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may be concluded there are enough of them that pass undiscovered.
All the provisions of the family came from foreign parts, as merchandise. Soap and candle were made in the house; so likewise the malt was ground there; and all the drink, that came to the duke's table, was of malt sun-dried upon the leads of his house.
Those are large, and the lanthorn is in the centre of an asterisk of glades, cut through the wood of all the country round, four or five in a quarter, almost apert de vieu. Divers of the gentlemen cut their trees and hedges to humour his vistos; and some planted their hills in his lines, for compliment, at their own charge.
All the trees, planted in his parks, and about, were fenced with a dry wall of stone, taken out where the tree was set. And with all this menagery and provision, no one, that comes and goes for visits, , or affairs with the duke (who was Lord Lieutenant of four or five counties, and Lord President of Wales) that could observe any thing more to do there, than in any other nobleman's house. So little of vain ostentation was to be seen there. At the entrance, where coaches ordinarily came in, the duke built a neat dwelling-house, but pompous stables, which would accommodate forty horses, as well as the best stables he had. This was called the inn, and was contrived for the ease of the suitors, as I may call them; for, 'in
stead of half a crown to his servants at taking horse, sixpence there, for form, served the turn; and no servant of his came near a gentleman's horse ; but they were brought by their own servants, except such as lodged, whose equipages were in his own stables.
As for the duke and duchess, and their friends, More of there was no time of the day without diversion. Breakfast in her gallery that opened into the gardens; then, perhaps a deer was to be killed, or the gardens, and parks with the several sorts of deer, to be visited ; and if it required mounting, horses of the duke's were brought for all the company. And so, in the afternoon, when the ladies were disposed to air, and the gentlemen with them, coaches and six came to hold them all. half an hour after eleven the bell rang to prayers, so at six in the evening; and, through a gallery, the best company went into an aisle in the church (so near was it), and the duke and duchess could see if all the family were there. The ordinary pastime of the ladies was in a gallery on the other side, where she had divers gentlewomen commonly at work upon embroidery and fringemaking; for all the beds of state were made and finished in the house. The meats were very neat, and not gross; no servants in livery attended, but those called gentlemen only; and, in the several kinds, even down to the small beer, nothing could
be more choice than the table was.
It was an oblong, and not an oval; and the duchess, with two daughters only, sat at the upper end. If the gentlemen chose a glass of wine, the civil offers were made either to go down into the vaults, which were very large and sumptuous, or servants, at a sign given, attended with salvers, &c. and many a brisk round went about; but no sitting at a table with tobacco and healths, as the too common use is. And this way of entertaining continued a week, while we were there, with incomparable variety : for the duke had always some new project of building, wallir.g, or planting, which he would show, and ask his friends their advice about ; and nothing was forced, or strained, but easy and familiar, as if it was, and really so I thought it to be, the common course and way
of living in that family. Structure One thing more I must needs relate, which the and educa
duke told us smiling; and it was this. When he was in the midst of his building, his neighbour, the Lord Chief Justice Hales, made him a visit ; and observing the many contrivances the duke had for the disposing of so great a family, he craved leave to suggest one to him, which he thought would be much for his service; and it was, “to have but one door to his house, and the window of his study, where he sat most, open upon that.” This shows how hard it is for even wise
and learned men to consider things without themselves. The children of the family were bred with a philosophical care.
No inferior servants were permitted to entertain them, lest some mean sentiments, or foolish notions and fables, should steal into them; and nothing was so strongly impressed upon them, as a sense of honour. Witness the Lord Arthur, who, being about five years old, was very angry with the judge for hanging
The judge told him that, if they were not hanged, they would kill and steal. “No," said the little boy, “you should make them promise upon their honour, they will not do so, and then they will not.” It were well if this institutionary care of parents were always correspondent in the manners of all the children ; for it is not often found to prove so.
But now to return to his lordship, and his cir- Entertaincuiteering. He took an opportunity, one summer, North.
ment in the
. to turn by the North, which begins at York, and concludes at Lancaster; but, in winter, it is usual to omit the counties of Durham, Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmoreland. His lordship was curious to visit the coal mines in Lumly Park, which are the greatest in the North, and produce the best coal, and, being exported at Sunderland, are distinguished as of that place. These collieries had but one drain of water drawn by two engines, one of three stories, the other of
two. All the pits, for two or three miles together, were drained into those drains.
The engines are placed in the lowest places, that there may be the less way for the water to rise ; and if there be a running stream to work the engines, it is happy. Coal lies under the stone; and they are twelve months in sinking a pit. Damps, or foul air, kill insensibly; sinking andther pit, that the air may not stagnate, is an infallible remedy. They are most in very hot weather. An infallible trial is by a dog; and the candles show it. They seem to be heavy sulphurous air not fit for breath; and I have heard some say that they would sometimes lie in the midst of a shaft, and the bottom be clear. The flame of a candle will not kindle them so soon as the snuff ; but they have been kindled by the striking fire with a tool. The blast is mighty violent; but
; men have been saved by lying flat on their bellies. When they are by the side of a hill, they drain by a level carried a mile under ground, and cut through rock to the value of 5 or 60001., and where there is no rock it is supported with timber.
In the way towards the North his lordship visited the Lord Rutland' at Belvoir castle, where the prospect is much as that is from Windsor ; but hath this advantage, that the subjacent country is most of it chase ground; and that is so detrimental that the people offered 1500l. per annum,