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commander of the heavy cavalry at Balaclava, after protracted illness, died at his seat, Parkhurst, Dorking, on the 15th, aged 76. He entered the diplomatic service as an attaché under Sir Stratford Canning, whom he accompanied from Naples to Constantinople in 1824-25. He remained at that post during the battle of Navarino and the destruction of the Janissaries. Transferred to Paris while Lord Stuart de Rothesay was ambassador, he watched the flight of Charles X. in 1830. About 1834 he was appointed to Rio Janeiro, and after serving for some time in the Brazilian capital, he undertook an adventurous excursion across the pampas and the Andes, of which, in 1838, he gave the public an account in two volumes, under the title of "South America and the Pacific." After a considerable interval, during which, he acted as marshal and associate to his father, the Lord Chief Baron, he was sent to Florence as Secretary of Legation to Lord Normanby. His first independent post was that of Minister at his old station in Brazil. Becoming

afterwards our representative at Florence, he saw the disappearance of the Grand Duke and the general collapse of all the minor principalities, which the war of 1859 had doomed to perish. He was next Minister at Athens when King Otho finally withdrew, and was the depositary of the popular enthusiasm which clamoured for Prince Alfred (now the Duke of Edinburgh) as his successor. A year later he was accredited to the new empire of Mexico, and where he continued to serve the Queen, until the fall of Maximilian was decided, and until his throne was absolutely vacant. On his return to England no new professional employment was assigned to him, and his leisure was partly filled in collecting the memorials-too fragmentary in their nature-of the first Lord Abinger, which recently appeared under his auspices. His mind down to the beginning of the present year was active upon foreign policy.

Arthur Penrhyn Stanley was born in 1815. His father, the Rev. Edward Stanley, son of Sir John Thomas Stanley of Alderley and younger brother of the first Lord Stanley of Alderley, was for nearly thirty years incumbent of the family living of Alderley, in Cheshire, before he was appointed by Lord Melbourne to the Bishopric of Norwich in 1837. His mother was Catherine, daughter of the Rev. Oswald Leycester,

rector of Stoke-upon-Tern, in Shropshire. The early education of young Arthur was superintended by his father, but in 1829, the year after Arnold's appointment to the head mastership of Rugby, Arthur Stanley was placed under his charge, and he remained at Rugby till 1834, when he won a scholarship at Balliol, and went into residence at Oxford. Thus began that long and devoted friendship which was brought to a tragic close by the sudden death of Dr. Arnold, in 1842, and was consecrated in the beloved pupil's "Life and Letters" of his revered teacher.

Stanley's career at Oxford was a series of triumphs. He was elected Ireland Scholar in 1837, being placed in the first class in classics in the same year, and winning the Newdigate Prize for a poem on "The Gipsies." In the

same class list occur the names of Arthur W. Haddan, the ecclesiastical historian, and of Ryle, the first Bishop of Liverpool. In 1839 Stanley, already a Fellow of University College, won the Chancellor's Prize for a Latin essay on the suggestive theme for the future Secretary of the first Oxford University Commission, "Quænam sint erga Rempublicam Academiæ officia; and in 1840 he won the English essay on the question, "Do States, like individuals, inevitably tend after a certain period of maturity to decay?" as well as the Ellerton Theological Prize for a dissertation on the thesis, "Good works do spring necessarily out of a true and lively faith." He became fellow and tutor of University College, retaining the latter office for twelve years, until he was appointed secretary of the Oxford University Commission-a body whose irksome and unpopular, but still most valuable and productive labours were materially assisted by the ready tact and suavity of its indefatigable secretary. In 1845 he was appointed Select Preacher to the University, and shortly afterwards published his first theological work-"Sermons and Essays on the Apostolical Ages." He was made Canon of Canterbury in 1850, and, besides publishing a volume of "Canterbury Sermons," he found during his tenure of the State a congenial literary task in his fascinating "Memorials of Canterbury." In 1853 the Chair of Ecclesiastical History at Oxford became vacant by the death of Professor Hussey. Dr. Stanley was appointed to it, and shortly afterwards to the canonry at Christ Church, which had been attached to the Professorship by the

University Reform Act. But before entering on his second residence in Oxford the Professor had, during the winter of 1852 and in the spring of 1853, undertaken that journey through Eastern lands, especially "Sinai and Palestine," which was not only to be recorded in what is probably considered by the majority of readers the most fascinating of all his works, but was destined to be an appropriate preparation, such as he alone perhaps could have turned to such good account for his labours in the Chair of Ecclesiastical History at Oxford.

Dr. Stanley was chosen by the Queen to accompany the Prince of Wales in his Eastern tour in 1862. In 1863, when the Deanery of Westminster became vacant by the nomination of Dr. Trench to the Archbishopric of Dublin, he was appointed to the office. His appointment was made the subject of a controversy and a protest raised by the present Bishop of Lincoln, who was at that time one of the Canons of Westminster. This fruitless controversy was brought to a graceful termination by the just and eloquent tribute paid by the new Dean to the Canon in his inaugural sermon preached in Westminster Abbey. In the same year the Dean was married to Lady Augusta Bruce, sister of Lord Elgin, and for many years a personal friend and attendant of the Queen. His marriage gradually drew the Dean from the comparative retirement of his former life into the choicest circles of London society, intellectual, literary, political, and aristocratic. He was wont to say that he had never really lived until his marriage. His friends had always been among the leading spirits of the time, and his house at Oxford was renowned for his abundant and catholic hospitality. But in London he moved in a larger circle, and under the auspices of Lady Augusta Stanley, the deanery at Westminster became one of the most distinguished salons in London. In 1872 Dean Stanley was a second time appointed Select Preacher to the University of Oxford, but this time not without a protest from Dr. Goulburn, the Dean of his father's cathedral, nor the vehement opposition of a party, headed and marshalled for the occasion by Dr. Burgon, subsequently Dean of Chichester.

Dean Stanley's appointment was confirmed by a majority of 349 votes to 287. Thereupon the Dean of Norwich resigned a similar office to which he had been appointed in the previous year "as the most forcible

protest he can give against what he must consider to be the unfaithfulness to God's truth which the University manifested by its vote in favour of Dean Stanley." As an ecclesiastical leader he occupied an exceptional posi tion. Though he belonged himself to what is called the Broad Church party, yet his eloquent voice was always raised, and rarely wholly in vain, in favour of freedom, not only for his own party, but for each party in turn as it was assailed by its more determined ecclesiastical opponents. In his early days at Oxford he protested against the persecution of the Tractarians. In the almost forgotten Gorham Controversy he pleaded again for freedom. When "Essays and Reviews" were assailed once more, the brilliant Edinburgh Reviewer fought the battle of his own friends and ecclesiastical associates. In the later controversies of Ritualism -a system with which he had no sympathy, and whose pretensions he merci. lessly exposed-he was faithful as ever to his cherished principles of toleration, charity, and comprehensiveness. His "Essays on Church and State," in which are collected his chief contributions to the literature of passing controversy, are thus a noble record of his life-long struggle in the cause of the Church and of liberty. In the Lower House of Convocation he frequently struggled, against overwhelming odds, on behalf of the same principles; and he was not to be deterred from admitting a layman to the pulpit of Westminster Abbey, or from inviting a Unitarian to partake of the Eucharist at its altar.

His health, never very robust, had sustained a severe shock by the loss of his wife; and though he never flinched from work, its burden became daily heavier to bear. Ten days before his death he had preached in the Abbey on the "Beatitudes," but had to retire during the service. From that moment his life ebbed rapidly away; erysipelas of the face set in and rapidly extended; and on the evening of the 18th he was pronounced to be sinking. Shortly after midnight he expired quietly and without suffering.

George Borrow, the author of many works relating to gipsies, died on the 27th at Oulton, near Lowestoft. He was the son of an officer in the army, and was born at East Dereham, Norfolk, in 1803. In his sixteenth year, after being educated at the High School of Edinburgh, he was articled to a solicitor in Norwich, his favourite pursuit being

the study of languages, especially Welsh, Danish, and German. His first published works were "Romantic Ballads from the Danish" (1826), chiefly from "Oehlenschlæger "; and a "Life of Faustin," translated from the German (1826). His facility in acquir ing languages attracted the attention of Mr. Taylor, of Norwich, who, writing to Southey at this time, declared that Borrow knew twelve languages. But he soon abandoned the law, came to London, and turned his attention to literature, his first work perhaps being the editing of the "Newgate Calendar," a work with which he was very familiar, as appears from the pages of "Lavengro." He is next heard of as having lodgings in Jermyn Street, in the same house with Benjamin Disraeli, who rehearsed before Borrow and others his maiden speech in the House of Commons. Even at this early period, it would seem, he had begun to take interest in the gipsies, a number of whom were encamped near Norwich while he lived in that city. In 1833 he became an agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society, and in this capacity was sent to St. Petersburg. Here, among other work, he edited the New Testament in Manchu. Migrating to Spain, he lived for some time with the Zincali, whose language he found to bear a marked resemblance to Romany, and translated the whole of St. Luke for their benefit. He also attempted to circulate the Bible in the vernacular. By doing so, of course, he exposed himself to a good deal of inconvenience, if not positive danger. He was twice put under arrest, and at one time, in order to save him

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self from the fury of the fanatical populace, was compelled to take refuge in the woods in disguise. In 1839, severing his connection with the society, he returned to England, and two years afterwards brought out "The Zincali, or an Account of the Gipsies of Spain." The work attracted considerable attention, not only on account of the vivid descriptions it contained, but as showing that the language of the people to whom it referred had a close affinity to Sanskrit. In The Bible in Spain," which followed, he recounted his personal adventures in that country with much vivacity, though with but little regard for order. In a debate in the House of Commons Sir Robert Peel bestowed a high eulogium upon this work. In 1844 Mr. Borrow started upon a tour in the south-east of Europe, fraternising with the gipsies, observing the peculiarities of the different Romany dialects, and making copies of their songs. "Lavengro," the first book he wrote after his return, is a sort of autobiography, in the course of which he again brings the gipsies before his readers. In 1857, six years later, he produced "Romany Rye," a sequel to " Lavengro," and in 1862 "Wild Wales." His most important work was "Romano LavoLil," a vocabulary of the English gipsy language. It represents the labour of many years, and was published in 1874. During the later years of his life he resided in London, and his favourite walks were to the gipsy haunts of the suburbs. During this time he was an industrious contributor in both prose and verse to periodical lite

rature.

To whom may be added:-On July 1, at Paris, Henri St. Claire Deville, aged 62, an eminent chemist, the discoverer of anhydric nitric acid, and of the principle of chemical "Dissociation." On July 2, at Hans Place, London, the Dowager Lady Fitz-Hardinge, aged 74. She was third daughter of Thomas, first Earl of Ducie, by his marriage with Lady Frances Herbert, only daughter of Henry, first Earl of Carnarvon. On July 4, General von Alvensleben, aged 77, Adjutant-General of the Emperor, commander of the 4th Army Corps (Prussian Province of Saxony), during the Austrian and French campaign. On July 5, at Chiswick, the Rev. John Cumming, D.D., aged 73, late Minister of the National Scotch Church, Crown-court, Covent-garden. He was born at Aberdeen, and studied at the University there. He came to London in 1832, and was chosen minister of the Scotch Church in the same year. He distinguished himself as a platform orator by his decided opposition to the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, and as an exponent of prophecy. On July 9, at Kingstown, General Sir Richard Waddy, K.C.B., aged 67, Colonel of the 63rd Regiment of Foot. In 1832 he obtained an Ensigncy in the 50th Queen's Own Regiment of Foot, and with much distinction served with that regiment, until 1868, in the Crimea and New Zealand. On July 13, at Paris, Duc de Cambacérès, aged 83, son of Napoleon's general, and himself page to Napoleon. He was wounded at Waterloo, being then 17 years of age, and was a senator and master of the ceremonies under the Second Empire. On July 14, at the Close, at Exeter, the Rev. Edward Charles Harington, aged 77, Canon and Chancellor of Exeter Cathedral, a descendant of

the celebrated Sir John Harington, of Kelston, in the reign of Elizabeth. He was born in the year 1803, and graduated B.A. at Worcester College, Oxford, in 1828. On July 14, at Rio de Janeiro, Colonel W. Milner Roberts, aged 71. He began life as a chainman at the age of fifteen on the Union Canal. Three years later he was appointed executive engineer of the most difficult section of the Lehigh Canal, and afterwards he became assistant engineer on the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad, the forerunner of the Pennsylvania Railroad. In this capacity he laid out the Portage section of the line over the Alleghanies, and after the completion of the railway to Columbia and of the State Canal to Pittsburg, he was appointed engineer of the Monongahela Navigation Company, for which he laid out and executed a large amount of important work. The Erie extension of the Pennsylvania Canal was also carried out chiefly under Colonel Roberts's supervision, especially the section from Newcastle to Erie. In the early development of the American railway system Colonel Roberts played a considerable part. The Sunbury and Erie line, now the Philadelphia and Erie, was built by him, and the Alleghany Valley Railroad as far as Kittaning. The Ohio and Mississippi Railway and the Iron Mountain Road in Missouri were also his work. After acting as chief engineer to the Ohio river improvements, he left the United States to undertake the construction of railway works in Brazil, where he spent some years. On his return in 1876 he was appointed by the Emperor of Brazil chief engineer of public works at Rio, where he died of typhoid fever. He was appointed engineer-in-chief of the Northern Pacific Railway, associate chief engineer of the St. Louis Bridge, and later a member of the Mississippi Jetty Commission. On July 25, at Killarney, the Right Rev. Daniel M'Carthy, D.D., aged 55, Roman Catholic Bishop of Kerry, a successful ruler, endeared to his clergy and people, and esteemed and respected by all classes irrespective of religious and political opinions. On July 26, at Vienna, Duke Augustus of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. He was born in 1818, married in 1843 Princess Clémentine, daughter of Louis Philippe, and was an uncle of the late Prince Consort. He left five children, of whom the eldest, Prince Philip, a resident in Pesth, married the Princess Louise of Belgium. On July 27, at Bushey, Herts, General Sir Edward Walter Forestier Walker, K.C.B., aged 69, Colonel of the 50th Regiment. He entered the Army as Ensign and Lieutenant in 1827 in the Scots Fusilier Guards, and became Colonel in 1854, and as such took part in the Crimean campaign, having landed at the Alma on September 22, 1854, and commanded the Scots Fusilier Guards in the subsequent engagements, including the battle of Balaclava, the repulse and sortie on October 26, the battle of Inkerman, and the siege of Sebastopol. On July 28, at Highbury, Mr. Samuel Sharpe, aged 82, a scholar and Egyptologist of considerable reputation.

AUGUST.

Dr. John Hill Burton, Historiographer to the Queen in Scotland, died on August 9, at Morton-house, Lothianburn. Dr. Burton was born in Aberdeen in 1809, his father being Lieutenant Burton, of the 94th Regiment of Foot, and his mother the daughter of a laird in the north-east of Scotland. In his boyhood he lost his father. Having studied at Marischal College, where he took his degree of M.A., Burton was placed in the office of a legal practitioner in Aberdeen, and at the age of 22 was called to the Edinburgh Bar. In default of independent means, he turned his attention to literature. He established a connection with the Edinburgh and Westminster Reviews. He wrote on legal subjects for the latter volumes of and the supplement to the 'Penny Cyclopædia.' He assisted Sir

John Bowring in preparing his edition of "Bentham," and in the following year published an introduction to the study of Benthamism, and soon afterwards a collection of extracts from Bentham's works. He next occupied himself with the life and correspon dence of Hume, wrote biographies of Simon Lord Lovat and Duncan Forbes of Culloden, edited some of the Hume papers bequeathed to the Royal Society of Edinburgh, contributed to Messrs. Chambers's "Books for the People" a treatise on political and social economy, discoursed on emigration in its practical application to individuals and communities, and, as though to prove once more that "truth is stranger than fiction," made a collection of narratives from remarkable criminal trials in Scotland. In regard to the last

named work, it should be mentioned that his materials for the story of Captain Green, who was hanged in 1705 for having, while in command of an English merchant vessel, plundered a ship fitted out by the Scotch Darien Company, were derived from documents found in an old chest in a cellar underneath the Advocates' Library. He took an active part in the agitation for the repeal of the Corn Laws, and as a consequence became closely acquainted with Mr. Cobden. In 1853 he brought out his "History of Scotland from the Revolution of 1688 to the Extinction of the Jacobite Insurrection," a work which gave him a prominent place among the historical writers of his time. In 1854, after preparing a "Manual of the Law of Scotland" and a "Treatise on Bankruptcy Law," both clear and well-digested works, he became secretary to the Prison Board. In about six years the functions of the Board were transferred to the Home Office, but Mr. Burton was continued in his post. From 1868 he was also charged with the duty of making the annual report to Parliament of the judicial statistics of Scotland. The leisure which his official avocations left him was turned to good account; indeed, it was at this period that his fame as a writer rose to its full height. Between 1867 and 1870 he brought out an elaborate "History of Scotland from Agricola's Invasion to the Revolution of 1688." Its merits were widely recognised, and the appointment of Historiographer Royal-an old office in the Queen's Scottish household - was conferred upon him. While engaged upon his magnum opus he wrote for Blackwood "The Scot Abroad" and the "Bookhunter." In 1877 he became a Commissioner under the Prisons' Act for Scotland, and for the next two or three years was more or less occupied with his "History of the Reign of Queen Anne." Mr. Burton was a Fellow of the Royal, the Antiquarian, and the Geological Societies, and received the degree of LL.D. from the University of Aberdeen, and was also a D.C.L. of Oxford.

The Earl of Gainsborough.—Charles George Noel, second earl of Gainsborough, died suddenly on August 13. He was the eldest son of Charles Noel, first earl, who was better known to the world by his former title of Lord Barham. His mother was Elizabeth, daughter of the late Hon. Sir George Gray, and a cousin of earl Gray. He

was born in the year 1818, and was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. He was returned to Parliament in 1840 as a Liberal for Rutlandshire, but sat for only one Parliament. He was Lord-lieutenant of Rutlandshire, a magistrate for Gloucestershire, in which country also he owned property at Campden; and he was for many years in the Leicestershire Yeomanry Cavalry, of which regiment he became lieutenantcolonel in 1878. He succeeded to the title on the death of his father in 1866. About 1850 he became a convert to the Roman Catholic faith, and subsequently to Conservative opinions. On the evening before his death he had attended the House of Lords, and voted in all six divisions on the Land Bill against the Government. Whilst driving to the railway station in a cab he was seized with a fit, and taken at once to University College Hospital, where he died in a very short time.

Edward John Trelawny, the younger son of an old Cornish family, was born in London in October, 1792. His only education was that obtained at a school in Cornwall. At the age of 11 he went to sea. After many adventures he reappeared in London as a man of fashion, and contributing to the literature of the day a partially auto-biographical novel, "The younger Son," and other more fugitive pieces. In 1820, when staying at Ouchy (Lausanne), he came across for the first time Shelley's "Queen Mab." In the winter of the following year he made the personal acquaintance of Shelley at Pisa, and soon after Byron arrived and they passed the winter there together. He was almost the last person to see Shelley alive, quitting him only when the latter went for his last sail in the Bay of Spezia, where in Mr. Trelawny's opinion the poet fell a victim of foul play. On the recovery of his body he carried out Shelley's wishes by burning it on the shore, and subsequently conveying the ashes to Rome. In the summer of 1823 Mr. Trelawny joined Lord Byron on his invitation at Florence, and became one of about a dozen persons who formed his lordship's bodyguard. He embarked with him at Genoa, and reached Cephalonia early in August, and crossed with him to Ithaca. Along with Mr. Hamilton Browne he acted the part of a diplomatic envoy from Lord Byron to the Greek Government, communicating to them his intentions and those of the London Committee with respect

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