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the Government measures, and that the Budget should only be passed on being altered to suit the views of his party; and here the matter was resting at the close of the year.

CHAPTER V.

ASIA.

I. INDIA, AFGHANISTAN, AND FRONTIER AFFAIRS.

THE imperial census, which was practically taken at one and the same time throughout India, represents perhaps the most extensive statistical task ever attempted by any Government. Arrangements had to be made for the enumeration, not only of the provinces of British India proper, but also of the whole of the feudatories, except Kashmir and Nepaul, within the limits of the empire. The results show a population of over 254,000,000, out of which more than 204,000,000 reside in the territory under the dominion of the Crown.

During the last three years the relations of India with its immediate neighbours on the north and west have engaged the most earnest attention of the public as well as of statesmen. The successful move of Russian statecraft in 1878, at the time when the relations between that country and England were at their utmost tension, involved India in political embarrassments, from which it is scarcely prudent to say, as yet, that three years of warfare and diplomacy have succeeded in extricating her. The change of policy consequent upon the advent to power of a Liberal Ministry appeared to impart a new vitality to the neverending dissension between the two leading sects of frontier experts in both England and India; whilst the native feeling on the question of the extension of the imperial responsibilities has not been withheld. To nearly all, the financial rather than the sentimental aspect, or the chance of obtaining the repayment of the cost of the war from the home exchequer, was the chief consideration. In a very few quarters the importance of the principle involved in the contribution made by Parliament was not lost sight of in the regret aroused by its coraparative smallness.

In the beginning of the year news was received of the advance of a column of Russian troops under General Krapotkine, in cooperation with General Skobeleff, against the strong position of Geok-tepe, held in force by the Tekke Turkomans. The flying column, acting under the direct orders of General Kaufmann, committed the error, not infrequent of late, in warfare with foes of a less advanced civilisation, of underrating its antagonists, and

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I -Ime afmart 7 Ada 2002. and sent outposts is år the Persan futer at Anne, viere he himself aged a war sme before the is of the Teke 2v1 le 28 5. prowess and good unangements of the enemy, vic than three dessente kros teine the STDCAS point of Skobelets adres vw Kam zben 10 miles fr Merv; and happening wit did when the roofusion weas.ned by the assassination of the Tar had tended to throw the authority into the hands of the may pant, as thought in some quarters likely that almage would be taken by the frontier generals of relaxed setri to post on operations to a print where disavowal or prohibitive would some too late. The course of the Keshef-Rad which joins the Hari-Rud or river of Herat, was indeed reported by the correspondent of the Daily Ners to be under the survey of a excchined party of Russians and Persians, but no further adrasse of troops ensued. The stream is of importance, as it bounds on the north a bit of desert land formerly occupied by Turkomans, abandoned some time ago for other settlements, although commanding the strong position of Surrakhs, a place of great value with respect to Herat, lower down the same valley. The inference to be drawn from this proceeding, according to some authorities, is that by this move, and with the willing aid of Persia, the necessity of Merv as a base for further advances has been avoided. From Persia it was announced that the Shah's forces had succeeded in expelling the leaders of the Kurdish insurrection from the country, after inflicting a defeat on a strong body of the insurgents at Urmiah; the leaders, or most of them, escaping across the Turkish frontier, where they were seized by the Turks.

The events in Turkestan, however, are of less immediate interest with reference to India than those in Afghanistan. At the close of last year the Amir was left attempting to consolidate his influence over the heterogeneous elements entrusted to his charge; whilst Ayub, his most formidable rival, was establishing

his authority as far as possible in the neighbourhood of Herat. As there were no accredited agents of the Indian or British Government with either party the news received was of the most untrustworthy and contradictory kind. The Amir seems to have conciliated the Kohistani tribe by remissions of revenue to some extent; but, on the other hand, he was reported to have extorted a "benevolence," or forced advance of town duties, from the traders of Kabul. The turbulent tribe of the Hazaras refused for a time to acknowledge the new ruler, and withheld the Bamian revenue. The Tarakhi Ghilzais, too, in the direction of Girishk revolted, and it took some trouble and negotiation to bring them back again into allegiance. Nor were matters nearer

the capital much more settled. The ladies of the family of the ex-Amir Yakub, and his adherents, began, as early as October 1880, to intrigue with the tribes on the Kabul-Jelalabad route, and brought into the city a crowd of Mohmands, staunch supporters of Yakub, with retinues fully armed, numbering some 6,000 men. When Muhammad Jan returned, there was reason to apprehend an outbreak; but his influence was enough to prevent violence amongst his allies, whilst it seemed that he was not more disposed to throw in his lot against the Amir than to give him active support. For some time he was the popular hero of the city; and though he paid his respects to the Amir, the probabilities of a revolt were looked upon as so great that the Khyber tribes took the initiative by recommencing raids on the caravans passing their settlements. The rumour that reached the ears of Muhammad Jan, of the intention of the Amir to arrest him at an interview, had the effect of keeping him aloof from the court; whilst the other and less powerful Sirdars, finding that no fixed provision was made for their allowances, also refrained from attending. In the meantime the Amir took active steps. towards the reconstruction of his army. Recruiting was carried on round the capital. The arms that had been carried off by the men whose regiments had been previously disbanded were traced and recovered. The establishment for the manufacture of smallarms was reopened, and the existing forces concentrated round Kabul. It was reported by stray traders who reached India that the Amir was devoting his attention to establishing his authority in Afghan Turkestan, and was sending thither large sums of money. The arrival of his family, which had been left there on his first return to his native country, and which was sent for when he was safe in Kabul, put an end to most of these rumours. As soon as the Amir had re-enlisted a sufficient force of the disbanded soldiers, he despatched an expeditionary army from Turkestan to the neighbourhood of Maimanah, under Ishak Khán, who was mainly successful in winning over the Balkh faction to the side of the Amir. To appreciate the full bearing of this move it is necessary to turn to what had been going on in the meanwhile at Herat.

The young Sirdar Ayub, on his return from the defeat be had suffered at Mara, at the hands of General Elberts, Thi seemingly affected with a silden mistrust of his friends and evenections, whom he accused of corresponding with the Er in Kandahar. After juring his father-in-law, Kila Aph of whose tribe, the Jamshedi Amaks, be was disbeful to a viet Herat, Ayub had him executed, and some of his chef floovers imprisoned. The son of the murdered chief by name Yaar Khán, fled towards Maimanah in open revolt, but was presented by the Amir's governor there from making his way to Tweend by that route. Muhammad Ishak Khan then moved spia Tukestan contingent. Meanwhile another of Arts Buppetere, Hashim Khan, a Barakzai of good family and some infuence, had been sent by Ayub to collect revenue from the tribe in the Farrah district, and to persuade the Zamindarar and woothen tribe generally not to make any terms with the agents of the Atttir, at Ayub would arrive in the spring to help them in ther rencang,

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Háshim, however, was much displeased with the exeention of Khán Agha by Ayub because, be hall, it was dire all thing, advisable not to create a feud between the Alle 206 20 and Ayub's family-the Baraiais. About the ease tite of hearing of the decision of the Government with mai t withdrawal from that city, he entered into erregoudens with the British political offers in Kandanar porting on that though he had thrown up his charge and deened from Teacres during the negotiations with Abduraimat, de tad teler vorde arins against the British. Arat, 250, The PRZO was becoming less and less serre, write to Conte agent for Quettah and Belchist denying any empery in, o even knowledge of the murder of Lieneart Maskine the very at Mazra. The announcement of the abandonment of Kandanas, as soon as a stable government enll be etek w k Sirdars to hope that the choice of the Brities Government a fall on themselves. A rivalry wEA TE DE PREDLADOS, volen erke a serious breach of the friendship that had formery xey Hara in alliance with his younger kinemat

The emissaries sent to Kandahar, the & may dreven, returned to Herat without hope of arranging the star, wh at once betook himself to maintin la polla y bored urua, At the time of the arrest of Khas Agua the eléid se lunat, tribe, who, with the Jamshe, Firach, en Hume, mang the combination known as the Czar Almak, ker v Katwa, wa were followed by the Taiwara eld dna, & CIAZ JAZZA some sixty-five miles north of GERL AOL Kem, te sam the expedition sent by Amb azaze se torn, q? gratascha A the fort, and proclaimed himself goverton.

rienced by Ayub in procuring supplla seur Heret war game cause of the attempt made by lle agent to any taxta from YAM Taiwarra people. These, however, rok w

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in turning him out of the district with all his Herati followers. Meanwhile Yalantush Khán, who had fled to Maimanah, induced the governor there to give him shelter. The young chief at once engaged in intrigues with the Turkomans of the Arghandab Valley, and joined them in several raids in the neighbourhood of Herat. The details of what was taking place in the city itself at this time are very difficult to ascertain. There were, no doubt, serious dissensions amongst the leaders, fomented by Muhammad Háshim, who knew himself to be in favour with the northern tribes, and thus looked upon the fading popularity of Ayub as so much gain to his own aspirations. Ayub, moreover, had reason to suspect the fidelity of some of the regiments that had been with him in the last expedition, and even his generals did not escape his anger. The troops were disbanded, and some of the chiefs put into confinement. The difficulty of getting supplies and money was growing pressing, but the state of affairs in Kabul removed Ayub's fear of attack from without; and it was some time before the Amir was in a position to take the offensive against Herat.

The relations between the British Government and Afghanistan may be briefly summed up. On the 2nd January the Times correspondent at Kandahar telegraphed, "The New Year finds this part of Afghanistan in profound quiet, with trade reviving, money plentiful, and every prospect of a good harvest next spring." Beyond the report of an unsettled feeling towards the Helmand, which induced the officer in command of the Kandahar force to send a small expedition in that direction, there was nothing to call the garrison from the town limits. The agent for the Amir at Girishk had received visits from a good many of the Alizai and Durani chiefs in the southern districts; and towards the Scind frontier the rare and not very serious raids of the local tribes are all there is to record.

The grounds of the decision of the Government for the withdrawal from Kandahar were duly communicated to the Government of India, in a despatch which finally ordered the evacuation to take place as soon as a suitable governor had been appointed to replace the military régime, and that the new ruler, whoever he might be, was to be given to understand that he was not to expect any help which involved the employment of Her Majesty's troops beyond the frontiers of India. It was also enjoined upon the authorities entrusted with the negotiations regarding the transfer, that the appointment of the Afghan governor was to be made within as short a time as possible, and that delays were to be avoided. The army was to be withdrawn, too, at the earliest date, to the British outposts. On the substance of this decision being communicated to the Amir, he replied that he would send a governor of his choice to Kandahar with a military force as soon as the latter could be organised and despatched. It was reported that the person chosen by him was a sirdar named Hassan, and that the leader of the accompanying force was Ghulám Hyder

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