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A body of troops commanded by general Arnold was ordered to march to Canada : after suf. fering, in their passage through the wilderness, every hardship, as well as the most distressing hunger, they arrived, and were joined by Montgomery before Quebec. This city, which was commanded by governor Carleton, was. besieged : but there being little hope of taking the town by siege, they resolved to storm it. In this attack they proved unsuccessful; and, what was considered as a severe misfortune, general Montgomery was killed. Few men have ever fallen in battle, so generally regretted by both sides as this excellent man. In America he was celebrated as a martyr to the cause of freedom :-in Great Britain, as a misguided good man, sacrificed to what he supposed to be the rights of mankind. His name was mentioned by parliament with singular respect: some of the most powerful speakers in that assembly displayed their eloquence in sounding his praise and lamenting his fate. Even the minister acknowledged his worth, while he reprobated the cause for which he fell.

After this defeat general Arnold, who now commanded the troops, continued some months before Quebec; and although his troops suffered incredibly by cold and sickness, they intercepted the provisions that were intended for the town and garrison. About the same time the large and Hourishing town of Norfolk in Virginia was wantonly burnt by order of lord Dunmore, the then royal governor of that province. Falmouth, a considerable town in Massachussetts, shared the fate of Norfolk ; being laid in ashes by the British admiral. The royal government still existed in name and




was over

form ; but the real power which the people obeyed and firmly supported, was exercised by a provincial congress, a council of safety, and subordinate committees. To conciliate the friendship of the Indians, the popular leaders sent a small supply of powder into the country. They who were opposed to congress, embodied, and robbed the waggons which were employed in its transportation. The inhabitants took arms, some to support


government, but others to defend the A'merican mea

The former acted feebly, and were easily overpowered. They were dispirited by the supe rior numbers that opposed them; they every where gave way, and were obliged to fly, or feign submission. Solicitations had been made about this time for the king's forces to awe the southern provinces, but without effect, till the proper season One scheme for this

purpose was frustrated by a singular device. Private intelligence had been received of an express being sent from sir James Wright, governor of Georgia, to general Gage, to urge immediate assistance in the south, The express was waylaid, and the letters seized. One to Gage was kept b&ck, and another forwarded in its room. The seal and hand-writing were so exactly imitated, that the deception was not suspected. The forged letter was acted upon. This led to a conclusion that every thing was quiet, and that there was no need of troops to the southward. While these states were left to themselves, they had time to prepare for extremities, and in the mean while the friends of the sovereign were severally crushed. A series of disasters followed the royal cause in the year 1775. General Gage's army was cooped up in Boston, and rendered use. less. The people of America generally took the side of congress; and so did the great mass of the wealth, learning and influence, in all the southern colonies, and in most of the northern. Some aged persons were exceptions to the contrary. A few who basked in the sun-shine of court favour were restrained by honour, principle and interest, from forsaking the fountain of their enjoyments. Some feared the power of Britain, others doubted the perseverance of America ; but a great majority resolved to hazard every thing in defence of their rights. In the beginning of the year, the colonists were farmers, merchants, and mechanics, but in its close they had assumed the profession of soldiers. So sudden a transformation of so numerous and so dispersed a people is without a parallel. This

year is also remarkable for the termination of the royal government, which was effected without any violence to its executive officers. The new system was introduced through necessity, and the imperceptible agency of a common dangez operating uniformly on the mind of the public. The governors, for the most part, voluntarily abdicated their charge, and retired on board ships of war; and their withdrawing from the exercise of their official duties furnished an apology, and induced a necessity for organizing a system of government independent of royal authority.


Proceedings of Parliament. Boston evacuated ly

the British American Independence declared. Lord Howe arrives. Americans defeated. Refuse Howe's Ollers. Washington's Attacks. Trenton. Burgoyne captured. France joins the Americans. Terms offered to America. Rejected. Conduct of the Indians. Distresses of the Americans. Arnold's Treachery. Major André's Death. General Green's Conduct. Captures Lord Cornwallis's Army. Peace. Washington's Resignation and Departure. THE obstinate resistance which the British un

expectedly met with in America, led the king and parliament to think of more vigorous measures, in hopes thereby of bringing the contest to a speedy issue. For this purpose seventeen thousand Germans were subsidized, in order to be sent to assist in subduing the colonies.

An act

1776. of parliament was also passed, prohibiting all intercourse with America; and while the Boston port-bill was repealed, all American property taken on the high seas was declared to be forfeited to the captors. These acts induced congress to change the mode of carrying on the war, and measures were taken to annoy the army in Boston, which was then under general Howe, Gage having set out for England the preceding September. Batteries were opened, and a regular siege commenced; which induced general Howe to abandon the town,

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but not without first plundering the inhabitants of every thing that was valuable.

The British, amounting to more than seven thousand men, evacuated Boston, · leaving their barracks standing, a number of pieces of cannon spiked, and stores to the value of 30,000). . This was attended with many circumstances of distress and embarrassment. On the departure of the army, a great number of the inhabitants attached to their sovereign, and dreading public resentment, chose to abandon their country; and from the immense multitude about to depart, there were neither purchasers for their effects, nor a sufficient number of vessels for the transportation of them.

When the fleet and army departed from Boston, several ships were left behind for the protection of

vessels coming from England: but the American privateers were so alert, that they nevertheless made many prizes. Some of the vessels which they captured were laden with arms and warlike stores. Some transports with troops on board were also taken, having run into the harbour before they knew of its being evacuated. The boats employed in the embarkation of the British troops had scarcely completed their business, when general Washington with his army marched into Boston. He was received with marks of approbation more flattering than the pomp of a triumph. The inhabitants hailed him as their deliverer. Reciprocal congratulations between those who had been confined within the British lines, and those who were excluded from entering them, were ex. changed with an ardour that cannot be described General Washington was honoured by congress with a vote of thanks; they ordered also a medal

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