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is to say,


don shall not take place, but when their infor. PROVISIONAL ORDINANCE

ination authorises it. Of the General Congress of Venezuela, for the direction

13. The president is authorised, when he of the executive power of the republic. SIMON BOLIVAR, PRESIDENT, &c.

may deem it expedient, to publish a particolar Whereas the national congress has decreed

or general amnesty, as it may appear to him the following ordnance, for the conduct of the bet Adapted to the state of the country which executive department of the government, that may be in possession of the enemy, or as the

measure may tend 10 lerminate the war.

14. The president shall give to congress, or 1. The supreme command of the military and its acting committees faithful and exact periodinaval forces for the republic, their organization | cal report and information of every description, and discipline conformable to the rules bitherto || discriminating between what may be made pubexisting and till congress shall determine other. l lic-and what may be preserved from present trise, shall reside in the president of the repub-|| publication, in order not intefere with the pub. lic.'

lic interests. 2. The executive sball nominate to all offices

15. The ministers and heads of departments and functions of the republic, until congress whom he may nominate, shall give without de shall, by a special law, determine which of the lay, to congress every information that may be, public trusis shall rest in the congress itself. 3. The president is the chief of the generally is excepted in the preceding article, of which

required of then, under the reservation of wiat 'administration of the republic.

congress shall be the judge. 4. The president is charged with the preser.

16. He shall grant letters of marque and re. vation of order and tranquility throughout the il prisals, conformably with the law of nations, republic. 5. It shall be his duty to lay before congress congress shall establishi new forms.

adhering to the forms at present in use, until all complaints against persons charged with

17. As a sumptuary regulation, the president high crimes, felonies, misdea neanors in office, || shall be invested with authority to raise troops and malversation in office, usurpation, or ne

and organize them, and receive persons from glect of duty, or incoinpetency to perform the foreign nations, appoint them to daties and innctions of stations to which they may have stations adapted to their qualifications, and dibern appointed. 6. From this obligation are excluded military || tracts to sustain the armed force by sea and

rect their distribution; and he shall form con: crimes, which are to be determined by the

land. criminal code until congress shall finally estab. Given in the national palace of Angostura, 18th dish the classification of the penal code. February, 1819, and ninth of Iudependence. 7. He appoints and revokes all diplomatic


F, A. ZEA.

Alrest-D. B. URDANETTA, Secretary. agents.

3. Ile conducts all oegotiations, with foreign This act was communicated to the executive nations, forming treaties of alliance, commerce the same day, and proclaimed by the executive and all other affairs which may be necessary to on the 25th February. the good of the state; subject however to the approbation and ratification of congress. Provisional establishment of the departments 9. lle is charged with the promolgation and

of administration. execution of the laws and deerees of congress: SIMON BOLIVAR, &c. aud shall afix to them the seals of the republic.

10. He orders the execution of the sentences It being necessary to give to the public adwhich may be pronounced by the congress, or ministration a provisional and efficient organi. by the judiciary powed according to law.

zation-it is decreed as follows: 11. In cases of an extreme nature, he may,

1. The administiation is arranged into three having just and adequate cause, suspend exe-departments: viz. cution of sentence, and refer the case back to

1. That of' staie and finance. the tribunal which passed sentence; and in case

2. Marine and war, the tribunal shall adhere its sentence, it shall

3. Interior and justice. be his duty to refer the case to congress, who 2 Each of these departments shall be under will finally decide.

the direction of a secretary of staté. 12. In respect to humanity, the executive is 3. The secretaries are, for the state and fi. authorised to mitigate, upon reasonable cause

nance sen'r Manuel Palacias. severe punishments, to commute them for mild- Marine and war, colonel Briseno Mendez, er punishments, or to pardon, even in capital Interior and justice, D. B. Urbaneja. cases; but in the laiter circumstance, the judi. 4. The attributes of those dapariments shall ciary shall be consulted, and remission or regulated in detail by a special decree.

The same shall be prioted and published 15. The courts shall have the duty of exam. for general information.

ng the qualications of lawyers, wo must af. Given in the national palace of Angostura, 27th erwards present the decisions of the courts 10 Feb. 1819, and ninth of ludependence.

ine executive, prior to the exercise of any (Signed)


actions. Provisional establishment of the judiciary power.

17. The seal of the republic shall be affixed

in all thrir acts. 1. The judiciary power of this republic shal:

Given in the national palace, of Angostura, 25th be invested in a supreme court, which shali rebruary 1819, and ninth of independence. hold its sessions in the capital; and in such in


S. BOLIVAR. ferior courts as it shall be found necessary to P. B: MENDEZ, Secretary of Siate. be established in the interior of the public.

PEHU. 2. The supreme court shall consist of five members; but for the present, three shall be

An arrival at N. York, on the 13th inst. sufficient.

gives the following information of the War 3. The qualifications required to be appoint gainst Peru. ed to the function of a judge, are, that he shall From the Log Book of the Boxer. be of the age of thiriy, a resident citizen, of

« Arrived at Lima on the 16th January, 1819 fair reputation, and an approved lawyer. The Spanish squadron, consisting of two fri.

4. Members of congress may be nominated ates of 36 gons each, three sloops of war, to the judiciary now, under the preseni circum two brigs and about twenty gun boats, were stances,

poured in a line for the protection of the bar. 5. The judgess shall hold their appeintments or, as the Patriot squadron lion Chili were till a constitutiunal ordination may provide foily expected, under the coouund of Lord otherwise.

Cochrane. 6. The supreme court shall take cognizance 6. Feb. 2011.- The English frigate Andro. of all emplaints brought before it, well mache sailed with a convoy of merchant ves. from ministers, ambassadors, consuls, or diplomes for Valparaiso, in company with il B. M. motic agents; previous notice having been gi- sloop Blossom, bound to Rio Javeiro, wili treaven to the secretary of state; they shall receivel ure. appeals from the decisions in other tribunals: 56 Feb. 26th— Thick foggy weather; at 3 and complaints against any members of otiser P. M.saw tw, frigates standing in for the har. tribunals who may be remoyed by congress, or bor, under U. S. colours; also, one 64, and a by a delegation thereof, in conformity with ibe sloup of war. The ports commenced firing, 5th article: they shall be also competen; to which was returned, when the action became take cognizance of transactivns which refer in general. All foreign merchant vessels having treaties in conformity with the 8th article of been previously, ordered outside of the line of the ordinance, provisionally establishing the batile, were placed beta een two fires; they executive power.

however as soon as possible inade sail and run 7. The courts shall take cognizance of all out of gun shot, without receiving much damappeals from all the inferior tribunals, without age. A 6 P. M. the firing on both sides ceas. exception.

ed, and Lord Cochrane anchored about four 8. None of the sentences of punishment pro- miles from the forts. The loss sustain-d by nounced by the interior tribunals, shall take the Spaniards was five killed and several place without the previous sanction of the su. wounded. The loss of the Patriots could not preme court.

be ascertained. The captain of the Lautaro 9. They shall take cognizance of cases of 44 war severely wounded, and several other supplication.

officers. The Patriot squadron consisted of 10. An attorney general of the republic shallone 64, two 44 gun frigaies, and one sloop of be created, to sustain the laws and order on the 20 guns, the winole commanded by Lord Cochpart of the public.

rane, who had declared all the coast of Peru 11. The courts shall conform themselves in under blockade, suffering, no vessel to go in the exercise of their functions to the laws and or out. He had taken a schooner from Balliordnances ' now existing, until congress shall more about three miles from the harbor manotherwise ordain.

ned her, and sent her on a cruise to the leeward 12. All the sentences of the court shall be as was reported. founded on some specific law, applicable to the “ April 29- Arrived at Valdivia, where the

remainder of the Spanish army, under the com13. The court shall nominate all its officers mand of Gen. Saulchez, amounting to 800 oren

14. The courts shall form rules for the dis-had just arrived, after travelling froin Conceppatch and conducting of business.



Mean for

“ April 30-An armed schooner, formeily , pronounced by Moses on bim “who removeth luis

The land-mark is indeed the Shelby, of New York, arrived from Lima neighbor's and mark”

immoveable; for, though the marked trees at any with dispatches, and muney for the troops-1

one corner may be burnt or destroyed, yet at the wa; informed by the captain that Lord Cocli- i distance of half a mile east, west, nortli, or south, tane had laudrd 500 men at St. Ancho, a small there are other marked trees by which the true village to the leeward of Lima; the Vice King i corner inay be found. In a single township there had dispatcised troops to assist the iohabitants

are 182 marked trees, wlich, in the language of the Tie troops ar Lima are well disciplinerl, cloth-destruction of all these Loci through a widely ex.

Geometer, are Loci. Nothing less than the total exi and armed, amounting to 8000 men. Itended space can secure etiec! to the malicious de. was reported that the American frigate Mace-sigol. very few disputes as to limit or boundary conian, and Elie, sloop of war had arrived ai

can arise. It is a subject of regret that the spirit Valparaiso."

of this system was not, at an early day, adopted by Kentucky, Tennessee, and screral other states.

iras been said, thai, probably, as much money is an. METEROLOGICAL.

nually expended in those states in land title litigaDistribution of Culoric frigo !!!!, 1819. tion as would defray their taxes for the support of Long. W.

the severest war'. What a contrast betwcen the oc. Lal, N. of Capitol. the mouti. Ilighest. Lowest. Wooster

cupant of land by a doubtful title and ille purchaser 4) 49

61 16


from the United States! The latter has a consciouswresville S9 59 4 58 64 90 88

ness of security-chis labors, his improvements, are Cicinnatti 39 06 7 31 06 10 85 42

for himself and not for ano!her-he plants fris orch. Jeilersons

ards with a cheerful heart-e koows that his posville 38 03 8 31 69 109 83 50 lluitusille 36 36

terity enjoy their fruits.
9 55
69 31
87 42

To furnish the materials for an easy, certain, and At Ibooster, on the 2011, a severe frist destroyed precise definition, five principal meridians have al. the bt:315, the leaves ofure oak, &c.

ready been designated and marked. It Zamestille', on the irti, frest, snow and hail. The first commences at the confluence of the

Ai Cincinnati, on the bill, a sudden rise of the Great Warni and the Ohio. This meridian, extend. Cho-more vian ten icet in three days.

ed to the north boundary of the United States, is Atihutsuilt, on tie 13th and 19ih, severe frost 450 miles in length. --Coiton killermariners alarınca

The second principal meridian commences on the It is proper to note, these lube frosts were so near west branch, at a point five miles south of the conly at the same time, in places ditering about six | tcnce of Liitle Blue River with the Ohio-this degrees in latitude, five degrees in longitude. meridian, extended to the north boundary of the

liday, 1705, Cengicas adopted the plan of lay- | United States, is 580 miles in length: it is crossed, ing out the Public Lands in Townships, six miles i at the distance of 30 miles from its commencement, fullire. This plain has been follower in all surveys, by a base line or parallel to the equator, which has cacepting that portion of publis lani in Ohio, been extended through Indiana and Illinois to the whicli, by act of jeune 1, 1795, was appropriate for east branch of the Mississippi. inilitary bounties for the army of the Rusolutions-- The third principal meridian commences at the thout tract was dividutinto tonships' ve mica square | confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi-when es. ---Tlie crist and west boundarics of townships beinstended towards the northern boundary of the Unimeridians, it is evident that their approximation, ted States, it will reach the south shore of Lake though scarcely sensible in a space of sie miles, Superior, ai the distance of 700 niles from its be. would, if not corrected, throw into the form of: i ginning purilie ingredied the township whichi, by law, waz tu The fourth principal meridian was run for the be a &

Tor wrinle Unis, the deputy surveyors purpose of surveys for military bounties for the are insimcied to form a new buse or parallel tutte soiliers in the laie war. li commences at the con. oquator, at every 9+or 30 miles. The corners of orence of the rivers Illinois and Mississippi; when cach section and waiter section are defined by extended towards the north boundary, it will strike Turk, on ütlust two wees, whose species, cinde the soutii shore of Lake Superior at the distance of tor, distance and bea:15, by the comp:ss, are en 310 mies from its beginning. This meridian, at tered on the fick notes the magichie variation the listance of 72 miles from its beginning, is crosat the time of the survey is also noted for each sed by a base line or parallel to the equator. Fire township) Bacar deputy surveyor deposits his field and a half million acres between the Illinois and 2.0105 in the client the surveyor General within bississippi liave been sirveyed-from which have Tinose district we and is. These nolu a!! copied been selected for bounties, three and a half million iniu bound buckleis, alsu, by iis contract, bilio li acres of land, " fit for cultivation”-the whole of sed to deliver toile 3 veyor be: eri three copies which lias been lecated and patented. of a plat and descripsion of each tviiship, anci Tle fill principal meridian begins at the conflu. Tracioned township. Ottese, one cops is trans- ence of the and Mississippi rivers—it is miiiad w the General Land unce; one to the Re. crossed by a parallel to the equator, or a base line, mitcr of ille Land orice in vinse district the luid at the c!istance of 60 miles from its beginning.-is; and le relaidis ille viber, which is copied into Towaisluip 58 norili of that base bas been surveyed. well bound bauks, of which he makes out a dup! This meridian, extended to the north boundary, C., One of which is retained and the other trans. will be 989 miles in length; and if continued southamiiid to ihe General Land Oifice. Dy this' mulii. l erlv, will strike the coast of the Mexican Guiph, plication of vitalicubic conies, and their cloposition in at 330 miles distance from the mouth of the Arkannile differeni and distant places, perfect security sas, at a point on the coast of the Gulpla, in latitude is lutrom fire or otiser accident. This wise sys. 29 degrees 30 minutes north, and in longitude 14 I will takes away ill tuinplatica to incur the curse ! degrees west of the Capitolits whole length will

37 ranges.

be 1,310 miles, equal to twice the length of the ydering3 of fancy. The following is a sketch of the Kingdom of France.

result of those observations : Between the west boundary of Pennsylvania, and I. Throughout, what is denominated by Volney, the first meridian above described, are

the valley of the Mississippi, there exist the traces

of a population far beyoed what this extensive and Between the first and second


do. fertile portion of the continent, is supposed to bave Between the second and third 241 do.

possessed: greater, perhaps, than could be supBetween the third and fifth

16 do. ported of the present white inhabitants, even with Between the fifi and the west boun.

the careful agriculture practised in the most popu. dary of Howard county, Missouri 321 do. lous parts of Europe. The reason of this, is to be

found in the peculiar manners of the inhabitants by

125 ranges or whoin it was formerly occupied; like those of Vexo 750 miles.

ico, their agriculture hau for its only object their The principles of this system have governed the own sustenance-10 surplus was demanded for public survey's in Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisi. commerce with foreign nations, and no part of ana; and will, unquestionably, be adhered to, until the soil, susceptible of culture, was devoted to pasthe public surveys shall reach Astoria, at the mouth turage-yet, extensive forests with wild animals of Columbia river, in longitude 48 degrees west of would still remain. The aggregate population of the Capitol.

the country might be less, but that of particular It has been said that "man brings down the llea. districts much greater. We must, in this way, acvens to the earth, for his convenience.” A few geo. count for the astonishing population of the vale of graphical positions on the map of the public sur- Mexico, when first known to the Spaniards; perveys, being accurately determined by astronomical maps equal to any district of the same extent of observations, it is obvious that, with very little diffi. | climate. * The astonishing population of Owhyee culiy, the longitude and latitude of every farm, and and Otaheite, must be accounted for in the same of every log hut and court-house, may be ascertain way. There are certainly many districts on the ed with great precision. This system owes its || Ohio and Mississippi equally favorable to a numer. chief practical excellence lo the genius and the la- ous population When I contemplated the beauty bors of a distinguished mathematician and natural and fertility of those spots, I could scarcely believe philosopher, Colonel Jared Manstielu, now of the it possible, that they should never have supported Military Academy at West Point, who was Surveyor il a numerous population; such a fact would form au General several years.

exception to what has usually occurred, in every About sixty million acres (twice the extent of || other part of the globe. England) have been surveyed; (59,757,020) of II. In the valley of the Mississippi, there are dis. which, in Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and llis- covered the traces of two distinct races of people, souri, are 39,564, 700 acres; and, in Louisiana, Mis. or periods of population, one much more ancient sissippi and Alabaina, 20,192,310 acres.

than the other. Tlie traces of the last are the most So wise, beautiful and perfect a system was never numerous, but mark a population less advanced in before adopted by any government or nation on civilization; in fact they belong to the same race earth. It is the "corte diuseise," the divided feast that existed in the country when the French and of Homer. The government with a temper and | English effected their settlements on this part of spirit truly parental, has divided, for the children of the continent; but since the intercourse of these the Republic, that patrimony in which they all have people with the whites, and their astonishing dia right and an interest,

J. MEIGS minution in numbers, many of their customs lave General Land Office, June 29, 1919.

fallen into disuse. It is not more than a hundred

and twenty years, since the character of the populo AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES.

lation, which left the traces of the second period, FROY TIE TRASSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN TYILO- underwert a change. The appearances of fortifi.

cations, of which so much has been said, and wbich On the Pupulation and Tumuli of the Aborigines of have been attributed to a colony of Welch, are no.

North America, In a letter from H. NI. Drucken. thing more than the traces of pallisadoed towns or ridge, Esq. to Thomas Jefferson. Reud October villages. The first travellers mention this custom

of surrounding their towns with pallisades; the Batox Rouge, July 25, 1813.—Sir : From a earth was thrown up a few feet, and pickets placed knowledge that research into the liistory of the on the top. I have seen old volumes in which they primitive inhabitants of America, is one of your fa- are represented m the engravings.t The Arika vorite amusements, I take the liberty of making and Mandan villages are still fortified in this way. this communication. My attention to the subject, The traces of these are astonishingly numerous in was first awakened on reading, when a boy, the ob. the western country; I should not exaggerate if I servations contained in the “ Notes on Virginia,” were to say that five thousand might be found.and it has become, with me, a favorite theme of Some of them inclose more than an hundred acres. speculation. I often visited the mound, and other | From some calise or other (and we know that there remains of Indian antiquity in the neighbourhood are coough which might suffice to effect it) tie poof Pittsburg, my native town, attracted by a pleas | pulation had been astonishingly diminished imme. ing interest, of which 1 scarcely knew the cause, diately before we became acquainted will them; and afterwards read, and heard with delight, what. and yet Charlevoix mentions a town of the Mascuever related to these monuments of the first, or ra- tin tribe (at present incorporated with the Kicka. ther carlier, inhabitants of my native country Since the year 1810, (without previously intending See Humboldt, Vol. II page 127. it) I have visited almost every thing of this kind, + These are to be seen in many old volumes in worthy of note, on the Ohio and Mississippi; and the present library of Congress, which contains the from examination and reflection, something like most valuable collection of Books on ainerica to be bypothesis, bas taken the place of the vague wan. I found in any part of the world.


1, 1813.

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poos) containing a thousand families! The barrows, crid, and at the cornmencement of Black River, are ote geveral receptacles of the deal, such as examin laillarger than those of Marietta. l'he following is cu hy yourself, may be classed with the pallisaduedan en in :ration of 'he most considerable mounds towns, though they are much more numerons; they on the basissippi and on the Obies; the greater part are, in fac?; :o be found in almost every cornfiell Terapined myself with such attention as the short in the western co'intit

The tumuli or moumils, time I hai to spire woull pernit: are often met vius, where there is no appearace 1. At Great Creek below Whceling. of pallisstved villages or fortifications, or of bar. 2. At Pittsburg.

3 At Mvietta. III. The first and more ancient perioil, is mark 4. At Cincinnatui. et bv those extraordinary tumulli or inouus 1 5. At New. Numrid_one of them 350 feet diame. hure rcason to believe that th ir antiquity is very ter at the base. great. The oldest India!1s have no tradition as to 6. Bois Biue bottom, fifieen miles below St. Ge. their ankors, or the purposes for which they were nevieve, friginally intended; yet they were formerly, I night 7. At St Genevieve. aiinost say instinctively, in the habit of using thein 8 Months of the Mirameck. Er one of the proposes for which they were at first 9. St Louis-one wiili two stages, another with ofesigned, to wit,' as places of detence. The oli three. phie i Dil Cirin, tol Mrilice Furnes that the mounds 10. Mouth of the Vissouri. in the America, bottom nad men fortified by the 11. Onthe Cob kia river--in two groups. Kaskaskiaz in their wars with the Iroqrois. An 12. Twenty miles beloy--wo grups so, but estel work by Latitul, a jesuii, which I met with at the mounts of a smaller size-on the back of u lake, New Orleans, contains a curious place in which one torinerly tie herd of the river. of these noones förufier by palliales on the top, 13. Near Washington, (:1 T') 145 feet in beigtos. aiul large berm extending in the bottom, is asszul 14. At Baton Roug?, and on the bay...! .chic; ed by chemins. These turnuli as weit as the fortifi one of the invunds near the lake is chietly compos. cations, are to be found at the junction of all the ed of shells'te inhabitants hive taken away great considerable rivers, in the most eligible positions quantities of these for the purpose of making line. for towns, and in the most extensive borlies of fer. 15. The inon! 0:1 Black River, of two stages, rile land. Their number exceeils perhaps three | with a group around it, 2!:0:ran; the smallest not less than tweniy feet in At each of these places there are groups of Birni, and one hundredd in diameter at the base.- mounds; 2:1:at each there probably once existed a Tier gradit numirer, and the astonishing size of city. On the otier considerable rivers which are some of them, inay be regaruled as furnishing, with | tributary to the Oina:ul Mississippi, in Kentucky, other circi!mstances, evidence of their antiquity.-- Tennessee, state of Oris, Indiana Territory, &c. Time been sometimes in luced to thinkinut at the they ar: equally minero's. But the principal city period when those moans were constricted, there and center of population was between the Onio, existed on the Mississippi, a population as nulner- || Mississippi, Missouri, and Illinus. ous as that which once animatedline borders of the I have been informed that in the plains between Nile, or of the Euphmtes, or of Mexico and Peru. the Irkansa Bind St. Francis, they are numerous

IV: The most imerous, as well as the most an: very large. They rese'nble the Teocalli, considerable of these remuns, are fund precisely in these important features, 1st, in their positions in the part of the country where the traces of a the car linal points are observed with considerable THL!Ntrous population might be look:d for, to wit, accuracv. 2.1, the lirger muunils have several from the months of the ono (m the east siile of the stages. 31, In every group there are two mounds Blississippi) to the lilimiis river, and on the west much lirger than the others. 4:h, The smaller side truip ihe St. Francis to the Missouri. I am mo:m:s are placeri around symmetrically. A closer perfectly satisfied that cities similar to those of an examination would sw. a resinblanice in other cient Meric), of several hundred thousand souls, Il particillars. It is loubted by Hunboldt whether have existed in this part of the con!ry. Nearly adva:stige hud not been taken of so ne natural rise, opposite St. Lors there are the traces of two sich ! the tormation of the pyramiil of Cholula; with cities, in the distance of five miles, on the bank of il respect to the mount of Colokia, there can be no t!re Cold, which crosses the tinerican houtom at doubi, for it starts in the miist of alluviin, and tris place There are not less than one hundrecithere is no 112'ul bill ncarer than two iniles. $ Hindi, in tirodni ferent groups; one of the mounds Such are the appearances of antiquity in the wes. hills little sort of the ti vpran piramid Mycerius tern country, which I consider as furnishing When les minect it in 1811, I was as or shed thini | proof of an ancient and numerous population. The this spen:bus is l'iment of an in tv should have resemblance to those of New Spain would render been unnoticed by any traveller: 1 af orvardis pub. probable the existence of the same arts and custoins; bished an account in the netspapers at St. Louis, de- || perhaps of an intercourse. The distance from the tailing lis, describing its firin, position, 1 large inounds on Red River,, to the nearest in New Ef. butihin. which I thought might almost be coa Spain is not so great but they might be considered sidered a discovery, wracia no notice: and yet i as existing in the same country. saled it to be ciglat forudsee paces i:: circumfer. From the descripsion of the Aloratorious, as they ence (ile esni size of the pyramid of Asychis) are called, it appears highly probaole that the Hi one bumilsed fi et m heighi. The mounds al mounds on the Mississippi were destined for the Grave Creek aniel Marietia are of the second or saine purposes.

Solis tells us, that every conside15 m.class. The ai unds at St. Louis, al New-Ma derable piace bad a number of them, upon which :

kind of tower was erected, and which gave rise to # See the Chapter on the Antiquities of the Valle of the Mississippi, in the views of Louisiana, § See the account of the 'Teocalli of New Spain, ly the author of this Memoir, p. 181. Pittsburg | by Humboldt, pages 16,41, 4+, 123, 170, &c. vol. . editivn, 1914.

New York edition, 1811.

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