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These boatmen are familiar with the waters and islands; they have contended with seas through which no man could row with only a daughter's aid, let the two be ever so devoted and courageous; and when such men see inflated descriptions of impossible achievements, some allowance may be made if they run to an opposite extreme.
Grace Darling was not a large, robust woman, but under five feet three inches high and otherwise proportionate. When they reached the place of wreck, the father had to spring upon the rock to prevent the whole of those on it from crowding into his boat, and induced four of them to await its coming again. Left to manage the boat alone, Grace Darling had need enough of the shelter which the rock could furnish; and to her father it must have been a more trying moment when he thus quitted her, than even when the boat was first launched.
The North Sunderland boatmen who reached the Harker's rock an hour after the last of the Forfarshire's survivors had been taken to the Longstone well merit remembrance. Even they found it no light task to gain the Longstone, and the nature of a storm which kept these boatmen for a couple of days upon the island is beyond question.
The part borne by William Darling has been sometimes subordinated in the praise awarded to his daughter. The portrait we give is from a photograph taken at a late date.
We need not repeat the subsequent incidents of Grace Darling's life. The following letter, written in reply to a lady who, having lost a friend by the wreck of the Forfarshire, sent to the Longstone a present of books, and therewith a series of inquiries, will suffice to show the kind of home in which this spirit of heroism was nurtured :
Longstone Light Hollse, Jan. 25th, 1839. Dear MADAM, -1 received yours on Monday 21st, dated 27th ult., with the books, for which we beg to return our most sincere thanks. I felt very much for you when you mentioned the loss of your late friend, but we must put our trust in God, as he is all sufficient and knows best. You mentioned coming to see the rock on which the Forfarshire was lost, which has been done by many of the friends of the sufferers. You requested me to let you know whether I felt pleasure to be out in a rough sea, which I can assure you there is none, I think, to any person in their sober senses. I have seven apartments in the house to keep in a state fit to be inspected every day by Gentlemen, so that my hands are kept very busy that I never think the time long, but often too short. I have often had occasion to be in the boat with my father for want of better help, but never at the saving of any lives before, and I pray God may never be again. Since the
I loss of the Forfarshire, the Trinity Masters have appointed my brother, William Brooks, to assist my father, but as our boat requires three persons to work her in bad weather I may be again needed. I have been brought up on the Islands, learned to read and write by my parents, and knit, spin, and soe, or sew ; indeed I have no time to spare, but when I have been on the Main I am quite surprised to see people generally after what they call getting their day's work done, they sit down, some to play at cards, which I do not understand, perhaps as well, for my father says they are some of the Devil's books; others to read romances, novels and plays, which are books my father will not allow a place in our house, for he says they are throwing away time. Our books are principally Divinity; the authors, Bishop Wilson, Willison, Boston, Milton, Hervey, Bunyan, Ambrose, Newton, Marshall, Cowper, Flavel, Baxter and others, with a good many of the Religious Tract Society's Publications ; and Geography, History, Voyages and Travels, with Maps, so that Father can show us any part of the World, and give us a description of the people, manners and customs, so it is our own blame if we be ignorant of either what is done, or what ought to be done. You will perhaps be aware that our duty as Light-keepers requires one person to be in attendance at this season almost every hour out of the 24, Sunday to Saturday. My confidence in so kind a letter and present will plead excuse for my freedom, and believe me, dear Madam, Your most obedt. Servant,
G. H. DARLING."
means befitting a king was made by deed under the royal hand and seal.
This deed of separation and divorce, bearing the strange hieroglyphics of the rajah and his durbar, was now produced in the court of Mr. Justice Kay, the defendant in the proceedings being a late trustee of the deed, who was alleged to have misapplied the trust money. The case was in itself devoid of interest, and no one could have imagined that it was the sequel of a strange romance, or that the lady anxiously whispering to her solicitor, Mr. Learoyd, had been the heroine of such strange vicissitudes of fortune. — The Globe,
A Musical Anecdote.-In reference to the anecdote relating to Mrs. Wood, recorded by Mr. Purday in the “ Leisure Hour” for May, a correspondent denies the authenticity of the story, so far as she is concerned. It was taken from a Philadelphia paper, but an article in the “United States Gazette at the time says : “ The story ought to be true, because it has the advantage of age and frequent repetition. We remember that it was told of Mrs. Bartley, and of several other distinguished artistes. In the present case it may be due to truth, and to the feelings of all parties, to say that there is not a word of truth in the story. The family of the gentleman have never seen Mrs. Wood at any time or place. The hospitality of that family is too well known to have it doubted that those who were invited to the house would be properly treated, and the character of Mrs. Wood is too well known to have it believed that, under any circumstances, she would submit even to the shade of disrespect, could there be found in our city any one to offer it.” In Mr. Purday's ver. sion of the anecdote the name of the American citizen was not mentioned, but it seems that the story, while untrue as to Mrs. Wood, has been told of “various other distinguished artistes.”
A Romantic Story. During the recent hearing of a case in the Court of Mr. Justice Kay, there sat as an eager and interested observer of its proceedings, a lady whose peculiar though slightly faded beauty did not fail to attract the observation even of unimpressionable lawyers, and whose life has been one of romantic and unusual incident. She has scarcely yet outlived her youth, and retains some of that remarkable beauty which in her early years brought even princes to her feet.
When a young girl, living with her parents in India, a native prince became enamoured of her charms. Her father, a gentleman of English descent and connections, was, or had been, the young prince's tutor, and his daughter had been trained with all the care of a Christian home, and had been especially taught to admire the British character and to love the British queen. When she had but just entered on her teens, her resolute admirer, who had now become the Rajah of Kuppoorthala, sought her hand in marriage. But her parents, properly regarding her youth and the perils of the position to which it was sought to raise her, could not be prevailed on to consent.
This was just before the outbreak of the great Indian Mutiny, and that saddest of all rebellions brought the rajah's opportunity both for love and war. The young lady's father had left his home to render prompt service in the cause of loyalty, and for some days after his departure all was excitement and alarm. It was a matter of no small conjecture and anxiety as to the part the young rajah would take; and his fidelity to the British Crown seems to have been for a brief period in suspense. At this critical moment he determined to renew his appeal for the hand of the young beauty. Ar. riving with an imposing pageant at the house of her father, of whom nothing had been heard for some days, and about whose safety there was intense anxiety, the rajah presented nimself to the mother of the young lady, telling her that upon her answer depended the course that he and his army would take in relation to the mutiny. In vain the mother pleaded the absence of her husband and her own crushing anxietiesthe answer was required there and then, and upon it was to diepend the rajah's immediate action. It was given as he desired, and he fully redeemed his pledge. With all his energy he threw himself into the British cause, with a valour and success which by no means passed unrecognised.
In the “Leisure Hour" for Nay we have a gorgeous de. scription of the great durbar at Lahore, held by Sir John Lawrence on his arrival in India, after his appointment as Governor-General. At that durbar-one of the most splen. did and imposing events in Indian history—the Rajah of Kuppoorthala received from the hands of the GovernorGeneral the Order of the Star of India “ in recognition of his distinguished services, as well as his personal worth.” Little was it suspected how much the charms of a young girl had letermined his loyalty and inspired his courage. The young lady's father never returned to his house, but the pledge had been faithfully fulfilled on the one side, and it was faithfully kept on the other. The young girl at the age of fourteen became the Ranée of Kuppoorthala, the marriage being solemnised according to the rites of the Presbyterian Church, to which the parents belonged, as well as those of the religion of the rajah ; and the entrance of the young ranée into the territory of her husband was one of the utmost grandeur ; her presents being exhibited and her titles proclaimed with every conceivable pomp and pageantry.
For several years the young ranée lived in the affections of her lord, and maintained an irreproachable influence in his State. But she was guilty of an unpardonable sin ; she bore to him three daughters in succession, and not one son, and for this greatest of crimes she had to be sacrificed. Regard for her safety compelled her flight and that of her little ones. Another took her place, from whom better things were hoped, and for the young wife and her children a provision by no
Depth of Mines.—Referring to the paragraph in the “ Leisure Hour" of April last, “ Deepest Mines in England and America,” these depths are now greatly exceeded. At Rosebridge Colliery, in the Wigan district, coal is being won at a depth of 815 yards from the surface. Recently at the Ashton Moss Colliery, Auldenshaw, near Manchester, the Great Mine, a seam of coal six feet thick has been reached at a depth of 895 yards from the surface, or, in. cluding the seam itself, 897 yards, equal to 2,691 feet. As far back as 1874 the Ashton Moss Colliery Company commenced sinking operations with the view of finding the fourfoot seam, which was being worked in other parts of the coal-field. At a depth of 450 yards the mine was proved, but not being of good quality the proprietors now determined to sink the shaft 250 yards deeper, and, not having overtaken any coal of a workable character, orders were given to sink deeper ; and on Saturday, 5th of March, 1881, six years after the ground was broken, the workmen reached the great mine referred to. At a depth of 950 yards lies the Roger Mine, four feet thick, and below this are supposed to exist several workable seams of coal, including the Black Mine and the Cannel Mine, both of which are got at Ashton. In this case about sixty seams of coal were passed through too thin for working. The field that can be worked by the company is about 2,000 acres, and when the working operations are fairly begun the mines are calculated to yield 2,000 tons per day, and plant is being put down with that view. In comparison with other pits, the Ashton Moss Pit is the deepest in England, the sinkings and borings having penetrated to a depth of 1,050 yards, or 3, 150 feet. Even these great depths are exceeded on the Continent. The deepest perpendicular shaft at present existing is that of Adelbert, at Pristram, in Bohemia, which has reached the depth of 2,100 mètres, or 1,096 yards, though there are others not quite perpendicular which are deeper. The rock salt bore-hole at Sperenberg, near Berlin, was carried down 4,175 feet some
years ago, and a coal mine at Viviers, Belgium, is now 3,542 feet. Two other shafts in Belgium, at Gilly, are sunk to the depth of 2,847 feet, and from these an exploring shaft was carried down 666 feet farther. At the Pemberton Colliery, near Wigan, a pair of horizontal winding-engines wind from a depth of 638 yards in 55 seconds, giving an average speed of 24 miles per hour. The time of banking is 35 seconds. The cage is of steel, and, with chains, weighs 29 cwt.
It holds six steel tubs, weighing together 18cwt., and raises 46 cwt. of coal at each winding. The winding is done at the rate of 92 tons of coal per hour, or 920 tons per day of ten hours; or, including both shafts, 1,840 tons per day. The ropes are of steel, tapering from it inches to 1 inches diameter, and each weighing 59 cwt. The pit is 16 feet in diameter, and the conductors are iron I rails, weighing 42 lb. per yard. At the Rosebridge Colliery, near Wigan, the winding-engine draws from a seam 806 yards deep. The ropes are flat and taper, are made of steel, and each weighs 65 cwt. total, and 57 cwt. in the pit, and lasts 18 months. Four tubs are brought up at each winding, each weighing 3} cwt., and containing 7 cwt. of coal, or 30 cwt. of coal altogether. The cage and chain weigh 30 cwt. ; the number of windings in ten hours is 450, equal to 675 tons of coal, or 67 tons per hour ; the time taken in each winding is 55 seconds, giving an average speed of 30 miles per hour in the shaft; the time of banking is 27 seconds. The conductors are iron-wire ropes, 17 inches in diameter, with steel-stranded cores; the diameter of the winding drum is 24 feet 4 inches, and 28 feet diameter with all the rope on. Wher drawing from a seam of 605 yards deep the number of windings was 500 in 10 hours, raising 850 tons per day for each shast, or 1,700 tons per day for the two shafts. In very deep mines the pressure is tremendous. At the Dunkenfield Colliery, where the Black Mine is now worked at a depth of about 2,500 feet, the pressure is so powerful as to crush in circular arches of brickwork four feet in thickness, and in one case a pillar of cast-iron, 12 inches square, supporting a roof of only 7 feet in extent, was snapped in twain.
Suez Canal.—Sir W. P. Andrew, the early coadjutor of M. de Lesseps in the Suez Canal construction, gives a note of warning as to its present condition. His statement will be worth considering in the arrangements for the new Egyptian water-way. A correspondent writes to him thus :-“The Canal is fast becoming a home for disease and mischief, and something should be done without delay to change it. The frequent stations now contain a good many people, and are growing in size ; they have been constructed for facility's sake to drain into the Canal, and the consequence is that the Canal is rapidly becoming a mere sewer. If you anchor at a small station for the night the stench is pretty bad ; at a large one it is horrible and most mischievous. There is a standing joke among the ship doctors of persuading the passengers it arises from an unfortunate camel who had just died at each station, but the unhappy fact is that diarrhea and sickness at night are common on board the ships, and the evil is daily increasing. It is not possible to flush the Canal and carry off so many miles of sewage into the sea. But the sewage, properly attended to-and very easily, too—would be of incalculable benefit to the land around if it was laid out upon it, and the manured land might bring in a handsome profit to the company. Surely this is the best cure for an evil which will soon become too big to be dealt with uniess at a huge expense.”
are you?' An inclination of the head, intended to be hauteur itself, was all the answer he got. Do you keep your health pretty well, Mrs. Carlyle ?' said the wretch, nothing daunted, that being always your regular Yankee's second word. Another inclination of the head, even slighter than the first. I have come a great way out of my road,' said he, ‘to congratulate Mr. Carlyle on his increasing reputation, and as I did not wish to have my walk for nothing, I am writing till he comes in ; but in case he should not come in time for me, I am just writing him a letter here, at his own table, as you see, Mrs. Carlyle !' Having reseated himself without invitation of mine, I turned on my heel and quitted the room, determined not to sit down in it while the Yankee stayed. But about half an hour after came Darwin and Mr. Wedgwood, and as there was no fire in the room below they had to be shown up to the library, where on my return I found the Yankee, still seated in Carlyle's chair, very actively doing, as it were, the honours of the house to them; and there he sat upwards of an hour, not one of us addressing a word to him, but he, not the less, thrusting his word into all that was said. Finding that I would absolutely make no answer to his remarks, he poured in upon me a broadside of positive questions. Does Mr. Carlyle enjoy good health, Mrs. Carlyle?' 'No.' Oh, he doesn't ! What does he complain of, Mrs. Carlyle ?' 'Of everything.' Perhaps he studies too hard-does he study too hard, Mrs. Carlyle?' 'Who knows?' 'How many hours a day does he study, Mrs. Carlyle?' 'My husband does not work by the clock,' and so on.” At last the gentleman, “having informed himself as to all possible and probable omnibuses, reluctantly took his leave without an opportunity of baiting the bear, who would certainly have left marks of the teeth on him. And that visit was merely among the worst of many similar ones ; for Mrs. Carlyle goes on to remark plaintively that she had counted fourteen Yankees in a single fortnight, “ of whom Dr. Russell was the only one that you did not feel tempted to take the poker to."--Letters of Mrs. Carlyle.
Jubilee of the Rauhe Haus, near Hamburg.—This institution, which has brought so much blessing, spiritual and temporal, to untold thousands in the Fatherland, was begun in 1833 by Johann Heinrich Wichern, then a poor and unknown student, who received a few starving children into a thatched cottage, where he might be a father to them and train them by work and prayer for an earthly and a heavenly calling. Twenty-five years later this servant of Christ established a similar institution in Berlin, the Johannisstift. The Hamburg institution alone has sent out 477 brethren, who are working for Christ in Germany and its colonies, as heads of orphanages and other institutions, city missionaries, teachers, preachers, etc. Thousands of children have been saved from ruin, thousands of destitute, sick, criminal, and forsaken ones succoured by these two institutions, and whatever has been done for the Saviour's glory in the work of evangelisation in Prussia and Germany is in great measure due to the efforts of this man of God. The jubilee year is being cele. brated by collections in all the Evangelical churches on behalf of this good work.-Evangelisch-Kirchlicher Anzeiger.
The Suez Canal Concession. There is difference of opinion among legal experts as to the interpretation of the concession by the former Viceroy of Egypt to M. de Lesseps. The French and Egyptian authorities maintain that the concession implied a sole right to the exclusion of any similar undertaking. This certainly seems the natural interpretation, else why should M. de Lesseps be so anxious to secure sole power? Whether the ruler of Egypt had right to grant the concession is another question. The “Low Journal” gives the other view of the case thus :-" The contention of M. de Lesseps that no second canal can be made from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea is based on an excessive estimate of the value of a concession. The Viceroy of Egypt, in 1854, granted to M. de Lesseps, for ninety-nine years, exclusive power to forin and direct a company for the piercing of the Isthmus of Suez and the establishment of a canal between the two seas. M. de Lesseps has formed and directed a company for the purpose then projected ; but it is said that his privileges are not exhausted. It is contended that the intention of the grant was to bind the Viceroy and his successors not to allow for ninety-nine years any one but M. de Lesseps to make a
Mrs. Carlyle and a Yankee Interviewer.—“Oh, such a precious specimen of the regular Yankee I have seen ! Coming in from a drive one forenoon, I was informed by Helen, with a certain agitation, that there was a strange gentleman in the library.He said he had come a long way, and would wait for the master coming home to dinner ; and I have been,' said she, in a perfect fidget all this while, for I remembered, after he was in, that you had left your watch on the table.' I proceeded to the library to inspect this unauthorised settler with my own eyes. A tall, lean, red-herring-looking man rose from Carlyle's writing-table, which he was sitting writing at, with Carlyle's manuscripts and private letters all lying about ; and, running his eyes over me from head to foot, said, “Oh, you are Mrs. Carlyle,
canal. But suppose M. de Lesseps had failed in making his canal, was it intended that no one else should be allowed to make the attempt for ninety-nine years ? Similarly, it could not have been intended that, if M. de Lesseps's canal became insufficient, no other canal should be made to relieve it. The very assertion of a right in the Viceroy to grant the concession to M. de Lesseps assumes the right of the Viceroy to grant another concession to some one else. In England the Crown has no right to grant concessions. A monopoly can only be created by Parliament, but Parliament may modify or recall its grant next session. According to universally recognised principles of law, an absolute power which confers a favour can afterwards vary or even recall it ; and the terms of the grant must be interpreted in the light of this power, which cannot be parted with.”—[We can only say that it would be a graceful and probably a politic act to offer to M. de Lesseps the construction of the second canal proposed by English capitalists.]
say, they were powerless to repair them under the existing system. Under this system, it seems, the medical man hai no power of 'initiative. He could not expend even the small sum necessary to procure the appliances that would have given relief and comfort to his patients. That was the function of the Commissary-General, and between the two authorities the sufferings of the sick and wounded were left without the alleviation so easily procurable. It is new for the public to be told that the doctor, although not having the power to buy in his own person, cannot requisition the department of supply for any article likely to tend to the recovery of those placed under his care.”—[The red-tape of the service may be answerable for deficient supplies--as in the Crimea-but Miss M. A. Whately reported at the time that some of our troops, in bad tents, were left to rot on swampy ground, which no native of the lowest class would inhabit for a night !]
New Guinea.—The Committee of the Aborigines' Protec. tion Society lately addressed a letter to Lord Derby on the subject of the proposed annexation of New Guinea. They express their strong conviction--which they believe is shared . in by a large section of the public-if New Guinea is annexed, that measures should be undertaken by her Majesty's Government, and the administration of the island placed on the same footing as Fiji or any other Crown colony. They venture to submit that such a conrse, so entirely in accordance with precedent, is essential alike for the maintenance of the Queen's supremacy, and for the establishment on a secure basis of the rights of the native inhabitants of New Guinea.
They earnestly deprecate the adoption of any policy by her Majesty's Government which would virtually place New Guinea under the control of the planting interest in Queensland, and thus subject the natives to a labour system which experience has shown can only be prevented from degene. rating into slavery by the most vigilant supervision of the Home Government. The committee remind his lordship that Queensland has laboured for many years past under the imputation of having failed to take proper steps for the protection of her own aborigines.
Birdlip and the Cotswolds. The salubrity of the Cotswold Hills is well known. Birdlip is but five miles from Cheltenham, and is some nine hundred feet above the level of
The general view obtained is magnificent, and there are beautiful woods and drives in the neighbourhood, and two good country inns with good accommodation. Many invalids are in the habit of going there from Cheltenham, and invariably improve in health. Now that the district of Birdlip has been so widely advertised, there may be expected a large influx of visitors. The climate is much the same as that of Malvern. Sydney Smith, Justice Talsourd, Lord Campbell, Sydney Dobell, and many others, have extolled the salubrity of Birdlip.
Value of Land in Fleet Street.—There was lately sold at the Auction Mart a lease of the site of the celebrated Cock Tavern and the adjoining house in Fleet Street for a term of eighty years at a ground rent of £5,000 a year. The property covers an area of 2,400 feet, with a frontage of about 19 féet in Fleet Street, and a depth of 130 feet. The purchaser has to remove the existing tavern and buildings, and to erect on the site a new building at a cost of at least £5,500. The materials of the old building, except the famous stove and mantel-piece in the Cock, were included in the purchase. The lot was sold for £3,610 to Mr. S. Guest.
St. Margaret's Church, Westminster.-A magnificent memorial window was last year presented to this church by American citizens in honour of Sir Walter Raleigh, whoso headless body was carried to the church from the scaffold. The following four lines were written as an inscription for the window by Mr. J. Russell Lowell, the American Minister :“ The New World's sons from England's breast we drew
Such milk as bids remember whence we came, Proud of her past wherefrom our future grew,
This window we inscribe with Raleigh's fame.” A fine window was presented to the church about the samo time, mainly by the publishers and printers of London, in honour of Caxton, who also lies buried there. For this window the following four lines have been written as an inscription by Mr. Tennyson. They are founded on Caxton's motto, “Fiat lux," which is emblazoned on the window :“ Thy prayer was ‘Light-more Light-while time
shall last !'
Till shadows vanish in the Light of Light."
Uncle Tom.—The Rev. Josiah Henson died recently at Dresden, Ontario, aged ninety-three. His sufferings as a slave in Kentucky about half a century ago made him the original of Uncle Tom in Mrs. Beecher Stowe's story. Coming to England at a comparatively recent period, he was presented to the Queen, who gave him her photograph. The cause of his death was paralysis, aggravated by the cruel treatment he experienced in slavery. His arms were once broken with a cudgel by his master, who has obtained a painful immortality as Legree.”— Times Obituary.-[An account of Josiah Henson appeared in the “Leisure Hour" at the time of his last visit to England.]
Card-playing for Money.-If we could trace a thousand instances of wrong-doing by clerks, bank-tellers, and cashiers, treasurers, trustees, speculators, and others, we would find that in nine cases out of ten-perhaps nineteen out of twenty -the first step was a game of cards “ for a mere trifle.” It may be a total inisapprehension on my part, but I think cards have wrought more evil in the world than any other device of the Evil One to tempt men to their ruin.
All games of chance have the dangerous element of gambling in their nature, and should be avoided.--New York Observer,
Army Medical Department.-The “ Times," commenting on the Report on the medical department in the Egyptian campaign, says : “ The cooking was bad. The flour sent from England was bad, and the patients were offered bread unfit for human food when Lord Wolseley and his staff were able to buy excellent bread in the bazaars. The men were lying dirty in the clothes in which they had been campaigning and upon blankets on the floor, when Lady Strangford could buy plenty of comfortable bedsteads for half-a-crown apiece. Many little appliances that would have given immense comfort and relief to the sick were not thought of, although they might have been procured for a few pence. The medical men recognised these deficiencies, but, as they
Netley Hospital.-The writer of the article on Netley Military Hospital erred (as a non-professional visitor might naturally do) in calling the medical pupils "students instead of " candidates," and also in referring to the medical examination as being for “diplomas.” A correspondent states the matter thus :-“Twice a year an advertisement appears for doubly qualified men (1..., who possess twa degrees or diplomas licensing them to practice medicine and surgery) to present themselves for competitive examination for a certain number of appointments in the British and Indian army services. The examination is in London. Those who pass are then termed candidates,' and undergo a six months' course of training at Netley in army hygiene and the various departments of military medicine and surgery. On the completion of this course they are examined on the above subjects, and are then drafted into their respective services according to the position they have taken in the two examinations, London and Netley."
A Martial Goose.-- From Stuttgart the death was lately reported of a goose well-known io naturalists all over the world. This eccentric animal, when still a gosling, aban. doned its flock, dismissed all recollections of its infancy, repudiated the conventional views and habits of geese, and boldly marching into the barracks of an Uhlan regiment, stationed itself one fine day next to the sentry-box. Touched by this predilection for their corps, the Úhlans erected a shed for the goose, and for twenty-three years neither threats nor persuasion have been able to separate the martial bird from its adopted regiment for any great length of time. It has at different times changed quarters with the corps from Esslingen to Ulm, thence to Ludwigsburg, and back again to Ulm. When the Uhlans went to fight for their country, the forsaken and desolate goose took up for the time with a battalion of infantry ; but no sooner did the first Uhlans re-enter the lown than the goose marched out to meet them, and returned with them to her old quarters. She has now been stuffed, and is to be seen in a glass case on the gate of the barracks at Stuttgart.
pearl-shell, ivory nuts, gum, sandalwood, camphor-tree, sago, arrowroot, ginger, sugar-cane, cocoanuts, ebony, and birds of Paradise plumes, while tobacco was grown in large quantities. As the island was opened up, minerals no doubt would be found in considerable quantities ; gold was known to exist, and he had seen fine specimens of copper and black sand that contained tin brought from New Guinea. Although the last to be developed, this island, he believed, would be found to be the most favoured of the bountiful islands of the Malay Archipelago. As to climate, he had tried to show how easy it would be on the north-east coast to escape the malarious fever which clung to all low-lying country in those latitudes. Should the annexation by Queensland be concluded, he trusted she would not make the great mistake of only securing the south coast—which was, no doubt, the most necessary to her safety—but take the whole island. This he urged in the name of humanity for the sake of the natives, as other nations did not always treat their dark. skinned subjects with the same consideration as the English. In the discussion which followed, Admiral Moresby said it was a mistake to suppose that he had annexed any portion of New Guinea. The English flag had already been hoisted there about seventeen years before by Lieutenant Yule, during Captain Owen Stanley's visit. Admiral Moresby explained that he had in the way usual with discoverers hoisted the flag of his Queen on one of the group of islands at the east end of New Guinea, named after him, but con. tended that this act, which was officially reported, imposed no responsibility upon the Government. The new route between Eastern Australia and China, past Moresby Island and through Goschen Straits, saved a distance of some three hundred miles, and would, he felt sure, come into general use for steamers. Its survey either by England or Australia was only a question of time. In the “ Leisure Hour volume for 1875 a translation appeared of a German manu. script report on New Guinea, the most interesting, and in some points most complete, account that has appeared of the island and its people.
Governess Wanted.-In a Sheffield paper this advertise• ment lately appeared :
Morning Governess, three hours daily, in Sharrow, wanted imme. diately, to train four children, ages six to twelve, English, French, music, and drawing. Terms, four shillings per week." English, French, music, drawing, and training! The workhouse school would better suit this advertiser.
Female Emigration.--"Emily Faithful" writes to the “ Times," from Montreal : “While travelling through Canada I have met so many English ladies who have been so grievously disappointed in their efforts to obtain congenial employment here, that I feel bound to ask your leave to give a word of warning on this point. Women who have health and courage enough to come out here, prepared to take any work which offers, may get on well in Canada, but the field for governesses and teachers is as overstocked as it is at home. Those who are at the head of Canadian charitable associa. tions are just now overwhelmed with the difficulties of helping the unfortunate ladies who arrive in the vain hope of finding at once the remunerative occupation they have failed to secure in England. Those who wish to seek their fortune there must be ready to encounter work of all kinds, and be ready to adapt themselves to new habits. Above all, they must leave the word ‘menial' on the other side of the Atlantic."
Government Guide-book for Canadian Emigrants.-A Government guide-book for the insormation of emigrants to Canada has been completed. Under direction of the Hon. J. H. Pope, the Minister of Agriculture, it has been prepared by Mr. John Lowe, chief secretary of that department, and can be had free by any applicant to the office of the High Commissioner, Sir A. Galt, Victoria Chambers, Victoria Street, Westminster, and from agents of the Dominion, wherever situated.
Chinese Labour Acts.-An Act has been passed by the Canadian Parliament as to Chinese immigration into British Columbia similar to that of the New South Wales Parliament, as passed in 1881. Each Chinese entrant is to pay fifty dollars, and no vessel is to bring more than in proportion of one Chinaman to every hundred tons of such vessel.
The Luther Festival.-In a decree issued under date of the 21st May to the Minister of Public Worship and the Supreme Council of the Evangelical Church, the Emperor directs that the 400th anniversary of Martin Luther's birth shall be solemnly observed by the holding of a Church Festival on November 10 and 11 next in all Evangelical churches and schools. The decree concludes with the following words : “I pray to God that He may listen to the supplications in which I and all the members of the Evangelical Church shall unite on the days of the festival, in order that the celebration may be productive of lasting blessing to our beloved Evangelical Church.”
The Second Suez Canal.-M. Leroy-Beaulieu, a warm s friend of England, and an advocate of Free Trade principles,
has given an opinion worthy of consideration. “The Suez undertaking is so popular in France that any power attacking it, to the detriment of the interests of the Company, would create amongst us a deep and lasting national irritation. It would no longer be one of those superficial differences which may pass away after the lapse of a few months or a few years. It would be a mortal insult which the French people would never forget. Thus an act of violence or of disposition, more or less disguised, with regard to the Company, would, by reason of the antipathy it would create in France against England, be nothing short of a great international calamity.”
New Guinea.—At a recent meeting of the Royal Geographical Society a paper was read by Mr. Wilfred Powell on * Visits to the Eastern and North-Eastern Coasts of New Guinea.” In opening the proceedings, the chairman (Lord Aberdare) stated that Mr. Powell had spent eight years of his life on the coast of New Guinea or the islands around. The time was appropriate for the reading of a paper on this little-known part of the world. The calculations of competent German geographers showed that Papua, with the adjacent islands, had an area of nearly 312,000 English square miles, and was therefore over 19,000 square miles larger than Borneo, or nearly as great in extent as England, Scotland, Ireland, and France put together. After an interesting description of the geographical features of the coast and the peculiarities of the natives, Mr. Powell said, with regard to the commercial value of the island of New Guinea, he believed that no island in the world was its equal for natural products. Among the productions were tortoiseshell,
He says :