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enabled it to open a trade with America, by a course of navigation the longest from Iand to land on our globe. In the infancy of this trade, it was capied on with Callao on the coast of Peru, but afterwards it was removed to Acapulco on the coast of New Spain.

After various arrangements it has been brought into a regular form. One or two ships depart anmually from Acapulco, which are permitted to cair; out silver to the amount of more than one hun Ired thousand pounds sterling; in return for which, they bring back spices, drugs, china, and japai i wares; calicoes, chintz, muslins, silks, and every precious article with which the East can supply the rest of the world. For some time the mrchants of Peru were permitted to participate in this traffic, but now it is confined solely to New Spain. In consequence of this indulgence, the inhabitants of that country enjoy advantages ukrown to the other Spanish colonies. The manifactures of the East are not only more suited to a warm climate, and are more showy than those of Europe, but can be sold at a lower price ; while, at t'e same time, the profits upon them are so considerable as to enrich all those who are employed either in bringing them from Manilla, or vending them in New Spain. As the interest both of the buyer and seller concurs in favouring this branch of commerce, it has continued in spite of regulations, concerted with the most anxious jealousy, to circumscribe it. Under cover of what the laws permit to be imported, great quantities of India goods are poured into the markets of New Spain ; and when the European ships arrive at Vera Cruz, they frequently find the wants of the people VOL. XXIV.



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supplied by cheaper and more acceptable cm inodities.

Notwithstanding these frauds, the Spanish inonarchs receive a very considerable revenue from the American dominions. This arises from tilxes of various kinds, which may be divided into, l. What is paid to the sovereign as lord of the idew World: to this class belong the duty on the produce of the mines, and the tribute exacted from the Indians: the former is termed by the Span iards the right of signory, the latter is the duty of vassalage. 2. Into the numerous duties on (nommerce, which accompany and

oppress step: and, 3. What accrues to the king as head of the church. In consequence of this, he receives the spiritual revennes levied by the apostolic cpanber in Europe, and is entitled likewise to the pro fit arising from the sale of the bull of Cruzado. , This bull, which is published every two years, contains an absolution from past offences, ind a permission to eat several kinds of prohibited food during Lent. Every person in the Spanish colanics, of European, Creolian, or mixed race, purchases a bull, which is deemed essential to his salviation, at the rate set upon it by government. It is not easy to get at the amount of those various funds; but it is probable that the net public revenue raised in America does not exceed a million and it half sterling per annum. Spain and Portugal are, however, the only European powers who derive a direct revenue from their colonies.

All the advantage that accrues to other nations from their American dominions arises from the exclusive enjoyment of their trade. But if the revenue which Spain draws from



Anerica be great, the expense of administration in lier colonies bears full proportion to it. The salaries allotted to every person in public office are very high. The viceroys maintain all the state and dignity of royalty. Their courts display such pomp as hardly retains the appearance of a delegated authority. All this expense is defrayed by the crown.

The salaries constitute but a small part of the revenue enjoyed by the viceroys. From the single article of presents made to him on the anniverray of his name-day, a viceroy has been known to receive fifteen thousand pounds sterling. , According to a Spanish proverb, the legal revenues of a viceroy are known : his real profits depend upon his opportunities and conscience. Hence their commission is granted only for a very short term of years ; which renders them often more rapacious, in order quickly to repair a shattered fortune or to Create a new one. But even in situations so trying to human frailty, there are instances of virtue that remains unseduced. In the year 1772, the marquis de Croiz finished the term of his viceroyalty in New Spain with unsuspected integrity; and, instead of bringing home exorbitant wealth, returned with the admiration and applause of a grateful people, whom his government had rendered happy.

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History of the Portuguese Settlements in America.

Discovery of Brazil. Extent of the Portuguese Empire. Conquest of Portugal. Brazil taken ly the Dutch. Recovered. Extent of Brazil. How divided and governed. Inhavitants. Trade. Amazonia. River Amazon. People. Frendo Settlement of Cayenne. Dutch Settlements at Guiana. Chief Towns. Climate. Inhabitants. Productions.


HE discovery of America by Columbus wis,

as we have seen, owing originally to just reasoning on the figure of the earth, though the particular land that he discovered was far from that which he sought. Here was evidently a mixture of wise design and fortunate accident; but the Portuguese discovery of Brazil may be regarded as merely accidental. For, sailing with a considerable armament to India, by the way of the Cape of Good Hope, but standing out to sea to avoid the calms upon the coast of Africa, the Portuguese fleet fell in with the continent of South America. Upon their return they made so favourable a report of the land which they had discovered, that the court resolved to send a colony thither. This was at first opposed by the Spaniards, who considered the country as within their dominions. Matters were, however, at length accommodated by a treaty, in which it was agreed that the Portuguese should possess all that tract of land that lies between the River of Amazons and that of La Plata.


When their right was thus confirmed,

A. D. the Portuguese pursued the settlement with such vigour, that in a little time more than

1549. two thousand miles of sea-coast was colonized ; which was infinitely to the benefit of the mother country. Their settlements on the coast of Africa forwarded this establishment, by the number of ragroes which they afforded them for their works. Hence the introduction of negroes into this part of America, and the foundation of a traffic, disgraceful to all concerned in it.

In the very meridian of their prosperity, when the Portuguese were in possession of so extensive an empire, and so flourishing a trade in Africa, in Arabia, in India, in the Asiatic isles, and in the most valuable part of America, they were crushed by one of those incidents which decides the fates of kingdoms. Don Sebastiar, one of their greatest princes, in an expedition he hai A. D.

1580. undertaken against the Moors, was slain; by wbich accident the Portuguese lost their liberty, and were absorbed into the Spanish dominions.

Soon after this misfortune, the same yoke that galled the Portuguese grew so intolerable to the inhabitants of the Netherlands, that they threw it off with great fury and indignation. Not satisfied with erecting themselves into an independent state, they fell upon the possessions of the Portuguese; took alınost all their fortresses in the East Indies; and then turned their arms upon Brazil, which was unprotected by Europe, and be

A. D, trayed by the cowardice of the governor of their principal city. They would have overrun the whole, had not the arclibishop Don Michael de Texeira believed, that in such an emergency the danger of his country superseded the common ob

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