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American Diplomatic History, 1825-1904 (1904). Especially useful is Senate Executive Documents, 47 Cong., I Sess., VI., 194.


Of special value for the study of this topic are Frank William Taussig, Tariff History of the United States (1888; rev. ed., 1898); Davis Rich Dewey, Financial History of the United States (American Citizen series, 1903), chaps. x., xi.; David Kinley, History, Organization, and Influence of the Independent Treasury of the United States (1893), chaps. ii., iii.; Albert Sidney Bolles, The Financial History of the United States (second ed., 1884-1886, 3 vols.), II., bk. iii., chaps. v., vi., xv.; Charles Franklin Dunbar, Laws of the United States Relating to Currency, Finance, and Banking from 1789 to 1891 (1891, rev. ed., 1897), 123– 148, 272-293; and Reports of the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, 1789-1849 (6 vols., 1837-1851), IV., V., VI.


Treatments of this topic by honest and competent writers of keen insight but widely varying points of view are Horace Greeley, The American Conflict: Its Causes, Incidents, and Results (2 vols., 1864-1866), I., chap. xv.; Alexander H. Stephens, A Constitutional View of the Late War between the States (2 vols., 1868-1870), colloquy xvi.; Jefferson Davis, Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government (2 vols., 1881), I., chaps. ii., iii.; James Gillespie Blaine, Twenty Years of Congress (2 vols., 18841886), I., chaps. iv., v. The opposition in New England to slavery, and to the Mexican War because of its supposed connection therewith, found powerful expression in James Russell Lowell, The Biglow Papers [First Series] (1848), which is of great value to the student who understands thoroughly what the work is and why it was

written; but the reader should guard against confusing its satirical allegations and insinuations with historical fact. Albert Bushnell Hart, Slavery and Abolition (American Nation, XVI.), describes the institution of slavery and the methods of the abolitionists in the period of this volume. An excellent account of the compromise is James Ford Rhodes, History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 (7 vols., 1893-1906).

A great mass of information relative to conditions in California and New Mexico subsequent to their conquest, the provisional governments established there, and the movement to organize state governments, together with resolutions of state legislatures, etc., may be found in House Executive Documents, 30 Cong., 1 Sess., VIII., 70, and 30 Cong., 2 Sess., I., 1; Senate Executive Documents, 31 Cong., I Sess., IX., 18, XIII., 55, 56, 60, and XIV., 67, 74, 76; Senate Miscellaneous Documents, 30 Cong., 1 Sess.; Senate Reports, 31 Cong., 1 Sess., I., 123; House Executive Documents, 31 Cong., 1 Sess., III., pt. i., 5, V., 17, VII., 39.


ABERDEEN, EARL OF, and Texas, | Area, national (1840), 8; un-

117, 154.

settled, 22.

Arredondo, Joaquin de, map,


Abolitionists, political conven- Aroostook War, 80.
tion (1840), 47. See also Lib-
erty party.
Adams, C. F., nominated for
vice-president, 282.
Adams, J. Q., charges Tyler
with bad faith, 63; desire for
Texas, 86, 106; slavery ques-
tion produces opposition to
annexation, 90; prevents
vote on annexation, 95; pro-
test against annexation, 141;
change of attitude consider-
ed, 147-149; on Tyler's tariff
veto, 183.

Ashburton, Lord. See Ashbur-
ton treaty.

Ashburton treaty, prelimina-
ries, 80; obstacles to negotia-
tion, 81; conduct of negotia-
tors, 82; boundary provisions,

Alamán, Lucas, and coloniza-

tion of Texas, 27.
Allen, William, and annexation

of Texas, 146; and pre-annex-
ation appropriation, 257,258.
Almonte, J. N., and annexation
of Texas, 199; demands his
passports, 200.
Ampudia, Pedro de, and Tay-
lor's advance, 204.
Andrews, S. P., and Great
Britain and slavery in Texas,
Annexation. See Territory.
Anti-Rent agitation, 7.
Arbitration, of northeastern
boundary, 79; of Mexican
claims, 193.

Archer, W. S., and pre-annexa-
tion appropriation, 258.

Ashley, W. H., and Oregon,

Astor, J. J., Pacific Fur Com-
pany, 36.

Astoria, settlement and history,

Austin, Moses, Texas colony,

25; motives and slavery, 31.
Austin, S. F., Texas colony, 25;
instructions on annexation,


BAKER, E. D., on threats of
disunion, 318.

Baltimore, population (1840),


Bancroft, George, and war with
Mexico, 204.

Bancroft, H. H., character of
his works, 339.

Bankhead, Charles, and Slidell
mission, 222, 225; and Trist
mission, 249.
Bankruptcy act (1841), 181.
Banks, necessity of national

ed States and Texas, 197–


system, 57. See also Na- | Bocanegra, J. M. de, on Unit-
tional bank, Sub-treasury.
Barnburners, Democratic fac-
tion in New York, 271; and
Polk, 272-274; and Wilmot
Proviso, 274; and regular
national convention (1848),
274; presidential convention,
281; and Free Soil conven-
tion, 282.
Barrow, Alexander, and an-
nexation of Texas, 147.
Baylies, Francis, and Oregon,


Bear Flag revolt, 234-238;
Frémont's interest, 234; and
Larkin's plans, 235; Fré-
mont's policy, 236; begin-
ning, 237; capture of Sono-
ma, 238; Frémont at Sono-
ma, 238; merged, 238.
Belize, origin, 286; British
colony, 286; and Clayton-
Bulwer treaty, 292.
Benton, T. H., and Oregon, 37;
on Jackson and Van Buren
(1843), 126; on election of
1844, 137; Texas bill (1844),
144, 146; and annexation
resolution, 152; on tariff and
distribution acts (1841), 180;
and Frémont in California,
237; and pre-annexation ap-
propriation, 257, 258; advice
to California, 307, 317.
Berrien, J. M., and Tyler and
national-bank bill, 62; and
war with Mexico, 205; and
annexation of Mexican terri-
tory, 262, 264.
Béxar settled, 98.
Bibliographies of period 1840-

1850, 333.
Biographies of period 1840-
1850, 338.

Birney, J. G., nominated for
president, 47, 127.
Black, John, and Slidell mis-
sion, 209, 212, 217.

Botts, J. M., and Tyler, 64.
Boundaries, northern, of Louis-
iana Purchase settled, 74;
controversy over northern, of
original territory, 75, 77;
settled, 83; bibliography,
343. See also Northeastern,
Oregon, Texas.

Brazito battle, 240.
Bright, J. D., and extension of
Missouri Compromise, 303.
Brinkerhoff, Jacob, author of
Wilmot Proviso, 255, 256.
British Honduras. See Belize.
Brown, A. A., and Jackson on
Van Buren (1843), 126.
Brown, Milton, and annexation
of Texas, 150.
Brown, W. J., speakership con-
test, 318.

Bryant, W. C., and name
Öregon, 34.

Buchanan, James, and Oregon

(1845), 168; (1846), 171;
and Slidell mission, 209, 212,
220; and desire for whole of
Mexico, 251-253; and pre-
annexation appropriation,
257; ambition for presidency
(1848), 269, 270.
Buena Vista battle, 246.
Bulwer, Sir Henry, Clayton-

Bulwer treaty, 291; on inter-
pretation of it, 292.

Burnett, D. G., in Texas, 85.
Burr, Aaron, and Texas, 23.
Burt, Armistead, on Oregon

and Missouri Compromise,
Butler, Anthony, and Tehuan-
tepec transit, 289.
Butler, B. F., Barnburner, de-

clines Polk's cabinet offer,
272; Polk removes, 273.
Butler, W. O., nominated for
vice-president, 275.

CABINET, disruption of Tyler's,
63, 65.
Calhoun, J. C., and national-
bank bill, 60; and Great
Britain and slavery in Texas,
113; and treaty of annexa-
tion, 116; secretary of state,
118; correspondence with
Pakenham on slavery, 118;
and Jackson on Van Buren
(1843), 126; and war with
Mexico, 205; and pre-an-
nexation appropriation, 258;
on Mexican War and slavery,
264; on rights of slavery in
territories, 297, 301;
judicial decision on territo-
rial slavery, 299; and Oregon
bill, 305; and southern ad-
dress (1849), 311; speech on
Clay's compromise resolu-
tions, 323;
California, desire for, 40; com-
merce with, 40; Mexican
government, 4I; disturb-
ances, 41, 230; American
settlers, 41; Jones's seizure
(1842), 197; British inten-
tions, 197, 209, 225; Polk
and purchase, 208, 225, 248;
Slidell's instructions on pur-
chase, 215; Kearny's march
to, 231; navy takes posses-
sion, 232, 233; Larkin's in-
structions, 232; Flores revolt,
234; Frémont and Bear Flag
revolt, 234-238; dissension
of American commanders,
local government, 239; ceded,
251; slavery conditions, 295;
temporary government, 296;
offered solutions on slavery
question, 298-301; Clayton
Compromise on, 306; Ben-
ton's advice on establishing
a government, 307; Polk's
check on it, 307; controversy
in Congress (1849), 307-309;
need of government, 315;

Taylor advises self-organiza-
tion, 315; discovery of gold
and consequent anarchy, 316;
state government organized,
slavery prohibited, 317; Clay's
compromise resolution on,
320; Clay on, 322; admis-
sion as free state, 328, 330;
bibliography, 338-340, 346.
Cameron, Simon, and tariff of
1846, 186.

Canada, Caroline affair, 68, 69;
and McLeod case, 70. See
also Northeast boundary.
Caroline affair, 68, 69; McLeod

case, 70.

Cass, Lewis, candidacy (1844),
130; and pre-annexation ap-
propriation, 257; and in-
demnity from Mexico, 262;
nominated for president, 275;
political character, 275; de-
feated, 283; and popular
sovereignty, 300.

Castro, José, faction in Califor-
nia, 230;
and Bear Flag
revolt, 237.
Central America, early scheme
of Isthmian transit, 285;
Belize and Mosquito Coast,
286; transit-way negotia-
tions, 290; Clayton-Bulwer
treaty, 291-293.
Cerro Gordo battle, 247.
Champoeg, French Canadian

settlement in Oregon, 38;
American local self-govern-
ment, 166.
Chappell, A. H., and annexa-
tion of Texas, 153.
Chapultepec battle, 250.
Chase, S. P., on introduction of
Wilmot Proviso, 256; speech
on Clay's compromise resolu-
tions, 326.
Chicago, population (1840), 10.
Chihuahua and Texas, 100.
Chihuahua City, Wool's expedi-
tion, 239; Doniphan in, 240.

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