the committee on of contiguous territory containing as nearly as public lands were instructed to inquire into the possible an equal number of the persons entitled expediency of making provision by law for the to vote for members of the House of Representa division of the territories lately ceded by the Intives of the Congress of the United States, in the dians, in the States of Ohio and Indiana, into states respectively; and that the power given to suitable districts, and for the establishment of Congress by the fourth section of the first article | land offices for the sale thereof. of the constitution shall not be taken away.

Mr. Storer laid on the table a resolution to inThese motions were severally withdrawn to struct the committee of finance to inquire into the make way for a motion, by Mr. Lacock, to recon. expediency of so altering the amount of compensider the vote on passing the resolution to a third sation to certain collectors of the customs as shall reading, which was carried.

make the same more commensurate with the duMr. Barbour then moved that the resolution be ties required of them. recommitted to a committee with instructions so Mr. Ruggles, by leave, withdrew the resolution to modify it that, in the event of the happening offered by him for consideration a few days since,

SENATE.

and, in lieu thereof, submitted the following, ver Evans' patent, in relation to the Hopper Boy, which was agreed to.

is undergoing a judicial examination in the courts Resolved, 'That the President of the Unitedf' the United States; that two verdiets and judgStates be requested to cause a report to be laid ments have been rendered agailist him, on this before the Senate at their next session, of such | subject, by the Circuit Court of the United States, facts as it may be within the means of the govern held at Philadelphia, for the District of Pennsylment to obtain, showing how far it may be expe. vania, in October last; for the revision of which dient, or not, to provide by law for the clothing judgments writs of error have been sued out by of the army with articles manufactured within the the said Oliver Evans, from the Supreme Court of United States.

the United States, returnable to the ensuing term Thursday, January 21, of the said Court. The committee is therefore of Mr. Williams, of Tennessee, from the com- opinion, that it is inexpedient for Congress to act mittee on military affairs, reported a bill for the upon the memorial abovementioned, until, at better organization of the military academy, || least, the decision of the Supreme Court shall be which was read.

given in the case. The committee therefore reThe President communicated a report from commend the following resolution: the Secretary of War, exhibiting the names of Resolved, that the com:nittee on the judiciary the clerks employed in that department, and the be discharged from the further consideration of salaries given to each.

the memorial above mentioned, and that it be On motion of Mr. Eppes, the committee on laid upon the table. pensions were instructed to inquire into the ex. The report was concurred in. pediency of placing Peter Francisco on the list Mr. Southard, from the committee on Indian of pensioners.

affairs, made a report accompanied by a bill proMr. Morrow, from the committee on the pub. || viding for the abolition of the existing Indian lic lands, reported a bill confirming the claim of trading establishments of the United States, and Alexander M'Comb to a tract of land, which was providing for the opening of the trade with the read.

Indians to individuals; and also a bill to authorize The motion yesterday submitted by Mr. Stor- the President of the United States to select such er, was taken up and agreed to

tribes of Indians as he may think best prepared The bill for the relief of Thomas B. Farish, for the change, and to adopt such means as he was taken up and ordered to a third reading. may judge expedient in order to civilize the same;

The Senate took up the bill from the other which bills were twice read, &c. house, making appropriations for the military es- Mr. Campbell, of Ohio, submitted for consideratablishment for the year 1819.

tion the following resolution: The committee of finance of the Senate, to Resolved, That the cominittee on the judiciary whom the bill had been referred, reported two be instructed to inquire into the expediency of amendments to the bill; the first to strike out the punishing as spies white men who may be found appropriation of 10,000 dollars for the construc-instigating the Indians to hostilities or fighting tion and repairs of military roads; the second to with them against the United States. increase the appropriation for defraying the ex. On the question being taken, the resolution penses of Indian treaties, so as to cover the ex- was negatived by a large majority. penditures loade necessary by the late treaty with Mr. Sergeant offered for consideration the fol. the Chickasaws, &c.

lowing resolution: The votes being equally divided, the President Resolved, That the committee on the Judiciary voted against the amendment.

be instructed to inquire into the expediency of So the Senate refused to strike out the appro- enacting a general ordinance, whereby the fun- : priation of 10,000 dollars for the construction and damental principles of civil and religious liberty repairs of military roads.

shall be guaranteed to the inhabitants of the ter. The other amendment was agreed to.

ritories exterior to the original limits of the United States, and made the basis of all governments

hereafter to be established therein.

Friday, January 15. The resolution was ordered to lie upon the Nr. Colston reported a bill supplementary to table. the act to authorize and empower the president

On motion of Mr. Pindall, a committee was or. and managers of the Washington Turnpike Com. dered to be appointed to inquire into the expepany, of the state of Maryland, when organized, || diency of providing by law for delivering up perto extend and make their turnpike road to or sons held to labor, or service, in any of the states from Georgetown, in the District of Columbia, to or territories, who shall escape into any other the line thereof; which was twice read, and or. state or territory; and that tlie same committee dered to be engrossed for a third reading. have leave to report by bill.

Mr. Hugh Nelson, from the cominittee on the On motion of Mr. Whitman, the committee on judiciary, made thie fo lowing report, which, being military affairs were instructed to inquire into the on a subject interesting to many of our readers, is expediency of authorizing the sale of such milicopied entire:

tary sites owned by the United States as have The committee on the judiciary, to whom was

been found to be useless for military purposes. referred the memorial of sundry persons, inhabi. On motion of Mr. Newton, the committee aptants of the counties of Nelson and Amherst, in | pointed to inquire whether it be expedient to the state of Virginia, complaining that the act of make any amendment in the laws which regulate Congress, passed on the 21st day of January, 1808, the coins of the United States and foreign ns, entitled “ An act for the relief of Oliver Evans, were instructed to inquire also into the expe. has vested a power in the said Evans, which has | diency of fixing the standard of weights and meabeen exercised in an oppressive manner," Report|sures. that they understand the validity of the said 'Oli. The engrossed bill, providing for the claim of

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.

M. Poirey, and the bill making provision for the the trial and execution of Alexander Arbuthnot claim of . De Vienne, were severally read a and Robert C. Ambrister. third time, passed, and sent to the Senate.

Mr. Cobb, of Georgia, took the floor in support The House then resolved itself into a commit. || of the report; and, having spoken some time in tee of the whole, Mr. Nelson in the chair, on Mr. || support of the resolution immediately before, the Harrison's bill to provide for the organization House, he was ceeding to the other question and discipline of the militia.

arising out of the Seminole War whenMr. Bassett moved an amendment, as a substi- It was decided by the chair, that the discussion tute to the bill, which consisted of upwards of must be confined to the question immediately betwenty sections, embracing a system different fore the House. from that of the bill.

After a good deal of conversation on the quesThe question was taken on Mr. Bassett's pro- tion of the order of proceeding in this case, in posed amendment, and decided in the negative. which Messrs. Smyth, Cobb, Clay, Poindexter,

Mr. Harrison then suggesting that he had seve. l'allmadge and Rhea took part, and in which a ral amendments to offer to the bill, the commit-| general disposition was manifested that the whole tee rose, and obtained leave to sit again.

subject should be discussed, and the difference of Monday, January 18. opinion was only as to the modes of getting at it, Mr. Smith, of Maryland, from the committee of to obviate all difficulty on this subjectways and means, reported a bill relative to the Mr. Cobb moved to amend the resolution be. Direct Tax and internal duties; and a bill supple- fore the committee, by inserting, after the word mentary to the act "for the prompt sertlement of “ Resolved,the following matter. public accounts;" which were twice read and “ That the committee on military affairs be in, committed.

structed to prepare and report a bill to this House, The Speaker laid before the House a letter prohibiting, in time of peace, or in time of war from the Secretary of War transmitting informa- with any Indian tribe or tribes only, the execution tion in relation to the adjustment and payment of of any captive, taken by the army of the United the claims of the friendly Creek Indians, in obe- States, without the approbation of such execution dience to the resolution of this House.

by the President The Speaker also laid before the House a letter Resolvei, That this House disapproves of the from the Secretary of the Treasury transmitting seizure of the posts of St. Marks and Pensacola, sundry statements of miscellaneous expenditures and the fortress of Barrancas, contrary to orders, from the treasury, &c.

and in violation of the constitution. Mr. Edwards offered the following resolution: Resolved, That the same committee be also in

Resolved, That the President of the United || structed to prepare and report a bill prohibiting States be requested to cause any information, not the march of the army of the United States, or already communicated, to be laid before this any corps thereof, into any foreign territory withHouse, whether Amelia Island, St. Marks, and out the previous authorization of Congress, exPensacola, yet remain in the possession of the cept it be in the case of fresh pursuit of a defeat. United States, and, if so, by what laws the inha- || ed enemy of the United States, taking refuge with bitants thereof are governed; whether articles im. in such foreign territory. ported therein from foreign countries are subject Having submitted this motion, Mr. C. proceed. to any and what duties, and by what laws; anded to speak in support of those branches of his whether the said duties are collected and how; proposition which he had not already touched whether vessels arriving in the United States from upon. Mr. C. spoke about two hours. Pensacola and Amelia Island, and in Pensacola He was followed, on the opposite side, by Mr. and Amelia Island from the United States, res- | Holmes, of Massachusetts, who had only conpectively, are considered and treated as vesselscluded one branch of this subject; when, having from foreign countries.

given way at the request of a member The resolution was agreed to.

The committee agreed to rise; and leave being On motion of Mr. Storrs,

given to sit again, the amendment moved in counResolved, That a select committee be appointed mittee was ordered to be printed. to consider and report to this House whether any

Tuesday, January 19. amendment may be expedient to the several laws Mr. Bloomfield, from the committee on revolunow in force, providing for compensation to indi- tionary pensions, made a report on the petition of viduals for losses of property sustained during the Samuel Bennett, accompanied by a bill for his relate war with Great Britain, either by the public lief; which was twice read and committed. enemy, or in consequence of impressments into Mr Taylor reported a bill allowing further time the service of the United States, or by order of to complete the issuing and locating of military the officers of the United States, or otherwise. land warrants; which was twice read and ordered

The order of the day, on the report of the to be engrossed for a third reading. committee on military affairs respecting the Se. Mr.' Middleton laid before the house sundry minole War, being announced

documents, transmitted to him, as chairman of the The House then went into oommittee of the committee on the subject of the illicit introduc. whole on the state of the Union, to whom that re- tion of slaves into the United States; which were port was committed, Mr. Pitkin in the chair. referred to a committee of the whole, to whom

There was some conversation previously about the bill on that subject is referred. postponing the subject for a day or two; but the Mr. H. Nelson offered for consideration the folHouse, by a majority of ten or fifteen votes, re- lowing resolution: solved to take it up.

Resolved, 'That the Speaker be authorized to The report of the military committee was read | admit to seats within the hall of the House of Re. through, concluding with the following resolution: presentatives, such persons as he may think pro

Resolved, That the House of Representatives of per, having regard to the convenience of the the United States disapproves the proceedings in members in transacting the public business.

currence.

And on the question will the house now pro-|| Kempsville, in Virginia, to London Bridge, in the ceed to consider the same, it ivas decided in the same state. negative.

Mr. Trimble stated to the Ilouse, that, as his Ön motion of Mr. Hitchcock, the committee of object in yesterday moving the resolution respectcommerce and manufactures were instructed to ing a scire fucius against the Bank, hal been to inquire into the expediency of changing the port | give notice of what he thought should be done of entry in the Dissrict of Sandnsky, in the state when that subject came up for consideration, an! of Ohio, from Danbury, to the city of Sandusky, in as that object was effected by having maile the the same district.

motion, he should not at present move for its culie On motion of Mr. Ogle and Jr. Pindall, the sideration. committee on post offices and post roads were in. Mr. Claiborne then said, as notice had been structed to inquire into the expediency of esta- | given of one motion respecting the Bank, he now blishing the following post routes:

gave notice, that, when the flouse should enter From the Yellow Springs, in Hunting lon coun. on the consideration of the report of ihe Bank ty, passing through Williamsburg, Martinsburg, committee, he should offer a proposition to reand thence to the Bloody Run, in Bedford coun-l peal the charter of the Bank in tolo. ty, all in Pennsylvania.

The engrossed bill to extend the time for the From Clarksburg, Va. to Marietta, Ohio, so that location of military land warrants, was read a the road shall pass by the way of Middlebourne, third time, passed, and sent to the Senate for conSistersville, Bailey's and Newport.

From Mooresfield, by the way of Smith's and The House then again resolved itself into a com. the German settlement, to Ringwood, and from mittee of the whole, Mr. Pitkin in the chair, on Preston, in Lewis county, to the Little Kanawba, l the report of the committee of military afiairs on at Howell's mill.

the Seminole War, with the amendments disapThe bill from the Senate to provide for the proving of the conduct of that war. more convenient organization of the Courts of And after debate, the House acljournerl. the United States, and the appointment of Circuit

Thursday, January 21. Judges, was twice rearl and committed.

Amongst the petitions this morning presenterl, Mr Trimble offered for consideration the fol. was one by the Speaker, from sundry inhabitants lowing resolution:

of the territory of Missouri, praying for a sepaResolved, by the Senate an ! Jouse of Representa | rate territorial government by the name of the tives of the United Stutes of America, in Congress | territory of Arkansas. assembled, That the Attorney General of the Mr. Livermore, from the committee on post United States, in conjunction with the District offices and post roads, reported a bill authorizing Attorney of Pennsylvania, shall immediately cause the Postmaster General to contract, as in other a scire facias to be issued, according to the 25d il cases, for carrying the mail in steam boats besection of the act “To incorporate the subscri- theen New Orleans anel Louisville, in Kentucky; bers to the Bank of the United States;" calling on which was twice read and committed. the corporation created by the said act to show Mr. Bloomfield, from the committee on revo. cause wherefore the charter thereby granted shall lutionary pensions, made unfavorable reports on yot be declared forfeited; and that it shall be the the petitions of Philemon Griffith, of Andrew duty of the said othicers 10 cause such proceedings Small, of Ebenezer Horn, and Henry Solz, and! to be had in the premises as shall be necessary to others, which were severally read and concurobtain a final judgment thereon; for the expenses rel in. of which Congress will hereafter providie.

Mr. Bloomfield, also, from the same commitThe question was taken, will the llouse now tee, made a report in favor of Lewis Joseph de proceed to consider the said resolution? And it Beaulieu, accompanied by a bill for his reliel; was decided in the negative, 71 to 53.

which was twice read and committed. The House then again resolved itself into a On motion of Mr. Pleasants, committee of the whole, Mr. Pitkin in the chair, Resolved, That the committee on commerce anci on the subject of the Seminole War.

manufactures be instructed to inquire into the exMr. Holmes resumed the thread of the speechpediency of authorizing the sale of a lot of land, which he yesterday commenced, in support of the with the house thereon, situated at Bermuda proeeedings of Gen. Jackson; and, in concluding Hundred, on James River, in Virginia, belonging which, he now occupied about an hour and a half. to the United States, and formerly used as a cus.

Mr. T. M. Nelson spoke a short time in sup- tom house. port of the report of the military committe, and The engrossed bill supplementary to the act to the principles therein laid down.

provide for the prompt settlement of public ac. Mr. Johnson, of Virginia, followed, in reply to counts, was read the third time, passed, and sent Mr. Holmes, and in opposition to the conduct of || to the Senate. Gen. Jackson; in which he addressed the committee near an hour.

Mr. Harrison entered into some explanations LITERATURE AND THE ARTS. touching the proceedings of Gen. Wayne, in the

GENERAL KOSCIUSKO. war of 1792, against the North Western Indians,

From the Philadelphia Centinel. which had been 'referred to in debate.

The royal literary society of Warsaw, in its sitting The committee then, on motion of Mr. Clay, y of the 20th of June, 1818, proposed a prize, con. (who intimated his wish to express his views of | sisting of a gold medal, and 100 ducats (501. sterthe subject) rose, and reported progress. ling,) for an historic eulogy on general Thaddeus

Wednesday, January 20. Kosciusko. T'he society gives two years for the On motion of Mr. Newton, the committee on task. The work may be written in the Polish, the Post Office was instructed to inquire into the Latin, French, English, German, or Italian lan. expediency of establishing a post road from "guages.

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