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of his age.

and, after several years spent in fruitless application to ministers and judges, he ended his days on the second of December in the sixty-second year

His fate was the same with A. D.

that of all the persons who distinguished 1547. themselves in the discovery or conquest of the New World : envied by his contemporaries, and ill requited by the court which he served, he has been admired and celebrated by succeeding ages. Which has formed the most just estimate of his character, an impartial consideration of his actions must determine.




History of the Conquest of Peru by Pizarro, Alma

gro, and Luque. Their Character. Pizarro sets of from Panama. Arrives at Tumlez. Delighted with the great Plenty of Gold and Silver. Explores the Country. Returns. Goes to Spain. Invades Peru a second time. Seizes the Gold at Coaque. Meets with Resistance at Puna. Ertent of Peru. The Incas. Civil War in the Country. Atahualpa solicits Pizarro's Aid. Visits him, and is taken Prisoner. Offers a Ran

The Bribe taken, but the Prince detained. The Spaniards share the Money, and basely murder Atahualpa. Peruvians attack the Spaniards. Almagro penetrates into Chili. Lays claim to Cuzco. Takes. Ferdinand Pizarro Prisoner. Releases him. Is made Prisoner by Pizarro, and put to Death. Pizarro's Conduct and Death. Vaca de Castro arrives. His wise and resolute Conduct. Is superseded by Gasca. His benevolent Plans and Disinterestedness. Returns to Spain universally honoured, Institutions and Manners of the Mexicans and Peruvians. The recent Origin of the Mexican Empire. The Progress of the Mexicans in Civilization. Religion. Peruviun Monarchy more antient. Its Policy. founded in Religion. State of Property among the Peruvians. Their public Works and Arts, Roads. Bridges.

Bridges. Buildings. Their unwar

like Spirit.


E must now resume our chronological history of discoveries in this continent, and we 03


find three names particularly celebrated : A. D.

these are Francisco Pizarro, Diego de Al1524. magro, and Hernando Luque.

Pizarro was the natural son of a gentleman of an honourable family, by a very low woman: his education and prospects were so totally neglected, that when bordering on manhood he was in no higher employment than a keeper of hogs. But the aspiring mind of this young man suddenly abandoned his charge : he enlisted as a soldier, and, liaving served several years in Italy, embarked for America, where he very soon distinguished himself. Almagro had as little to boast of his descent as PiZarro. The one was a bastard, the other a found. ling. - Bred, like his companion, in the camp, he yielded not to him in the qualities of valour, acti. vity, or insurmountable constancy in enduring the hardships inseparable from military service in the New World. In Almagro these virtues were accompanied with openness, generosity, and candour: in Pizarro, they were united with the address, the craft, and the dissimulation of a politi, ciari. Hernando de Luque was an ecclesiastic, who acted both as a priest and schoolmaster at Panama, and had acquired riches that inspired him with thoughts of rising to greater eminence. Such were the men destined to overturn one of the most extensive empires on the face of the earth. Their confederacy for this purpose was authorised by Pedrarias, the governor of Panama.

Each engaged to employ his whole fortune in the adventure. Pizarro, who was the least wealthy, offered to take the department of the greatest fatigue and danger, and to command in person the armament which was to go first upon discovery. Almagro was to conduct the supplies of provisions,

A. D.

and reinforcements of troops, of which Pizarro might stand in need; and Luque was to remain at Panama to negotiate with the governor, and superintend whatever was carrying on for the general interest. Luque celebrated mass, divided a consecrated host into three parts, and, reserving one for himself, gave the other two to his associates; of which they partook, and thus, in the name of the Prince of Peace, ratified a contract of which plunder, bloodshed, and every enormity, were the objects.

Pizarro set sail from Panama November the 14th, with a single ship and 112 men;

1524. and so little was he acquainted with the peculiarities of the climate, that he spent two years in sailing from Panama to the northern extremity of Peru, a voyage which is now frequently performed in a fortnight. He landed, and found that the wealth of the country was as great as he imagined; and that the resistance he was likely to meet in endeavouring to possess himself of it, would be full as considerable. At Tumbez, a place about three degrees south of the line, Pizarro and his companions feasted their eyes with the first view of the opulence and civilization of the Peruvian empire. This place was distinguished for its stately temple, and a palace of the incas or sovereigns of the country. But what chiefly attracted their notice was such a show of gold and silver, not only in the ornaments of their persons and temples, but in several vessels and utensils for common use, formed of those precious metals, as left no room to doubt that they abounded with profusion there. Having explored the country sufficiently to satisfy his own mind, Pizarro procured two of their llamas, or tame cattle, to which the Spaniards gave the name of


sheep, some vessels of gold and silver, and two young men whom he intended to bring up as interpreters; and with these he arrived at Panama

towards the close of the third A. D.

from the

year time of his departure. No adventurer of 1527.

the age suffered hardships or encountered dangers which equalled those to which he was exposed, during this long period. The patience with which he endured the one, and the fortitude with which he surmounted the other, are said to exceed whatever is recorded even in the history of the New World, where so many romantic displays of those virtues occur.

But neither Pizarro nor his associates were deterred from the prosecution of their scheme.

It was agreed that Pizarro should go into Spain to release themselves from the government of Pedrarias, and to obtain the grant of whatever they should conquer. Pizarro was to be chief governor, with the property of 200 leagues along the seacoast; Almagro, they agreed, should be adelanto, or king's lieutenant; and Luque, who was a priest, was to be first bishop and protector of the Indians. The other profits of the enterprise were to be equally divided. Pizarro solicited only his own suit at court, and obtained for himself alone, the property of the land, the government, the lieutenancy, and in short every thing he was capable as a layman of taking; Almagro was forgotten; and to Luque was left the eventual bislropric. This breach of faith had nearly ruined the scheme : but Pizarro knew how to retreat; he satisfied Almagro, and a reconciliation was effected.

Pizarro completed his next voyage from Panama to the bay of St. Matthew in thirteen days. He advanced by land as quickly as possible towards


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