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rent charge of inheritance, to be released; but that is kept against an exigence in the family (if any should happen), and so to preserve a better estate. There was little of curiosity to be observed in the city of York, besides the metropolitan church, which is a stately one indeed, only disgraced by a wooden roof framed archwise, but manifestly seen. The gentry affect much to walk there to see and be seen, and the like custom is used at Durham. In these churches, wind music was used in the choir; which I apprehend might be introduced at first for want of voices, if not of organs; but, as I hear, they are now disused. To say the truth, nothing comes so near, or rather imitates so much, an excellent voice, as a cornet pipe; but the labour of the lips is too great, and it is seldom well sounded. His lordship was well enough known in all the choirs wherever he came; and the boys failed not to bring him a fair book of the anthem and service, and sometimes the score if they had it, expecting, as they always had, a compensation for their pains. At Durham, the bishop entertained, who is a sort of sovereign, or count palatine, there, but much shrunk below the ancient authority and dignity. All process of law is original, without dependence on London. The cathedral church shows the most of gothic antiquity of any in England; and the marks of old ruin are to be

ment at

seen by the different orders of the supports : those, which are very large and round, with semicircular arches, are the most antique. The bishop carried his lordship to his ancient seat called Aukland, which is to Durham as Croydon to Lambeth; and the entertainment was in all points, while his lordship stayed in that palatinate, as I may term it, truly great and generous. And thence the road lay to Newcastle over a very delightful plain, having Lumly castle in view, on

the left hand, most part of the way. Entertain- His lordship's entertainment at Newcastle was Newcastle. very agreeable, because it went most upon the

trades of the place, as coal-mines, salt-works, and the like, with the wonders that belonged to them; and the magistrates were solicitous to give him all the diversion they could : and one was the going down to Tinmouth castle in the town barge. The equipment of the vessel was very stately; for, a-head, there sat a four or five drone bagpipe, the North-country organ, and a trumpeter astern; and so we rowed merrily along. The making salt I thought the best sight we had there. The other entertainment was a supper

in the open air upon an island in the Tyne, somewhat above the town; and all by the way of ligg and sit upon the ground; but provisions for a camp, and wine, of all sorts, very fine. In short, all circumstances taken together, the cool of the

evening, the verdant flat of the island with wood dispersed upon it, and water curling about us, view of the hills on both sides of the river, the good appetites, best provisions, and a world of merry stories of the Scots (which by the way makes a great part of the wit in those parts), made the place very agreeable, where every one walked after his fancy, and all were pleased.

Some of the aldermen related strange histories of a drain of their coal-works: and one was by Sir William mine, and Blacket who cut into a hill in order to drain the way-leaves. water, and conquered all difficulties of stone, and the like, till he came to clay, and that was too hard for him ; for no means of timber, or walls, would resist, but all was crowded together; and this was by the weight of the hill bearing upon a clay that yielded. In this work he lost 20,0001. Another thing, that is remarkable, is their wayleaves; for, when men have pieces of ground between the colliery and the river, they sell leave to lead coals over their ground; and so dear that the owner of a rood of ground will expect 201. per annum for this leave. The manner of the carriage is by laying rails of timber, from the colliery, down to the river, exactly straight and parallel ; and bulky carts are made with four rowlets fitting these rails; whereby the carriage is so easy that one horse will draw down four or five chaldron of coals, and is an immense benefit to the coal mer

to a coal


The small

chants. Another advantage of the coasters upon the river, was showed his lordship: and that was what they call ballast wharfs. Any land owner may

make that which they call a quay, next to the river, and sell leave to ships to throw out their ballast there, which the town will not permit to be tossed into the river; and the loading of coals is ballast enough to return with home towards London. So it seems that the shifting of the ballast, out and home, is no small incumbrance to the coal-trade.

From Tinmouth his lordship, by invitation, port of Seaton Delaval. went to dine at Seaton Delaval. Sir Ralph Dela

val entertained us exceeding well; and not so much with eating and drinking, which appertains properly to the brute, and not to the man, but with very ingenious discourse, and showing to us many curiosities, of which he himself was author, in that place. The chief remarkable, there, was a little port, which that gentleman, with great contrivance, and after many disappointments, made for securing small craft that carried out his salt and coal; and he had been encouraged in it by King Charles the Second, who made him collector and surveyor of his own port, and no officer to intermeddle there. It stands at the mouth of a rill (as it is called) of water, which, running from the hills, had excavated a great hollow, in the fall, as it ran. The ground, at the sea, is a hard

impenetrable flat rock; and, for cover of the vessels, which else, in the rage, must be dashed to pieces, Sir Ralph had built, or, rather, often rebuilt a pier of stone, that fended off the surge to the north-east, and, at high water, gave entrance near a little promontory of the shore, turning in by the north ; and, at low water, the vessels lay dry upon the rock. This had been built of

square stone, with, and without, cement; but all was heaved away with the surge; and, for a great while, nothing could be found strong enough to hold against the lifting and sucking of the water. At length, Sir Ralph, at an immense cost, bound every joint of the stone, not only laterally, but upright, with dovetails of heart of oak let into the stone ; and that held effectually : for, if the stones were lifted up, they fell in their places again. This little harbour was apt to silt up with the sea sand; for remedying of which, he used the back water of his rill, and that kept the channel always open : and, for that end, he had an easy and sure device; which was sluice-gates built cross the channel of the rill, which, during tide of flood, were shut, and so the water gathered to a great head above, till low water; and then the sluices opened, let the gathered water come down all at once, which scoured away the sand that, every tide, lodged upon the rock, and washed it as clean as a marble table. All this we saw, with his salt-pans at work

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